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COP 9 Decision IX/16

IX/16.Biodiversity and climate change

A.Proposals for the integration of climate-change activities within the programmes of work of the Convention

The Conference of the Parties
1.Decides that, in conducting future in-depth reviews of the programmes of work of the Convention, climate change considerations should be integrated into each programme of work where relevant and appropriate, taking into account, inter alia, the Third and Fourth Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Technical Series No. 10 and No. 25 of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the global Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change, considering the following:
(a)The assessment of potential impacts of climate change * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on relevant ecosystems;
(b)The most vulnerable components of biodiversity;
(c)The risks and consequences for ecosystem services and human well-being;
(d)The threats and likely impacts of climate change * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity and the opportunities they provide for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity;
(e)Monitoring of the threats and likely impacts of climate change, * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity;
(f)Appropriate monitoring and evaluation techniques, related technology transfer and capacity-building support within the programmes of work;
(g)Critical knowledge needed to support implementation, including inter alia, scientific research, availability of data, appropriate measurement and monitoring techniques technology and traditional knowledge;
(h)The ecosystem-approach principles and guidance and the precautionary approach;
(i)The contribution of biodiversity to climate-change adaptation, and measures that enhance the adaptive potential of components of biodiversity;
2.Requests the Executive Secretary when preparing for the in-depth review of the programmes of work of the Convention to take into account an analysis to identify the elements of the guidance (paragraph 1 above) already included in the existing programmes of work and an assessment of the state of implementation, as well as the identification of gaps in implementation including a review of barriers and suggestions to overcome them;
3.Requests the Executive Secretary, as far as possible in collaboration with the secretariats of the other two Rio conventions, to compile and synthesize information on interactions between acidification, climate change and multiple nutrient-loading as possible threats to biodiversity during the in-depth reviews of the programmes of work on inland water and marine and coastal biodiversity;
4.Urges Parties to enhance the integration of climate-change considerations related to biodiversity in their implementation of the Convention with the full and effective involvement of relevant stakeholders and considering changing consumption and production models, including:
(a)Identifying, within their own countries, vulnerable regions, subregions and, where possible, ecosystem types, including vulnerable components of biodiversity within these areas, including with regard to the impacts on indigenous and local communities, in order to enhance national, regional and international cooperation;
(b)Integrating concerns relating to the impacts of climate change * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity within national biodiversity strategy and action plans;
(c)Assessing the threats and likely impacts of climate change * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity;
(d)Identifying and adopting, within their own countries, monitoring and modelling programmes for regions, subregions and ecosystems affected by climate change and promote international cooperation in this area;
(e)Enhancing scientific tools, methodologies, knowledge and approaches to respond to the impacts of climate change, * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity, including socio-economic and cultural impacts;
(f)Enhancing the methodology and the knowledge needed to integrate biodiversity considerations within climate change response activities, such as baseline information, scenarios, potential impacts on and risks to biodiversity, and resilience and resistance of ecosystems and selected species populations and communities/assemblages and encouraging the exchange of such knowledge at the national, regional and international level;
(g)Increasing stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process relating to the impacts of climate change, * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate-change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity, as appropriate;
(h)Applying the principles and guidance of the ecosystem approach such as adaptive management, the use of traditional knowledge, and the use of science and monitoring;
(i)Taking appropriate actions to address and monitor the impacts of climate change of climate-change and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity;
(j)Enhancing cooperation with relevant organizations and among national focal points;
5.Encourages Parties, other Governments, donors and relevant organizations to provide financial and technical support to capacity-building activities, including through raising public awareness, so as to enable developing countries, especially least developed countries, small island developing States, and countries with economies in transition, to implement activities related to the impacts of climate change, * and of the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity;
6.Requests the Executive Secretary, subject to the availability of financial resources, to convene a workshop for small island developing States to integrate considerations on the impacts of climate change, * and both the positive and negative impacts of climate-change mitigation and adaptation activities within programmes of work and national biodiversity strategies and action plans, with a view to holding similar capacity-building workshops in other groups of countries;

B.Options for mutually supportive actions addressing climate change within the three Rio conventions

The Conference of the Parties,
Noting with appreciation the reports of the seventh and eighth meetings of the Joint Liaison Group and the document prepared jointly by the three Rio conventions (UNEP/CBD/WGRI/1/7/Add.1) containing proposals on mutually supportive activities for the secretariats of the Rio conventions;
Noting the information notes on forests and adaptation highlighting the links between biodiversity, desertification/land degradation and climate change drafted jointly by the secretariats of the three Rio conventions;
Further noting the Rio Principles on Environment and Development 36 when developing synergies,
Further noting the results of the International Expert Meeting on Responses to Climate Change for Indigenous and Local Communities and the Impact on their Traditional Knowledge Related to Biological Diversity in the Arctic Region, held in Helsinki from 25 to 28 March 2008 (UNEP/CBD/COP/9/INF/43),
Recognizing the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States, and Parties with economies in transition, when developing synergies,
Welcoming the High-Level Conference on World Food Security and the Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to be held from 3 to 5 June 2008, that will address issues related to climate change adaptation and mitigation,
1.Recognizing the distinct mandates and independent legal status of each convention and the need to avoid duplication and promote cost savings, requests the Executive Secretary to collaborate with the secretariats of the other Rio conventions in order to:
(a)Continue with the activities that are already ongoing or have been called for by Parties in the framework of the three Rio conventions, including those activities listed in annex I to the present decision;
(b)Implement the following, making full use of existing tools, such as the clearing-house mechanism:
(i)Publish an electronic bulletin on synergies between the three Rio conventions, including reports on progress from Parties;
(ii)Create tools to inform Parties about relevant activities on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, on combating environmental degradation, desertification/land degradation and climate change, including through updating existing tools and publications such as the clearing-house mechanism under the Convention and national biodiversity information systems;
(iii)Produce educational materials bearing in mind cultural circumstances and delivery methods based on the needs of the target audiences; and
(iv)Develop Web-based communication tools;
(c)Identify further opportunities for mutually supportive activities and continue deliberating on streamlining reporting;
(d)Pursue opportunities to support activities linked to national capacity self-assessment projects towards implementation of the three Rio conventions;
2.Requests the Executive Secretary to continue discussions within the Joint Liaison Group on the following activities:
(a)Make available relevant notifications to other conventions’ focal points through the Web;
(b)Compile, where available, lessons learned and case-studies on national mechanisms for coordination among focal points in order to enhance cooperation;
(c)Share reports and reviews of national planning processes, where available, and highlight lessons learned that may be relevant across conventions in order to improve integrated planning;
(d)Provide case-studies and lessons learned on the integration of biodiversity and desertification / land degradation issues within national adaptation plans of action under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC);
(e)Improve ways to communicate to the scientific community the three Rio conventions’ research needs on synergies; and
(f)Provide the focal points of all three conventions with up-to-date information on relevant assessments, research programmes and monitoring tools;
3.Requests the Executive Secretary to compile case-studies, good-practice examples and lessons learned on activities, tools and methods to promote synergies between activities addressing biodiversity, desertification/land degradation and climate change at the national and, where appropriate, the local level, and report thereon and, through the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, on progress in the implementation of mutually supportive activities, during the in-depth review of the ongoing work under the cross-cutting issue of biodiversity and climate change at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;
4.Requests the Executive Secretary to explore, inter alia, with the Global Environment Facility, ways and means to achieve biodiversity co-benefits and benefits for combating desertification/land degradation in climate-change activities, including through capacity-building, with a view to presenting a specific proposal to the Conference of the Parties at its tenth meeting;
5.Requests the Executive Secretary, recalling the Memorandum of Cooperation with the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention, to enhance cooperation with regard to changing risk for biodiversity resulting from climate-change impacts on plant pests, in order to gather relevant scientific information so as to inform policy;
6.Requests the Executive Secretary to explore with the United Nations Environment Programme, and as far as possible in collaboration with the Joint Liaison Group, the nature and scope of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity-Building with a view to identifying how it might support the achievement of synergies between the three Rio conventions in national implementation, and report thereon to the Conference of the Parties at its tenth meeting;
7.Invites the secretariats of the three Rio conventions to build on and strengthen existing tools and synergies with members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF), including the CPF Web platform, for forest-related activities;
8.Noting that efforts at the national and local levels are of high importance to the achievement of synergies between activities addressing biodiversity, combating desertification/land degradation and climate change, invites Parties and other Governments, where appropriate based on national circumstances, to implement the activities contained in the indicative list in annex II to the present decision;
9.Further invites Parties and other Governments to support, as appropriate, the implementation of relevant components of existing national climate change adaptation plans in developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, small island developing States, and countries with economies in transition;
10.Invites relevant organizations to provide support to Parties, as appropriate and based on national circumstances, in implementing the activities laid out in annex II to the present decision in order to enhance cooperation and coordination between the three Rio conventions and other relevant multilateral environmental agreements;
11.Notes that reduced deforestation and forest degradation, and increased afforestation and reforestation, could provide multiple benefits for biodiversity and reducing greenhouse gas-emissions, and:
(a)Welcomes the consideration of the issue of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
(b)Invites the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to take full account of opportunities for its work to provide benefits for biodiversity, including through collaboration among the subsidiary bodies of the three Rio conventions and the application of the ecosystem approach and sustainable forest management, and
(c)Invites the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately address traditional knowledge, innovations and practices related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity noting relevant provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity;
12.Recalling paragraph 11 of decision 1/CP.13, on the Bali Action Plan, in which Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed that the comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Framework Convention through long-term cooperative action shall be informed by, inter alia, the best available scientific information, experience in implementation of the Framework Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, and processes thereunder, outputs from other relevant intergovernmental processes and insights from the business and research communities and civil society:
(a)Recognizes the need to provide biodiversity relevant information to the processes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in a timely manner;
(b)Establishes in this regard, an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change, including representatives of indigenous and local communities and small island developing States, on the basis of the terms of reference provided in the annex III to the present decision, with a mandate, to develop scientific and technical advice on biodiversity, in so far as it relates to climate change and decision 1/CP.13 of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on the Bali Action Plan as well as its Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change so as to support the enhanced implementation of synergies;
(c)Requests the Executive Secretary to convey the deliberations of this Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for appropriate consideration;
13.Invites Parties to submit views on ways to integrate biodiversity considerations in climate-change related activities;
14.Requests the Executive Secretary to prepare a compilation of the views submitted pursuant to paragraph 13 of the present decision for consideration by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice, prior to the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;
15.Invites Parties to support efforts by developing countries to monitor, at the national level, the impacts of climate change on biodiversity;
16.Requests the Executive Secretary to summarize information on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity relevant for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD) found within existing documents, including the report of the Viterbo Workshop on “Forests and Forest Ecosystems: Promoting Synergy in the Implementation of the three Rio Conventions” (April 2004), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and CBD Technical Series Nos. 10 and 25 and provide this information to the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change with the intention that it be transmitted to the third session, and subsequent sessions, of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;
17.Invites Parties and other Governments, as appropriate, considering the negative impacts of climate change on biodiversity and related traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities, to apply the ecosystem approach and to make use of existing publications such as Convention on Biological Diversity Technical Series Nos. 10 and 25 and the UNEP/IUCN TEMATEA Issue-Based Module on Climate Change and Biodiversity when planning or implementing mutually supportive activities among the three Rio conventions with regard to biodiversity, combating desertification/land degradation and climate change at the national and international levels.

C.Ocean Fertilization

The Conference of the Parties,
Notes the work of the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (1972) and the 1996 London Protocol, welcomes the decision of the twenty-ninth Consultative Meeting of the Contracting Parties held from 5 to 9 November 2007, which: (i) endorsed the June 2007 “Statement of Concern regarding iron fertilization of the oceans to sequester CO2” of their Scientific Groups, (ii) urged States to use the utmost caution when considering proposals for large-scale ocean fertilization operations and (iii) took the view that, given the present state of knowledge regarding ocean fertilization, large-scale operations were currently not justified:
1.Requests the Executive Secretary to bring the issue of ocean fertilization to the attention of the Joint Liaison Group;
2.Urges Parties and other Governments to act in accordance with the decision of the London Convention;
3.Recognizes the current absence of reliable data covering all relevant aspects of ocean fertilization, without which there is an inadequate basis on which to assess their potential risks;
4.Bearing in mind the ongoing scientific and legal analysis occurring under the auspices of the London Convention (1972) and the 1996 London Protocol, requests Parties and urges other Governments, in accordance with the precautionary approach, to ensure that ocean fertilization activities do not take place until there is an adequate scientific basis on which to justify such activities, including assessing associated risks, and a global, transparent and effective control and regulatory mechanism is in place for these activities; with the exception of small scale scientific research studies within coastal waters. Such studies should only be authorized if justified by the need to gather specific scientific data, and should also be subject to a thorough prior assessment of the potential impacts of the research studies on the marine environment, and be strictly controlled, and not be used for generating and selling carbon offsets or any other commercial purposes;
5.Requests the Executive Secretary to disseminate the results of the ongoing scientific and legal analysis under the London Convention and London Protocol, and any other relevant scientific and technical information, to the fourteenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice.

D.Summary of the findings of the global Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change

The Conference of the Parties
Recognizing the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity of wetlands and, in particular, peatlands in addressing climate change and noting with appreciation the findings of the global Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change,
1.Invites the Global Environment Centre, subject to available resources, to translate into other United Nations languages, and further disseminate the global Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change;
2.Encourages Parties and other Governments to strengthen collaboration with the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and promote the participation of interested organizations in the implementation of the Guidelines for Global Action on Peatlands and other actions, such as the ones listed in the global Assessment of Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change, that could contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of peatlands;
3.Welcomes the initiative of the Scientific and Technical Review Panel of the Ramsar Convention to consider wetlands and climate change as an important emerging issue, invites the Secretariat and the Scientific and Technical Review Panel of the Ramsar Convention, subject to available resources, to further assess the contribution of biodiversity to climate-change mitigation and adaptation in peatlands and other wetlands and further invites the Secretariat and the Scientific and Technical Review Panel of the Ramsar Convention to make the reports on these assessments available, for example through its website;
4.Requests the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to explore ways to engage with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in planning and preparing its next assessment reports and invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to participate in the Convention on Biological Diversity and Ramsar processes of preparing future technical studies on climate change and biodiversity, particularly on wetlands;
5.Requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention, and subject to available resources, to conduct an analysis of the potential of incentive measures and funding mechanisms under climate-change adaptation and mitigation in supporting biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in wetlands as well as in supporting local livelihoods and contributing to poverty eradication and further requests the Executive Secretary to explore ways to engage with those national and international research centres (e.g. CGIAR centres) addressing climate-change adaptation and mitigation in relation to wetlands biodiversity;
6.Invites the Conference of the Parties to the Ramsar Convention, at its tenth meeting, to consider appropriate action in relation to wetlands, water, biodiversity and climate change in view of the importance of this subject for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and human welfare.

Annex I

ACTIVITIES THAT ARE ALREADY ONGOING OR HAVE BEEN CALLED FOR BY PARTIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RIO CONVENTIONS

1.Keep staff in other secretariats informed of discussions and decisions on relevant synergistic activities or programmes.
2.Continuing the sharing of experiences by secretariat staff in forums such as the Convention on Biological Diversity Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Technology Transfer and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Expert Group on Technology Transfer or its successor.
3.Continue the provision by the secretariats, of inputs and views on forest issues and adaptation as requested by the subsidiary bodies of the conventions.
4.Share experiences reported by Parties on communication, education and public-awareness events.

Annex II

INDICATIVE LIST OF ACTIVITIES BY PARTIES TO PROMOTE SYNERGIES AMONG THE RIO CONVENTIONS

Collaboration amongst national focal points

1.Schedule periodic meetings between focal points and focal point teams.
2.Establish a national coordinating committee for implementation of the three Rio conventions including, as appropriate, mainstreaming into sustainable development strategies, the Millennium Development Goals and other relevant sectors and strategies.
3.Engage, when relevant, focal points from other conventions when forming a position for negotiations.

Cooperation on national-level planning

4.Review existing national plans to identify gaps in synergies.
5.Identify relevant sector plans and policies that could benefit from cooperation on biodiversity, desertification and climate change.
6.Revise relevant plans and policies, as appropriate to enhance cooperation.
7.Build institutional and scientific capacity and raise awareness among different ministries, policy makers and non-governmental organizations dealing with the three Rio conventions and other relevant conventions.

Collaboration at the level of convention bodies and secretariats

8.Provide input, as appropriate, to the Joint Liaison Group.

Technology transfer

9.Provide inputs to the technology transfer databases of the three conventions.
10.Prepare, as appropriate, transparent impact assessments and risk analysis on the transferred technologies taking into consideration economic viability, social acceptability and environmental benefits.
11.Enhance cooperation among national focal points for the implementation of the programme of work on technology transfer under the Convention on Biological Diversity through, for example, the designation of appropriate institutions acting as a central consulting point for technology transfer.
12.Identify technologies of joint interest and relevance at a regional and global scale.

Forests and climate change

13.Integrate biodiversity, climate change and desertification/land degradation issues in forest sector planning.
14.Involve focal points from the United Nations Forum on Forests and relevant forest related and other conventions in discussions on relevant issues, such as, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, as well as through afforestation and reforestation, and, the in-depth review of implementation of the programme of work on forest biodiversity and other relevant issues.

Climate-change adaptation

15.Enhance the integration of biodiversity and desertification/land degradation issues within climate change adaptation planning.
16.Enhance consideration of the benefits for climate change adaptation of cross-sector planning in the context of the ecosystem approach.
17.Evaluate, as appropriate, the extent to which biodiversity and desertification/land degradation issues are integrated into existing climate change adaptation plans.
18.Subject to national capacity and the availability of funds, identify areas which are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, contain high levels of biodiversity or biodiversity at risk, and are exposed to desertification/land degradation.

Capacity-building

19.Clearly express capacity-building needs to the secretariats.

