Status and Trends of Biodiversity
Indonesia’s archipelago comprises approximately 17,000 islands of which around 990 are permanently inhabited. There are 7 major biogeographic regions in Indonesia, centered on the major islands and their surrounding seas. Conservation International considers Indonesia to be on the 17 “megadiverse” countries, with 2 of the world’s 25 “hotspots”, 18 World Wildlife Fund’s “Global 200” ecoregions and 24 of Bird Life International’s “Endemic Bird Areas.” It also possesses 10% of the world’s flowering species (estimated 25,000 flowering plants) and ranks as one of the world’s centers for agro-biodiversity of plant cultivars and domesticated livestock. The country ranks first in the world for number of mammals (515 species, 36% endemic), palms (400 species of dipterocarps), and swallowtail butterflies (121 species, 44% endemic). It ranks third for reptiles (600+ species), fourth for birds (1519 species, 28% endemic) and fifth for amphibians (270 species). Further, it is one of the world’s centers of species diversity of hard corals and many groups of reef-associated flora and fauna. Indonesia’s rich biodiversity is being rapidly degraded and increasingly under threat from rapid landscape change, pollution and over harvesting. The most biodiverse habitats, particularly lowland forests, are under the greatest pressure. The main factors affecting biodiversity loss and species extinction in Indonesia are: habitat loss (since 1997, the rate of forest loss is 2.4 million ha per year or more); habitat degradation (e.g. 60% of Indonesian coral reefs degraded); overexploitation; secondary extinction; forest loss; and the economical and political crisis in the country.
Number and Extent of Protected Areas
Indonesia has 50 National Parks covering 16.4 million ha (including 7 marine national parks) and 527 nature reserves and game reserves covering as much as 28.3 million ha.
Percentage of Forest Cover
Forests in Indonesia cover 88,495,000 ha.