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COP 7 Decision VII/28

Protected areas (Articles 8 (a) to (e))

The Conference of the Parties

1.   Confirms that efforts to establish and maintain systems of protected areas and areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity in line with Article 8 on in situ conservation and other relevant articles of the Convention, are essential for achieving, in implementing the ecosystem approach, the three objectives of the Convention and thus contributing to achieving the 2010 target contained in the Strategic Plan of the Convention and in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and to achieve sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals;

2. Welcomes the joint NGO statement and joint NGO commitment on protected areas made at the seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties by international non-Governmental organizations  [63]/ to support the implementation of a strong programme of work on protected areas under the CBD and looks forward to receiving information on the progress made with respect to their pledge;

3.   Also welcomes the outputs of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress, in particular the message from the Congress to the Convention on Biological Diversity, and its contribution to the programme of work on protected areas;

4. Recalls the need to provide to developing countries, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in transition adequate funding to support the implementation of this programme of work in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention;

5.   Recognizes that Parties should implement the programme of work on protected areas, in the context of their nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs. Activities implemented domestically by Parties will be prioritized based on country and regionally specific needs, national determination, legislation, circumstances and priorities concerning protected areas issues, and their national protected areas and biodiversity strategies. Inclusion of an activity does not mean relevance of that activity to all Parties;

6. Emphasizes that the targets included in the programme of work on protected areas provide a framework within which national and/or regional targets may be developed and activities prioritized according to national priorities and capacities and, taking into account differences in protected areas and protected area systems among countries;

7. Invites and Governments to develop national and/or regional targets, and, as appropriate, to incorporate them into relevant plans, programmes and initiatives, including national biodiversity strategies and action plans;

8. Emphasizes the need for capacity-building, in developing countries, particularly in the least developed and the small island developing States amongst them, and countries with economies in transition, in order to enable them to implement the programme of work;

9. Urges Parties, other Governments, and funding organizations to mobilize as a matter of urgency through different mechanisms adequate and timely financial resources for the implementation of the programme of work by developing countries, particularly in the least developed and the small island developing States amongst them, countries with economies in transition, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, with special emphasis on those elements of the programme of work requiring early action;

10.  Calls Parties to estimate the cost to implement the necessary activities to meet the targets of the programme of work, review the effectiveness in using existing financial resources and identify the unmet costs and report back to COP8;

11.  Calls on Parties and development agencies to integrate within their development strategies (such as country assistance strategies, poverty reduction strategies and national development strategies) protected area objectives and reflect the contributions of protected areas to sustainable development, as a means to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, in particular Goal 7 on environmental sustainability;

12.  Underlines the importance of conservation of biological diversity not only within but also outside protected areas by promoting sustainable use of natural resources in order to achieve a significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 and therefore also calls for increased efforts to integrate biodiversity conservation and restoration aspects into sectoral policies and programmes;

13. Invites Parties to consider options, in the context of implementing the programme of work, such as ecological networks[64]/, ecological corridors[65]/, buffer zones and other related approaches in order to follow up the WSSD Plan of Implementation and the conclusions of Inter-Sessional Meeting on the Multi-Year Programme of Work of the Conference of the Parties up to 2010;

Status and trends of, and threats to, protected areas

14.  Welcomes the work carried out by SBSTTA on documents on status and trends of, and threats to, protected areas prepared by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/5);

15. Agrees that the indicative list of categories set out in Annex I of the Convention should guide the selection of protected areas and areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;

16.  Recognizes that, while the number and extent of protected areas has been increasing in the past decades, so that around 11 per cent of the world's land surface is currently in protected status, existing systems of protected areas are neither representative of the world's ecosystems, nor do they adequately address conservation of critical habitat types, biomes and threatened species, and, with marine areas particularly under-represented actions need to be taken to fill these gaps;

17. Recognizes that the inadequacy of knowledge and awareness of the threat to, and the role and value, of biodiversity, insufficient financial sustainability and support, poor governance, ineffective management and insufficient participation, pose fundamental barriers to achieving the protected areas objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity and stresses the need for Parties to adequately address these issues;

Overall objective

18.  Adopts the programme of work on protected areas annexed to the present decision with the objective of the establishment and maintenance by 2010 for terrestrial and by 2012 for marine areas of comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas that collectively, inter alia through a global network[66]/ contribute to achieving the three objectives of the Convention and the 2010 target to significantly reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss;

  19.  Urges Parties to achieve fully the goals and targets of the work programme while recognizing that Parties should implement the activities of the programme of work on protected areas, as annexed to the present decision, in the context of their nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs;

Programme of work

20.  Affirms that aspects related to marine and coastal protected areas in decision VII/5 on marine and coastal biological diversity, be considered an integral part of the Convention's work on protected areas;

21.  Urges concerned Parties, individually and collectively, to take further steps in curbing the illegal exploitation and trade of resources, particularly from existing protected areas and from areas of ecological importance for biodiversity conservation;

22. Recalls the obligations of Parties towards indigenous and local communities in accordance with Article 8(j) and related provisions and  notes that the establishment, management and monitoring of protected areas should take place with the full and effective participation of, and full respect for the rights of, indigenous and local communities consistent with national law and applicable international obligations;

  23.  Urges Parties to elaborate outcome-oriented targets for the extent, representativeness and effectiveness of their national systems of protected areas, taking into account the Strategic Plan of the Convention the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Millennium Development Goals, as well as any targets adopted by the Conference of the Parties to facilitate monitoring of the progress towards achievement of the 2010 target;

  24. Requests the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to provide scientific and technical advice on the implementation of the programme of work. This work should draw inter alia upon the input of Parties and other Governments, the work of relevant United Nations organizations and conventions, the work of the IUCN - World Commission on Protected Areas, the outcomes of the Fifth IUCN World Congress on Protected Areas, and the work of relevant indigenous and local communities, and non-Governmental organizations;

25.  Decides to establish an ad hoc open ended working group on protected areas to support and review implementation of the programme of work and report to the Conference of the Parties;

26.  Requests the Executive Secretary to make arrangements to hold at least one meeting of the ad hoc open ended working group on protected areas before COP8 subject to the availability of the necessary voluntary contributions

27.  Invites Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to organize regional technical workshops to advance implementation of and assess the progress in implementation of the programme of work;

  28.  Decides to assess at each meeting of the Conference of the Parties until 2010, progress in the implementation of the programme of work, and to determine the need for more effective measures and additional financial and technical support; to reach the 2010 target;

  29.  Suggests the following tasks need to be undertaken by the ad hoc open ended working group

(a)  To explore options for cooperation for the establishment of marine protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, consistent with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and based on scientific information;

(b)  To explore options for mobilizing as a matter of urgency through different mechanisms adequate and timely financial resources for the implementation of the programme of work by developing countries, particularly in the least developed and the small island developing States amongst them, countries with economies in transition, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, with special emphasis on those elements of the programme of work requiring early action;

(c)  To contribute to the further development of "tool kits" for the identification, designation, management, monitoring and evaluation of national and regional systems of protected areas, including ecological networks, ecological corridors, buffer zones, with special regard to indigenous and local communities and stakeholder involvement and benefit sharing mechanisms;

(d)  To consider reports from the Parties, academia, and scientific organizations, civil society and others on progress in the implementation of the programme of work on protected areas, compiled by the Executive Secretary; 

(e)  To recommend to COP ways and means to improve implementation of the programme of work on protected areas;

30.  Urges Parties and invites other Governments, and relevant organizations to report to the Executive Secretary on implementation of this decision and the programme of work prior to each meeting of the Conference of the Parties until 2010;

31.  Recognizes the value of a single international classification system for protected areas and the benefit of providing information that is comparable across countries and regions and therefore welcomes the ongoing efforts of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas to refine the IUCN system of categories and encourages Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to assign protected-area management categories to their protected areas, providing information consistent with the refined IUCN categories for reporting purposes;

32.  Invites the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre working with international organizations to further develop the World Database on Protected Areas in order to assist the monitoring of progress towards the overall objective of this decision, and urges Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to provide up-to-date information for the Database;

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

33. Requests the Executive Secretary to update information on status and trends of, and threats to, protected areas as part of the reviews of the implementation of the thematic programmes of work, in collaboration with Parties and relevant organizations, in particular the IUCN-WCPA;

34.  Requests the Executive Secretary to strengthen collaboration with other organizations, institutions and conventions with a view to supporting implementation of the activities contained in the programme of work, promoting synergies and avoiding unnecessary duplications, and to establish a liaison group of relevant organizations including the World Heritage Convention, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the Man and Biosphere programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, relevant regional conventions and other organizations to facilitate this objective;

  35.  Further requests the Executive Secretary to:

(a)  Compile information received from Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations and bodies on the implementation of the programme of work, and transmit this information to the ad hoc open ended working group;

(b)  Establish in collaboration with the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas a roster of experts to help respond to requests by Parties for assistance in implementing the programme of work on protected areas and to draw on experts from this roster, at the request of countries, to assist in the implementation of the programme of work;

(c) Undertake the suggested supporting activities included in the programme of work.

Annex

PROGRAMME OF WORK ON PROTECTED AREAS

I. Introduction

1. In situ conservation, sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources are dependent upon properly maintaining sufficient natural habitat. Protected areas, together with conservation, sustainable use and restoration initiatives in the wider land-and seascape are essential components in national and global biodiversity conservation strategies. They provide a range of goods and ecological services while preserving natural and cultural heritage. They can contribute to poverty alleviation by providing employment opportunities and livelihoods to people living in and around them. In addition, they also provide opportunities for research including for adaptive measures to cope with climate change, environmental education, recreation and tourism. As a result, most countries have developed a system of protected areas. The protected-area network now covers about 11 per cent of Earth's land surface. Less than 1 per cent of the Earth's marine area is covered. The central role of protected areas in implementing the objectives of the Convention has been repeatedly emphasized in decisions of the Conference of Parties. They form a vital element of the various thematic programmes of work, namely, marine and coastal biological diversity, inland water ecosystems biological diversity, dry and sub-humid lands biological diversity, forest biological diversity and mountain biological diversity.

2. Given their many benefits, protected areas are important instruments for meeting the Convention's targets of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, according to the best available data on the status and trends on protected areas (see UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/5), the current global systems of protected areas are not sufficiently large, sufficiently well-planned, nor sufficiently well-managed to maximize their contribution to biodiversity conservation. Therefore, there is an urgent need to take action to improve the coverage, representativeness and management of protected areas nationally, regionally and globally.

