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Nigeria - Country Profile

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Status and Trends of Biodiversity


Located in the western part of Africa, Nigeria spans different climatic and ecological zones. The mean annual temperature ranges from 21°C in the south to 30°C in the north with extremes of 14°C and 45°C and an altitude range of 0 - 1000m above sea level. The variable climatic conditions and physical features have endowed Nigeria with a very rich biodiversity (annual rainfall ranging from about 450 mm in the northeast to about 3500 mm in the coastal south-east). 7, 895 plant species and 22, 000 vertebrates and invertebrates species have been identified. More specifically, these species include about 20, 000 insects, 1, 000 birds, 1, 000 fishes, 247 mammals and 123 reptiles. At the current annual growth rate of 2.8%, the country’s population may reach 150 million by the year 2010. Consequently, the demand for food, fuel-wood and other biological resources will experience a corresponding increase and this will lead to increased pressure on land, water and other resources. Although Nigeria derives about 80% of its external earnings from the oil sector, agriculture contributes about 38% of the GDP. About 70% of the population derives their means of livelihood from agriculture, and the economy is characterized by a large rural based traditional sector. (1st National Report)

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  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme