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Spain - Overview

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Main References

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (v.3)

Fifth National Report



National Websites

Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Spain is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world and considered one of the most biodiverse countries in the European Union. Spanish coastal waters possess a high level of biological diversity, with the southern Iberian Peninsula being especially important in terms of biodiversity and endemic species. The country’s geographical diversity is extremely varied, consisting of landscapes and ecosystems that include intertidal zones, beaches, cliffs, dune systems, salt marshes, saline steppes, etc... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

Intense human activity, erosion, introduction of invasive species, extreme natural events, over-exploitation of species of economic interest, desertification, soil degradation, forest fires and climate change are factors contributing to habitat degradation and biodiversity loss. Marine species are especially threatened by the alteration and pollution of certain coastal zones, fishing, chemical pollution, physical alteration and the eutrophication of habitats and intensive urbanization of the coast... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

In September 2011, the Council of Ministers adopted the Strategic Plan on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity, approved by Royal Decree 1274/2011, which is the national response to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, as well as a fundamental element in support of the Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity 42/2007 adopted on 13 December 2007... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Trends in protected areas have been positive. Between 2009 and 2012, there was an increase of 3.1% in the surface covered by protected areas. Protected areas in Spain cover 17.3 million hectares and are established under different legal regimes: terrestrial protected areas represent 92.45% of this protected area estate, while marine protected areas represent 7.55% of this total area... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Significant progress has been made with regard to furthering legislative and administrative developments in response to the objectives set out by the Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity 42/2007. It incorporates new instruments such as the Strategic Plan on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity, which will guide biodiversity priorities, as well as the Spanish Inventory of Natural Heritage and Biodiversity... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment is responsible for monitoring international initiatives on environment and biodiversity, as well as the adoption of basic legislation and environmental policies with a territorial dimension (e.g. water, coasts, biodiversity). A Spanish Biodiversity Monitoring System for assessing trends of biodiversity at the state level is being developed... More »

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Mr. Miguel Aymerich
CBD Primary NFP, ICNP ABS NFP
Ms. Maria-Angeles Ramos
GTI NFP
Noelia Vallejo Pedregal
SBSTTA NFP
Mr. Daniel Serrano Gadea
GSPC NFP
Mr. Rafael Hidalgo
Protected Areas NFP
Mr. Ricardo Gómez Calmaestra
CHM NFP, SBSTTA NFP
Ms. Tania López-Piñeiro Pérez
SBSTTA NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Dr. Esther Esteban Rodrigo
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP, BCH NFP

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  • United Nations Environment Programme