MEASURES TAKEN TO IMPLEMENT THE CBD PROGRAMMES OF WORK AND ACHIEVE THE 2010 BIODIVERSITY TARGET
In order to become an “Eco-Capital” of Japan in cooperation with local citizens, corporations and government, the City of Nagoya has drafted the *Second Basic Environment Plan for Nagoya*. To achieve the 2010 targets for biodiversity, the Basic Environment Plan specifies the following 3 action steps: 1.
Action for sustainable lifestyles, such as reduction of garbage and CO2, and implementation of the Nagoya Water Cycle Recovery Plan etc. 2.
Action to co-exist with nature, such as the preservation and wise use of wetlands, the regeneration of Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, and the creation of managed satoyama woodlands etc. 3.
Action to develop human resources and build networks between people through environmental education and the Nagoya Eco-Campus etc.
1. Creating Sustainable Lifestyles
The City of Nagoya designated part of the Fujimae
Tidal Flat as a candidate site for a new landfill. However, there were strong calls to preserve the tidal flat because it has a water-purifying function and also serves as one of the largest stopovers in Japan for migratory birds. Therefore in January 1999, the city abandoned the plan to reclaim the Fujimae
Tidal Flats and in February of the same year, the “Emergency Announcement for Garbage Reduction” was declared. Given the situation, the city called for a substantial reduction in the amount of garbage in cooperation with the citizens, corporations and government, and set a target to reduce garbage by 200,000 tons (20% of the total volume) by the end of the 20th century. To achieve this target, the whole city worked to reduce garbage, by expanding the separate collection of empty bottles and cans to cover the whole city, and starting the recycling of containers and packaging (paper and plastic containers and packaging) in advance of the rest of the country. The separate collection and recycling of kitchen garbage was started in some parts of the city from March 2003.
In recent years, global-scale environmental issues, such as global warming, have been the focus of much discussion, with attention directed to their major impact on biodiversity. In advance of the 1997 International Conference on Climate Change
in Nagoya, the city came up with its own targets to reduce overall levels of CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions to levels 10% below those of 1990, by the year 2010. Within Nagoya City, the increase in CO2 emissions is caused by households, offices and stores, and vehicles, and, to achieve the above 2010 target, the city is developing a “One more time” campaign for Nagoya’s 2.2 million citizens. This strategy aims for each citizen to do what they can to gradually reduce CO2 emissions, by recruiting Eco-Life Messengers
who make an Eco-Life Declaration
to take on the 20 listed challenges to live a more eco-friendly life. Further efforts by Nagoya include the establishment of the EXPO Eco-Money
system whereby citizens are rewarded with “eco-points” (that can be exchanged for eco-products or donated to tree-planting projects) if they participate in environmentally friendly activities, and displays of CO2 concentration levels to make the issue more visible to all. For offices and stores, Nagoya has established a unique certification system for the accreditation of Eco-Businesses
, and for offices and stores which emit a lot of green house gases, Nagoya has requested to submit Global Warming Countermeasures Plan
based on the municipal ordinance, so that offices and stores are voluntarily and actively tackling environmental issues. Campaigns are also in place to encourage drivers to switch off their engines at stoplights, and to promote environmentally friendly driving.
Furthermore, the Nagoya Water Cycle Recovery Plan
has been set up to re-establish the cycle of healthy water, which has been lost due to continued urban development. The plan is for government officials, citizens, NPOs, and corporate bodies to work in cooperation with each other to build facilities allowing the infiltration of rainwater back to the earth, to ensure the effective use of underground water and recycled sewage water, and to preserve green sites and reservoirs etc.
2. Achieving Co-Existence with Nature
The City of Nagoya aims to increase the area of urban parkland from 9.2sqm per capita (April 2005) to 10sqm by the year 2010, in order to create a pleasant city landscape that incorporates nature. The main thrust of this project will be urban planning that involves greening, so that citizens can experience nature close at hand, with efforts being concentrated on the establishment and preservation of green spaces, such as city and agricultural parks. Further, the project to regenerate Higashiyama
Zoo and Botanical Gardens as well as to build the Nagoya Higashiyama
Forest is under way in Higashiyama
Forest. The regeneration inspires environmentally friendly activities through hands-on displays and exhibits and contributes to species preservation through active conservation and breeding programs for rare species. The aim is to provide a bridge between people and nature for a deeper understanding. Additionally, in the south-west of the city, where little existing woodland remains, the Todagawa
Green is being developed, a unique public-private project being carried out in partnership between citizens, corporations and government for the planting and cultivating of trees to create a forest for future generations. The project is named the Building the Western Woods of Nagoya.
In 1971, in response to atmospheric and water pollution, the Japanese government established environmental standards. In Nagoya in 1974, environmental target figures were established as targets necessary to protect the health of citizens and to preserve a comfortable living environment, and these were revised in 2005.
Of these targets, as of 2006, the achievement ratio for targets concerning atmospheric pollution (nitrogen dioxide concentrations) and for water pollution (BOD) had only reached 17.9% and 73.3%, respectively. Nagoya has declared its intention to attain achievement ratios of 50% or more for atmospheric pollution and of 100% for water pollution targets by 2010. To achieve this, monitors recruited from the general public are conducting surveys and research, with the aim of increasing levels of concern by citizens for their immediate environment, and attaining the purification of the atmosphere and water supplies.
In addition to these measures, action is also being taken to preserve the Fujimae
Tidal Flats (designated wetland under the Ramsar Convention), to implement educational programs for environmental awareness, and to promote the greening at sites for buildings and at rooftops and outer walls of buildings.
3. Developing Human Resources
As a basis for implementing the measures described above, Nagoya is developing human resources and promoting the establishment of networks between people. An example of promoting environmental education is the Nagoya Eco-Campus, opened in March 2005 – a project that has been created together by citizens, companies, universities and government, offering courses to anyone, from adults to children, and with the entire city as its campus. Taking the year 2010 as the deadline, targets have been established to increase the number of households participating in the Eco-Life Challenge from approximately 50% in 2003 to around 80%, to increase the percentage of citizens participating in lectures and seminars relating to environmental issues from 14.4% in 2003 to 20%, and to raise the number of Eco-Businesses to 2,000 from the 579 businesses accredited as of 2005.
Jointly with Aichi
Prefecture and the regional economic organizations (the Nagoya Chamber of Commerce & Industry and the Chubu Economic Federation), Nagoya City is bidding to host the Tenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP10) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
. To that aim, they established the Aichi-Nagoya COP10 CBD Promotion Committee on June 13. The city hopes that hosting COP10 will provide the impetus for individual citizens to change to a lifestyle based on consideration for biodiversity, and to thus contribute as a city to the preservation of biodiversity on earth.
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