3. The Convention on Biological Diversity works with many partner organizations, conventions and initiatives in facilitating conservation and sustainable use through protected areas. These include the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA); the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC); the International Maritime Organization (IMO); the World Resources Institute (WRI); The Nature Conservancy (TNC); the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF); the UNESCO Man and Biosphere programme (MAB); the UNESCO World Heritage Convention; the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention); the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals and the associated agreements; the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); (EU) the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF); the Global Environment Facility (GEF), International Convention for Regulation of Whaling (ICRW); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); indigenous organizations, other stakeholders and industry; and various regional agreements and programmes.

4. The present programme of work on protected areas features goals and activities that are specific to protected areas. Some elements of existing programmes of work on forests, inland waters, dry and sub-humid lands, coastal and marine and mountain biological diversity as well as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Global Taxonomy Initiative also apply to protected areas. The goals and activities contained in these existing programmes of work should also be applied and implemented, as and whenever appropriate for their respective protected areas. Other relevant guidelines developed under cross-cutting issues of the CBD should also be taken into account when implementing the programme of work.

5. The World Summit on Sustainable Development, in its Plan of Implementation, has stated that the achievement of the 2010 target requires new and additional financial and technical resources for developing countries, and that the progress in establishment and maintenance of a comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative global system of protected areas is of crucial importance for achieving the 2010 target. The WSSD also called for provision of financial and technical support for activities in this field, recognizing that funding for this purpose generally should consist of a mixture of national and international resources and include the whole range of possible funding instruments such as public funding, debt for nature swaps, private funding, remuneration from services provided by protected areas, and taxes and fees at the national level for the use of ecological services.

II. Overall purpose and scope of the programme of work

6. The overall purpose of the programme of work on protected areas is to support the establishment and maintenance by 2010 for terrestrial and by 2012 for marine areas of comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas that collectively, inter alia through a global network[67]contribute to achieving the three objectives of the Convention and the 2010 target to significantly reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional, national and sub-national levels and contribute to poverty reduction and the pursuit of sustainable development, thereby supporting the objectives of the Strategic Plan of the Convention, the World Summit on Sustainable Development Plan of Implementation and the Millennium Development Goals.

7. The programme of work consists of four interlinked elements intended to be mutually reinforcing and cross-cutting in their implementation. It was developed bearing in mind the need to avoid unnecessary duplication with existing thematic work programmes and other ongoing initiatives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to promote synergy and coordination with relevant programmes of various international organizations. Parties are encouraged to apply where appropriate the objectives and activities from these thematic work programmes and the work on cross-cutting issues.

8. The Convention's work on protected areas takes into account the ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention, and its application will help reach a balance between the three objectives of the Convention. Multiple-use protected areas applied in an ecosystem approach context can, for example, help meet specific goals relating to conservation, sustainable use and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The ecosystem approach provides a framework within which the relationship of protected areas to the wider landscape and seascape can be understood, and the goods and services flowing from protected areas can be valued. In addition, the establishment and management of protected area systems in the context of the ecosystem approach should not simply be considered in national terms, but where the relevant ecosystem extends beyond national boundaries, in ecosystem or bioregional terms as well. This presents a strong argument for and adds complexity to the establishment of transboundary protected areas and protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Any work under this programme on marine and coastal protected areas should be consistent with decision VII/5 on Marine and Coastal biodiversity.

9. The programme of work is intended to assist Parties in establishing national programmes of work with targeted goals, actions, specific actors, time frame, inputs and expected measurable outputs. Parties may select from, adapt, and/or add to the activities suggested in the current programme of work according to particular national and local conditions and their level of development. Implementation of this programme of work should take into account the ecosystem approach of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In implementing the programme of work, Parties are encouraged to pay due regard to the social, economic and environmental costs and benefits of various options. In addition, Parties are encouraged to consider the use of appropriate technologies, source of finance and technical cooperation, and to ensure, through appropriate actions, the means to meet the particular challenges and demands of their protected areas.

10. The implementation of the programme of work will contribute to achieving the three objectives of the Convention.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: Direct actions for planning, selecting, establishing, strengthening, and managing, protected area systems and sites

Goal 1.1 - To establish and strengthen national and regional systems of protected areas integrated into a global network as a contribution to globally agreed goals

Target: By 2010, terrestrially  [68]/ and 2012 in the marine area, a global network of comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional protected area system is established as a contribution to (i) the goal of the Strategic Plan of the Convention and the World Summit on Sustainable Development of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010; (ii) the Millennium Development Goals - particularly goal 7 on ensuring environmental sustainability; and (iii) the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

Suggested activities of the Parties 

1.1.1 By 2006, establish suitable time-bound and measurable national and regional level protected area   targets and indicators.

1.1.2  As a matter of urgency, by 2006, take action to establish or expand protected areas in any large, intact or relatively unfragmented or highly irreplaceable natural areas, or areas under high threat, as well as areas securing the most threatened species in the context of national priorities[69], and taking into consideration the conservation needs of migratory species.

1.1.3 As a matter of urgency, by 2006 terrestrially and by 2008 in the marine environment, take action to address the under-representation of marine and inland water ecosystems in existing national and regional systems of protected areas, taking into account marine ecosystems beyond areas of national jurisdiction in accordance with applicable international law, and transboundary inland water ecosystems.

1.1.4 By 2006, conduct, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders, national-level reviews of existing and potential forms of conservation, and their suitability for achieving biodiversity conservation goals, including innovative types of governance for protected areas that need to be recognized and promoted through legal, policy, financial institutional and community mechanisms, such as protected areas run by Government agencies at various levels, co-managed protected areas, private protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas.

1.1.5 By 2006 complete protected area system gap analyses at national and regional levels based on the requirements for representative systems of protected areas that adequately conserve terrestrial, marine and inland water biodiversity and ecosystems. National plans should also be developed to provide interim measures to protect highly threatened or highly valued areas wherever this is necessary. Gap analyses should take into account Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria such as irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimum effective size and viability requirements, species migration requirements, integrity, ecological processes and ecosystem services.

1.1.6 By 2009, designate the protected areas as identified through the national or regional gap analysis (including precise maps) and complete by 2010 terrestrially and 2012 in the marine environments the establishment of comprehensive and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas.

1.1.7.  Encourage the establishment of protected areas that benefit indigenous and local communities, including by respecting, preserving, and maintaining their traditional knowledge in accordance with article 8(j) and related provisions.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.1.8.   Identify options for quantitative and qualitative protected areas targets and indicators that should be used at the global level that could contribute to the 2010 target and the Millennium Development Goals.

1.1.9.   Invite relevant international and regional organizations to offer their assistance to the Parties in conducting national-level gap analyses.

1.1.10.   Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other relevant media relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for system planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them to different ecological and social settings.

Goal 1.2 - To integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors so as to maintain ecological structure and function

Target: By 2015, all protected areas and protected area systems are integrated into the wider land- and seascape, and relevant sectors, by applying the ecosystem approach and taking into account ecological connectivity[70]/ and the concept, where appropriate, of ecological networks.

 Suggested activities of the Parties

1.2.1.   Evaluate by 2006 national and sub-national experiences and lessons learned on specific efforts to integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectoral plans and strategies such as poverty reduction strategies.

1.2.2.   Identify and implement, by 2008, practical steps for improving the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes, including policy, legal, planning and other measures.

1.2.3.   Integrate regional, national and sub-national systems of protected areas into broader land- and seascape, inter alia by establishing and managing ecological networks, ecological corridors[71] and/or buffer zones, where appropriate, to maintain ecological processes and also taking into account the needs of migratory species.

1.2.4.   Develop tools of ecological connectivity, such as ecological corridors, linking together protected areas where necessary or beneficial as determined by national priorities for the conservation of biodiversity.

1.2.5.   Rehabilitate and restore habitats and degraded ecosystems, as appropriate, as a contribution to building ecological networks, ecological corridors and/or buffer zones.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.2.6.   Encourage the organization of regional and sub-regional workshops for the exchange of experiences on integration of biodiversity and protected areas into relevant sectoral and spatial plans.

1.2.7.   Compile and disseminate, using the CHM and other media, case-studies of best practices and other reports regarding the application of the ecosystem approach in relation to protected areas at the international, regional, national and sub-national levels.

Goal 1.3 - To establish and strengthen regional networks, transboundary protected areas (TBPAs) and collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries

Target: Establish and strengthen by 2010/2012  [72]/ transboundary protected areas, other forms of collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries and regional networks, to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, implementing the ecosystem approach, and improving international cooperation.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.3.1 Collaborate with other parties and relevant partners to establish effective regional networks of protected areas, particularly in areas identified as common conservation priorities (e.g. barrier reef systems, large scale river basins, mountain systems, large remaining forest areas and critical habitat for endangered species), and establish multi‑country coordination mechanisms as appropriate to support the establishment and effective long term management of such networks.

1.3.2 Collaborate with other Parties and relevant partners through the United Nations Informal Consultative Process on the Law of the Sea (UNICPOLOS) to establish and manage protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, in accordance with international law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, and based on scientific information.

1.3.3 Establish, where appropriate, new TBPAs with adjacent Parties and countries and strengthen effective collaborative management of existing TBPAs.

1.3.4 Promote collaboration between protected areas across national boundaries.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.3.5  Collaborate and consult with relevant organizations and bodies for developing guidelines for establishing transboundary protected areas and collaborative management approaches, as appropriate, for dissemination to Parties.

1.3.6 Compile and disseminate information on regional networks of protected areas and transboundary protected areas, including, as far as possible, their geographical distribution, their historical background, their role and the partners involved.

1.3.7  Review the potential for regional cooperation under the Convention on Migratory Species with a view to linking of protected area networks across international boundaries and potentially beyond national jurisdiction through the establishment of migratory corridors for key species.

Goal 1.4 - To substantially improve site-based protected area planning and management

Target: All protected areas to have effective management in existence by 2012, using participatory and science-based site planning processes that incorporate clear biodiversity objectives, targets, management strategies and monitoring programmes, drawing upon existing methodologies and a long-term management plan with active stakeholder involvement.

 Suggested activities of the Parties

1.4.1  Create a highly participatory process, involving indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders, as part of site-based planning in accordance with the ecosystem approach, and use relevant ecological and socio-economic data required to develop effective planning processes.

1.4.2  Identify appropriate measurable biodiversity conservation targets for sites, drawing on criteria laid out in Annex I to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria.

1.4.3  Include in the site-planning process an analysis of opportunities for the protected area to contribute to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity at local and regional scales as well as an analysis of threats and means of addressing them.

  As appropriate, but no later than 2010, develop or update management plans for protected areas, built on the above process, to better achieve the three objectives of the Convention.

1.4.5 Integrate climate change adaptation measures in protected area planning, management strategies, and in the design of protected area systems.

1.4.6 Ensure that protected areas are effectively managed or supervised through staff that are well-trained and skilled, properly and appropriately equipped, and supported, to carry out their fundamental role in the management and conservation of protected areas.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.4.7 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism current relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for site planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them in different ecological and social settings.

1.4.8 Disseminate information on successful management models of protected areas which serve to further the three objective of the Convention and may also contribute to poverty reduction and the pursuit of sustainable development.

Goal 1.5 - To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas

Target: By 2008, effective mechanisms for identifying and preventing, and/or mitigating the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas are in place.

Suggested activities of the Parties

1.5.1 Apply, as appropriate, timely environmental impact assessments to any plan or project with the potential to have effects on protected areas, and ensure timely information flow among all concerned parties to that end, taking into account decision VI/7 A of the Conference of the Parties on guidelines for incorporating biodiversity related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessments.

1.5.2   Develop by 2010 national approaches to liability and redress measures, incorporating the polluter pays principle or other appropriate mechanisms in relation to damages to protected areas.

1.5.3 Establish and implement measures for the rehabilitation and restoration of the ecological integrity of protected areas.

1.5.4 Take measures to control risks associated with invasive alien species in protected areas.

1.5.5 Assess key threats to protected areas and develop and implement strategies to prevent and/or mitigate such threats.

1.5.6 Develop policies, improve governance, and ensure enforcement of urgent measures that can halt the illegal exploitation of resources from protected areas, and strengthen international and regional cooperation to eliminate illegal trade in such resources taking into account sustainable customary resource use of indigenous and local communities in accordance with article 10(c) of the Convention.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

1.5.7 Address issues specific to protected areas, in the guidelines for incorporating biodiversity considerations in environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, procedures and regulations.

1.5.8   Collaborate with the International Association for Impact Assessment and other relevant organizations on further development and refinement of the impact assessment guidelines particularly to incorporate all stages of environmental impact assessment processes in protected areas taking into account the ecosystem approach.

1.5.9 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other means case studies, best practices and lessons learned in mitigating the negative impacts of key threats and facilitate the exchange of experiences.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: GOVERNANCE, PARTICIPATION, EQUITY AND BENEFIT SHARING

Goal 2.1 - To promote equity and benefit-sharing

Target: Establish by 2008 mechanisms for the equitable sharing of both costs and benefits arising from the establishment and management of protected areas.

Suggested activities of the Parties

2.1..   Assess the economic and socio-cultural costs, benefits and impacts arising from the establishment and maintenance of protected areas, particularly for indigenous and local communities, and adjust policies to avoid and mitigate negative impacts, and where appropriate compensate costs and equitably share benefits in accordance with the national legislation.

2.1.2.   Recognize and promote a broad set of protected area governance types related to their potential for achieving biodiversity conservation goals in accordance with the Convention, which may include areas conserved by indigenous and local communities and private nature reserves. The promotion of these areas should be by legal and/or policy, financial and community mechanisms.

2.1.3.   Establish policies and institutional mechanisms with full participation of indigenous and local communities, to facilitate the legal recognition and effective management of indigenous and local community conserved areas in a manner consistent with the goals of conserving both biodiversity and the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities.

2.1.4.   Use social and economic benefits generated by protected areas for poverty reduction, consistent with protected-area management objectives.

2.1.5.   Engage indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders in participatory planning and governance, recalling the principles of the ecosystem approach.

2.1.6.   Establish or strengthen national policies to deal with access to genetic resources within protected areas and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization, drawing upon the Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization as appropriate,.

Goal 2.2 - To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders

Target: Full and effective participation by 2008, of indigenous and local communities, in full respect of their rights and recognition of their responsibilities, consistent with national law and applicable international obligations, and the participation of relevant stakeholders, in the management of existing, and the establishment and management of new, protected areas

Suggested activities of the Parties

2.2.1.   Carry out participatory national reviews of the status, needs and context-specific mechanisms for involving stakeholders, ensuring gender and social equity, in protected areas policy and management, at the level of national policy, protected area systems and individual sites.

2.2.2 Implement specific plans and initiatives to effectively involve indigenous and local communities, with respect for their rights consistent with national legislation and applicable international obligations, and stakeholders at all levels of protected areas planning, establishment, governance and management, with particular emphasis on identifying and removing barriers preventing adequate participation.

2.2.3 Support participatory assessment exercises among stakeholders to identify and harness the wealth of knowledge, skills, resources and institutions of importance for conservation that are available in society.

2.2.4 Promote an enabling environment (legislation, policies, capacities, and resources) for the involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders  [73]/ in decision making, and the development of their capacities and opportunities to establish and manage protected areas, including community-conserved and private protected areas.

2.2.5 Ensure that any resettlement of indigenous communities as a consequence of the establishment or management of protected areas will only take place with their prior informed consent that may be given according to national legislation and applicable international obligations.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

2.2.6 Make available to Parties case-studies, advice on best practices and other sources of information on stakeholder participation in protected areas

2.2.7 Promote, through the CHM, technical publications and other means, the international sharing of experience on effective mechanisms for stakeholder involvement and governance types in conservation in particular with regard to co-managed protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas and private protected areas.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3:  ENABLING ACTIVITIES

Goal 3.1 - To provide an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic environment for protected areas

Target: By 2008 review and revise policies as appropriate, including use of social and economic valuation and incentives, to provide a supportive enabling environment for more effective establishment and management of protected areas and protected areas systems.

Suggested activities of the Parties

3.1.1   By 2006, identify legislative and institutional gaps and barriers that impede the effective establishment and management of protected areas, and by 2009, effectively address these gaps and barriers.

3.1.2   Conduct national-level assessments of the contributions of protected areas, considering as appropriate environmental services, to the country's economy and culture, and to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals at the national level; and integrate the use of economic valuation and natural resource accounting tools into national planning processes in order to identify the hidden and non-hidden economic benefits provided by protected areas and who appropriates these benefits.

3.1.3   Harmonize sectoral policies and laws to ensure that they support the conservation and effective management of the protected area system.

3.1.4   Consider governance principles, such as the rule of law, decentralization, participatory decision-making mechanisms for accountability and equitable dispute resolution institutions and procedures.

3.1.5   Identify and remove perverse incentives and inconsistencies in sectoral policies that increase pressure on protected areas, or take action to mitigate their perverse effects. Whenever feasible, redirect these to positive incentives for conservation.

3.1.6   Identify and establish positive incentives that support the integrity and maintenance of protected areas and the involvement of indigenous and local communities and stakeholders in conservation.

3.1.7 Adopt legal frameworks to national, regional and sub-national protected areas systems of countries where appropriate.

3.1.8 Develop national incentive mechanisms and institutions and legislative frameworks to support the establishment of the full range of protected areas that achieve biodiversity conservation objectives including on private lands and private reserves where appropriate.

3.1.9 Identify and foster economic opportunities and markets at local, national and international levels for goods and services produced by protected areas and/or reliant on the ecosystem services that protected areas provide, consistent with protected area objectives and promote the equitable sharing of the benefits.

3.1.10   Develop necessary mechanisms for institutions with responsibilities for conservation of biological diversity at the regional, national and local level to achieve institutional and financial sustainability.

3.1.11  Cooperate with neighbouring countries to establish an enabling environment for transboundary protected areas and for neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries and other similar approaches including regional networks.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

3.1.12  In collaboration with key partners such as OECD, IUCN, WWF and the secretariats of other conventions compile information on relevant guidance, resource kits and other information on incentive measures including those relating to the development of incentive options.

3.1.13  Compile and disseminate, through the CHM and other media, case-studies on best practices on the use of incentive measures for the management of protected areas.

3.1.14  Compile and disseminate through the CHM and other media best practices on ways and means to integrate the use of incentive measures into protected area management plans, programmes and policies including opportunities for the removal or mitigation of perverse incentives.

Goal 3.2 - To build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of protected areas

Target: By 2010, comprehensive capacity building programmes and initiatives are implemented to develop knowledge and skills at individual, community and institutional levels, and raise professional standards.

Suggested activities of the Parties

3.2.1  By 2006 complete national protected-area capacity needs assessments, and establish capacity building programmes on the basis of these assessments including the creation of curricula, resources and programs for the sustained delivery of protected areas management training.

3.2.2 Establish effective mechanisms to document existing knowledge and experiences on protected area management, including traditional knowledge in accordance with Article 8 (j) and Related Provisions, and identify knowledge and skills gaps.

3.2.3  Exchange lessons learnt, information and capacity-building experiences among countries and relevant organizations, through the Clearing-house Mechanisms and other means.

3.2.4  Strengthen the capacities of institutions to establish cross-sectoral collaboration for protected area management at the regional, national and local levels.

3.2.5  Improve the capacity of protected areas institutions to develop sustainable financing through fiscal incentives, environmental services, and other instruments.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

3.2.6  Cooperate with IUCN and other relevant organizations to compile and disseminate available information.

3.2.7  Cooperate with initiatives such as the Protected Areas Learning Network (PALNet-IUCN) and explore lessons learned from those experiences, in collaboration with relevant organizations.

Goal 3.3 To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected areas

Target: By 2010 the development, validation, and transfer of appropriate technologies and innovative approaches for the effective management of protected areas is substantially improved, taking into account decisions of the Conference of the Parties on technology transfer and cooperation.

Suggested activities of the Parties

3.3.1   Document and make available to the Executive Secretary appropriate technologies for conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of protected areas and management of protected areas.

3.3.2   Assess needs for relevant technologies for protected area management involving indigenous and local communities and stakeholders such as the, research institutions, non-Governmental organizations and the private sector.

3.3.3   Encourage development and use of appropriate technology, including technologies of indigenous and local communities with their participation, approval and involvement in accordance with Article 8(j) and Related Provisions, for habitat rehabilitation and restoration, resource mapping, biological inventory, and rapid assessment of biodiversity, monitoring, in situ and ex situ conservation, sustainable use, etc.

3.3.4   Promote an enabling environment for the transfer of technology in accordance with decision VII/29 of the Conference of Parties on technology transfer and cooperation to improve protected area management.

3.3.5   Increase technology transfer and cooperation to improve protected area management.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

3.3.6   Compile and disseminate information provided by Parties and relevant international organizations on appropriate technologies and approaches for efficient management of protected areas and conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of protected areas.

Goal 3.4 - To ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and regional systems of protected areas

Target: By 2008, sufficient financial, technical and other resources to meet the costs to effectively implement and manage national and regional systems of protected areas are secured, including both from national and international sources, particularly to support the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition and small island developing States.

Suggested activities of the Parties

3.4.1  Conduct a national-level study by 2005 of the effectiveness in using existing financial resources and of financial needs related to the national system of protected areas and identify options for meeting these needs through a mixture of national and international resources and taking into account the whole range of possible funding instruments, such as public funding, debt for nature swaps, elimination of perverse incentives and subsidies, private funding, taxes and fees for ecological services .

3.4.2 By 2008, establish and begin to implement country-level sustainable financing plans that support national systems of protected areas, including necessary regulatory, legislative, policy, institutional and other measures.

3.4.3  Support and further develop international funding programmes to support implementation of national and regional systems of protected areas in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and small island developing States.

3.4.4 Collaborate with other countries to develop and implement sustainable financing programmes for national and regional systems of protected areas.

3.4.5 Provide regular information on protected areas financing to relevant institutions and mechanisms, including through future national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to the World Database on Protected Areas.

3.4.6  Encourage integration of protected areas needs into national and, where applicable, regional development and financing strategies and development cooperation programmes.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

3.4.7 Convene as soon as possible, but not later than 2005, a meeting of the donor agencies and other relevant organizations to discuss options for mobilizing new and additional funding to developing countries and countries with economies in transition and small island developing States for implementation of the programme of work.

3.4.8   Compile and disseminate case-studies and best practices concerning protected area financing through the clearing-house mechanism and other media.

3.4.9   Review and disseminate by 2006 studies on the value of ecosystem services provided by protected areas.

Goal 3.5 - To strengthen communication, education and public awareness

Target: By 2008 public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the importance and benefits of protected areas is significantly increased.

Suggested activities of the Parties

3.5.1 Establish or strengthen strategies and programmes of education and public awareness on the importance of protected areas in terms of their role in biodiversity conservation and sustainable socio-economic development, in close collaboration with the Communication, Education and Public Awareness Initiative (CEPA) under the Convention on Biological Diversity and targeted towards all stakeholders.

3.5.2 Identify core themes for education, awareness and communication programmes relevant to protected areas, including inter alia their contribution to economy and culture to achieve specific end results such as compliance by resource users and other stakeholders or an increased understanding of science-based knowledge by indigenous and local communities and policy makers and an increased understanding of the needs, priorities and value of indigenous and local communities' knowledge, innovations and practices by Governments, non-Governmental organizations and other relevant stakeholders.

3.5.3 Strengthen, and where necessary, establish information mechanisms directed at target groups such as the private sector, policy makers, development institutions, community-based organizations, the youth, the media, and the general public.

3.5.4 Develop mechanisms for constructive dialogue and exchange of information and experiences among protected-area managers, and between protected area managers and indigenous and local communities and their organizations and other environment educators and actors.

3.5.5  Incorporate the subject of protected areas as an integral component of the school curricula as well as in informal education.

3.5.6  Establish mechanism and evaluate the impacts of communication, education and public awareness programmes on biodiversity conservation to ensure that they improve public awareness, change behaviour and support the achievement of protected area objectives.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

3.5.7  Collaborate with IUCN and other relevant organizations to collect and disseminate educational tools and materials for adaptation and use in the promotion of protected areas as an important means of achieving the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

3.5.8  Establish, in collaboration with the IUCN and other relevant partners, an initiative to engage the global news and entertainment industry (television, film, popular music, internet, etc.) in a global campaign to raise awareness of the consequences of biological diversity loss and the important role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 4: Standards, assessment, and monitoring

Goal 4.1 - To develop and adopt minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems

Target: By 2008, standards, criteria, and best practices for planning, selecting, establishing, managing and governance of national and regional systems of protected areas are developed and adopted.

Suggested activities of the Parties

4.1.1 Collaborate with other Parties and relevant organizations, particularly IUCN, on the development, testing, review and promotion of voluntary protected areas standards and best practices on planning and management, governance and participation.

4.1.2 Develop and implement an efficient, long-term monitoring system of the outcomes being achieved through protected area systems in relation to the goals and targets of this work programme.

4.1.3 Draw upon monitoring results to adapt and improve protected area management based on the ecosystem approach.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

4.1.4 In collaboration with the key partners and based upon the best practices promote available guidance for parties minimum standards for planning, selecting, establishing, managing and governance of protected area sites and systems.

4.1.5 Compile information on best practices and case-studies on effective management of protected areas and disseminate it through clearing-house mechanism and facilitate exchange of information.

Goal 4.2 - To evaluate and improve the effectiveness of protected areas management

Target: By 2010, frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting protected areas management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and transboundary protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.

Suggested activities of the Parties

4.2.1 Develop and adopt, by 2006, appropriate methods, standards, criteria and indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of protected area management and governance, and set up a related database, taking into account the IUCN-WCPA framework for evaluating management effectiveness, and other relevant methodologies, which should be adapted to local conditions.

4.2.2 Implement management effectiveness evaluations of at least 30 percent of each Party's protected areas by 2010 and of national protected area systems and, as appropriate, ecological networks.

4.2.3 Include information resulting from evaluation of protected areas management effectiveness in national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

4.2.4 Implement key recommendations arising from site- and system-level management effectiveness evaluations, as an integral part of adaptive management strategies.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

4.2.5 Compile and disseminate information on management effectiveness through the clearing-house mechanism and develop a database of experts in evaluation of protected area management effectiveness and consider the possibility of organizing an international workshop on appropriate methods, criteria and indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of protected area management.

4.2.6 In cooperation with IUCN-WCPA and other relevant organizations, compile and disseminate information on best practices in protected area design, establishment and management.

Goal 4.3 - To assess and monitor protected area status and trends

Target: By 2010, national and regional systems are established to enable effective monitoring of protected-area coverage, status and trends at national, regional and global scales, and to assist in evaluating progress in meeting global biodiversity targets.

Suggested activities of the Parties

4.3.1 Implement national and regional programmes to monitor and assess the status and trends of biodiversity within protected area systems and sites.

4.3.2 Measure progress towards achieving protected area targets based on periodic monitoring and report on progress towards these targets in future national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as in a thematic report at COP-9.

4.3.3 Improve and update national and regional databases on protected areas and consolidate the World Database on Protected Areas as key support mechanisms in the assessment and monitoring of protected area status and trends.

4.3.4 Participate in the World Database on Protected Areas maintained by UNEP-WCMC, and the United Nations List of Protected Areas and the State of the World's Protected Areas assessment process.

4.3.5 Encourage the establishment and establishment use of new technologies including geographic information system and remote sensing tools for monitoring protected areas.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

4.3.6   Develop and consolidate working partnerships with appropriate organizations and institutions that have developed and maintained monitoring systems and databases on protected areas, in particular with the UNEP‑WCMC and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas.

4.3.7   Explore establishment of a harmonized system and time schedule for reporting on sites designated under the Convention on Wetlands, the World Heritage Convention, and UNESCO MAB programme, and other regional systems, as appropriate, taking into account the ongoing work of UNEP-WCMC on harmonization of reporting and the IUCN protected area management category system for reporting purpose.

4.3.8   Prepare an updated format for the thematic report on protected areas covering, inter alia, integration of protected areas and national systems of protected areas into relevant sectors and spatial planning taking into account decision VII/25 on national reporting.

Goal 4.4 - To ensure that scientific knowledge contributes to the establishment and effectiveness of protected areas and protected area systems

Target: Scientific knowledge relevant to protected areas is further developed as a contribution to their establishment, effectiveness, and management.

Suggested activities of the Parties

4.4.1 Improve research, scientific and technical cooperation related to protected areas at national, regional and international levels.

4.4.2 Promote interdisciplinary research, to improve understanding of the ecological social and economic aspects of protected areas, including methods and techniques for valuation of goods and services from protected areas

4.4.3   Encourage studies to improve the knowledge of the distribution, status and trends of biological diversity.

4.4.4 Encourage collaborative research between scientists and indigenous and local communities in accordance with Article 8(j) in connection with the establishment and the effective management of protected areas

4.4.5 Promote the dissemination of scientific information from and on protected areas including through the clearing-house mechanism.

4.4.6 Promote the dissemination of, and facilitate access to, scientific and technical information, in particular publications on protected areas, with special attention to the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States.

4.4.7  Develop and strengthen working partnerships with appropriate organizations and institutions which undertake research studies leading to an improved understanding of biodiversity in protected areas.

Appendix

Indicative list of partners and other collaborators

Partners

Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species

Food and Agriculture Organization

Global Environment Facility

InterGovernmental Oceanic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

International Coral Reef Initiative

International Maritime Organization

International Association for Impact Assessment

IUCN - The World Conservation and its World Commission on Protected Areas, Commission on Ecosystem Management, and Species Survival Commission

International Whaling Commission

Man and Biosphere Programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Ramsar Convention

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

United Nations Development Programme

UNEP - World Conservation Monitoring Centre

United Nations Forum on Forests

World Heritage Centre of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

World Bank

Other Collaborators

BirdLife International

Conservation International

Fauna and Flora International

The Nature Conservancy

Wildlife Conservation Society

World Resources Institute

WWF

Indigenous and local communities

Private sector

Other relevant national, regional and international non-Governmental organizations and other organizations

[62]/ The concept was described by Professor Christian Körner, Professor of Botany at the University Basel and Chairman of the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment in his keynote presentation at the eighth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice in March 2003 as follows: he upland-lowland contract concept establishes joint responsibilities between lowlanders and uplanders.  Under this concept, uplanders would, for example, be responsible for taking care of the fragile upland mountain landscape to reduce potential impacts on lowlanders.  In return, lowlanders may be able to provide uplanders with the products of lowland cultivated areas (food and other resources).

[63]/ BirdLife International, Conservation International, Flora and Fauna International, The Nature Conservancy, Wildlife Conservation Society, WWF, and World Resources Institute.

[64]/   In the context of this programme of work, a generic term used in some countries and regions, as appropriate, to encompass the application of the ecosystem approach that integrates protected areas into the broader land- and/or seascapes for effective conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use

[65]/   Ecological corridors may not be applicable to all Parties

[66]/   A global network provides for the connections between Parties, with the collaboration of others, for the exchange of ideas and experiences, scientific and technical cooperation, capacity building and cooperative action that mutually support national and regional systems of protected areas which collectively contribute to the achievement of the programme of work. This network has no authority or mandate over national or regional systems.

[67]/   A global network provides for the connections between Parties, with the collaboration of others, for the exchange of ideas and experiences, scientific and technical cooperation, capacity building and cooperative action that mutually support national and regional systems of protected areas which collectively contribute to the achievement of the programme of work. This network has no authority or mandate over national or regional systems.

[68]/ Terrestrial includes inland water ecosystems

[69]/ Parties may wish to use IUCN Red List of Threatened Species criteria, version 3.1

[70]/   The concept of connectivity may not be applicable to all Parties

[71]/ Ecological corridors may not be applicable to all Parties

[72]/ References to marine protected area networks to be consistent with the target in the WSSD plan of implementation.

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  • United Nations Environment Programme