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Lebanon - Overview

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Main References

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

Fourth National Report



National Websites

Biodiversity Facts

Status and trends of biodiversity, including benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services

Lebanon occupies only 0.007 % of the world’s land surface area and is home to 1.11% of the world’s plant species and 2.63% of reptile, bird and mammal species. The country counts about 2,600 terrestrial plant species, 8.5% of which are broadly endemic to Lebanon, Syria and Palestine, and 3.5% strictly endemic to Lebanon... More »

Main pressures on and drivers of change to biodiversity (direct and indirect)

Threats to biodiversity, most of which stem from human activities, include: habitat loss due to urbanization, destruction of coastal zones and extension of agricultural areas; unsustainable harvest of natural resources, notably through overhunting, overharvesting, overfishing and escalating uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater; pollution due to the spread of modern chemical-intensive agriculture and the discharge of effluents into rivers; invasive alien species, particularly the introduction of marine species through the Suez Canal and the importation of ornamental and donated forestry plants; civil war (1975-1990) and repeated periods of political tension resulting in unstable management practices... More »

Measures to Enhance Implementation of the Convention

Implementation of the NBSAP

Lebanon’s NBSAP was developed in 1998. In 2005, an addendum was prepared to align the targets of the existing NBSAP with the 2010 Global Biodiversity Target. The NBSAP is divided into 4 thematic areas: terrestrial ecosystems and natural habitats, freshwater (inland waters), marine, agrobiodiversity, in addition to sections dedicated to in situ conservation, urban biodiversity conservation, biosafety, international cooperation, strategy implementation... More »

Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Significant progress has been made in terms of biodiversity protection since the preparation of the NBSAP in 1998, with improvements in the legal framework, notably in relation to in situ conservation, considered the main achievement. Concepts linked to the environment, biodiversity conservation and sustainability have been integrated into: processes for gathering, processing and marketing globally significant Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs); sustainable hunting approach in the new Hunting Law (2004); EIA, SEA; agrobiodiversity; agricultural policy; major development sector policies... More »

Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)

Biodiversity mainstreaming is being initiated in Lebanon. Many actions aimed at conserving and sustainably using biodiversity relate to different sectors and fall under the responsibility of various ministries and institutions. Biodiversity protection within the CBD framework is specifically referred to in the National Reforestation Plan, particularly in restricting the forest tree species used in reforestation to native species only and in banning the use of any restoration method that could harm the existing biodiversity at the site, and in the Marine Protected Areas Strategy (2012)... More »

Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation

Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment have been introduced in urban and land use planning along with practical guidelines for integrating biodiversity.

National Contacts

Full details of national contacts »

Convention on Biological Diversity

Ms. Lara Samaha
CBD Primary NFP, CHM NFP, ICNP ABS NFP
Mr. Fadi Ziadeh
CBD Secondary NFP
Ministry of Environment
ABS Competent National Authorities
Ms. Grace Rachid
Protected Areas NFP

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Ms. Lara Samaha
Cartagena Protocol Primary NFP, BCH NFP
Melle Rasha Kanj
Cartagena Protocol Secondary NFP

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme