Status and Trends of Biodiversity
The varieties of physical components, which have a correlation with the country’s biological diversity, include 4 biomes, 14 ecoregions and 199 ecosystems. The main biomes are jungle, forest, savannah, tundra, steppe, desert and wetlands. At the moment, more than 14,000 higher plant species, 325 mammals, 186 amphibians, 260 reptiles, 550 fish species and 1,379 birds are inventoried. There is a large amount of endemism found within the vertebrate species, with 16% of mammals, 22% of fish, 20% of reptiles and 42% of birds endemic to Bolivia. The actual state of ecosystems varies according to the country’s regions. The regions most affected are the deserts, steppe, tundra, inter-Andean valleys and the Chaco due mainly to overgrazing, inadequate agricultural practices, tree felling and burning of forests. Other ecosystems are threatened by: demographic pressures, loss of forest cover, inappropriate use of technology, ecosystem use above their productive capacity and potential. Almost 2% of flora and 10.7% of vertebrate species are considered threatened.
Number and Extent of Protected Areas
There are over 40 protected areas in existence, legally created but with no proper management, and correspond to about 16% of the total national territory.