Implementation of the NBSAP
The main objective of the National Biodiversity Strategy of the Czech Republic adopted in 2005 was to create a document for biodiversity conservation in the Czech Republic that would be both intersectoral and interdisciplinary. The National Biodiversity Strategy of the Czech Republic was prepared with consideration given to implementing the EU Biodiversity Action Plan to 2010. Chapters are divided into strategic themes (e.g., Ecosystem Approach, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, sustainable use) and into aspects on biodiversity mainsteaming in sectoral policies (e.g., agriculture, forest ecosystems, water and wetland ecosystems). Implementation of the Strategy was to substantially contribute to achieving the objectives previously set out in the National Sustainable Development Strategy. Attention would also be paid to consistent implementation of applicable legislation and already approved policies, and to preparation of new legislation, as outlined in the Strategy. The Strategy, in itself, does not encompass additional financial requirements from state budgets.
Actions taken to achieve the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets
The agricultural sector has taken numerous steps in agricultural biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of its components. Measures (e.g., ecological agriculture production, integrated production, sustainable grassland management, growing of intercrops, management of mesophilic and hydrophilic meadows, enhancement of landscape connectivity in farmland) have been carried out in High Nature Value Areas. In situ biodiversity conservation measures in agriculture mainly focus on soil organisms by ensuring environmentally friendly farming procedures. Ex situ measures are ensured by the National Programme on the Conservation and Utilisation of Plant, Animal and Microbial Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which is divided into three respective programmes aimed at the conservation of crop genetic resources, farm animals, fish, bees and microorganisms.
The Crop Research Institute coordinates the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the genetic resources of microorganisms. It operates an extensive gene bank with seed collections for food and agriculture and an important electronic information system (EVIGEZ) on plants. It is engaged in international activities with organizations like FAO and Bioversity International. The programme is particularly important in terms of activities carried out to evaluate, characterize and document individual samples. The Institute of Animal Science coordinates the conservation of animal genetic resources and serves as the National Reference Centre for storage and use of animal genetic resources (the centre is also a member of the European Regional Centre for animal genetic resources).
Efforts towards land reclamation, elimination of serious environmental burdens and “brownfields” (industrial buildings and land intensively used in the past that are now unused), are being financially incentivized by the EU’s Operational Programme (Environment). Efforts have proven very successful however in 2009 there were still more than 9,400 sites in need of cleaning.
The principles of eco-tourism are also partly included in state policies and strategies. There are no official programmes in place for tourism operators however some projects for eco-guide services in protected areas are in development.
Support mechanisms for national implementation (legislation, funding, capacity-building, coordination, mainstreaming, etc.)
The Czech Republic has a policy objective of supporting the certification process of forests within the Pan-European Forest Certification system. The National Forest Programme (NFP) is also in place.
National legislation linked to biodiversity conservation exists for different areas (e.g.
, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), breeding conditions, conservation of genetic resources of plants and microorganisms, invasive species, protection of nature and landscape, hunting and game-keeping, phytosanitary measures, fisheries). Legislation also exists to guarantee preservation programmes and management plans for endangered species.
The Ministry of the Environment provides financial support for a number of programmes/schemes (e.g., landscape management, urban areas, Natura 2000 sites, management of national park forests, Life+, restoration of natural landscape functions, improvement of the state of nature and landscape, river system restoration).
Agro-environmental measures aimed at farming in High Nature Value areas were financially supported by the Government’s Horizontal Rural Development Plan. Further, international funding from Norway assists in funding preservation programmes for endangered species. Funding is also provided by the EU for the LIFE+ Programme which aims to develop and implement the EU’s environmental policy and legislation, with a primary focus on Natura 2000 sites and biodiversity conservation in these areas mainly.
NBSAP mainstreaming has occurred across various ministries, including Transport, Industry and Trade, Education, Youth and Sports and Foreign Affairs. Outcomes of implementation consist of improved quality of transport infrastructure in relation to the environment, including noise reduction and monitoring, increased renewable energy production and solution-seeking on issues such as wind and water erosion.
Mechanisms for monitoring and reviewing implementation
Freshwater quality monitoring is obligatory according to the EU Water Framework Directive (2000) and the National Water Act (2001). Almost 300 watercourse profiles and selected border streams are monitored 12 times a year according to various indicators. A wide range of organic substances and radioactive substances are also monitored. Likewise, data on air quality monitoring have been systematically collected in the Czech Republic since 1980 and inventoried in the Register of Emissions and Air Pollution Sources (REAPS).