Research and monitoring/systematic observation

20.Conduct, as appropriate, national and local assessments of climate-change impacts on biodiversity and desertification/land degradation.
21.Identify, as appropriate, local and indigenous knowledge that can contribute to synergies.
22.Identify research and/or monitoring needs and establish mechanisms or processes by which such needs could be met.
23.Encourage additional research on the impacts of climate change on oceans and marine biodiversity.
24.Encourage additional research and monitoring on the impacts of increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events on biodiversity and associated resources.
25.Identify actions that contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of peatlands and other wetlands and enhance their positive contribution to climate change response activities.
26.Identify the impacts of climate change on ecosystem services.
27.Harmonize temporal and spatial scales in data collection and analysis considering climate change and biodiversity status and trends.

Information exchange and outreach

28.Share at regional and global levels, experiences and lessons learned on communicating synergies.
29.Develop a common pool of experts on the interrelated issues of climate change, biodiversity and combating desertification/land degradation to address the information gaps on the status, trends and threats to biodiversity, particularly within dry and sub-humid lands.

Harmonized reporting

30.National focal points share, to the extent possible, databases containing reporting data and information sources.
31.Where relevant, focal points work together on drafting the national reports for each convention.

Annex III

TERMS OF REFERENCE OF AN AD HOC TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUP (AHTEG) ON BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

1.The purpose of this Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Biodiversity and Climate Change is to provide biodiversity-relevant information to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
2.The AHTEG shall be guided by relevant outcomes from the Conference of the Parties and the subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC, and on other bodies as appropriate and shall draw on CBD Technical Series No. 10 and No. 25, the outcomes from the workshops convened by the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change under the Nairobi work programme as well as the documents compiled under this programme, and other relevant documents including the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
3.The AHTEG shall be established in accordance with the procedures outlined in the consolidated modus operandi of SBSTTA (decision VIII/10, annex III) and considering the results presented by the group of experts on biodiversity and adaptation to climate change regarding ecosystem vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and climate change response measures within the framework of the programmes of work of the Convention on Biological Diversity and shall have the following terms of reference: provide scientific and technical advice and assessment on the integration of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities through inter alia:
(a)Identifying relevant tools, methodologies and best practice examples for assessing the impacts on and vulnerabilities of biodiversity as a result of climate change;
(b)Highlighting case-studies and identifying methodologies for analysing the value of biodiversity in supporting adaptation in communities and sectors vulnerable to climate change;
(c)Identifying case-studies and general principles to guide local and regional activities aimed at reducing risks to biodiversity values associated with climate change;
(d)Identifying potential biodiversity-related impacts and benefits of adaptation activities, especially in the regions identified as being particularly vulnerable under the Nairobi work programme (developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States);
(e)Identifying ways and means for the integration of the ecosystem approach in impact and vulnerability assessment and climate change adaptation strategies;
(f)Identifying measures that enable ecosystem restoration from the adverse impacts of climate change which can be effectively considered in impact, vulnerability and climate change adaptation strategies;
(g)Analysing the social, cultural and economic benefits of using ecosystem services for climate change adaptation and of maintaining ecosystem services by minimizing adverse impacts of climate change on biodiversity.
(h)Proposing ways and means to improve the integration of biodiversity considerations and traditional and local knowledge related to biodiversity within impact and vulnerability assessments and climate change adaptation, with particular reference to communities and sectors vulnerable to climate change.
(i)Identifying opportunities to deliver multiple benefits for carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in a range of ecosystems including peatlands, tundra and grasslands;
(j)Identifying opportunities for, and possible negative impacts on, biodiversity and its conservation and sustainable use, as well as livelihoods of indigenous and local communities, that may arise from reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation;
(k)Identifying options to ensure that possible actions for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation do not run counter to the objectives of the CBD but rather support the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity;
(l)Identifying ways that components of biodiversity can reduce risk and damage associated with climate change impacts;
(m)Identifying means to incentivise the implementation of adaptation actions that promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
4.The work of the AHTEG should be initiated as soon as possible in order to provide a completed report for consideration by the SBSTTA prior to the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties; and provide information on these deliberations to the relevant UNFCCC processes.
5.The selection of the experts shall be in accordance with annex III of decision VIII/10 and shall include representatives of indigenous and local communities.
6.Parties are encouraged to take into consideration, the need for scientific and technical expertise in the AHTEG also from, inter alia, UNFCCC and other relevant intergovernmental organizations and processes when nominating their experts.
7.In preparing documentation for the AHTEG meetings, especially noting the need to ensure scientific credibility and timely information to the UNFCCC processes, inter alia, the following steps should be taken subject to the availability of financial resources:
(a)Parties, other Governments, relevant intergovernmental organization and processes, indigenous and local communities and other relevant stakeholders should be invited to submit their views, best practice examples and further relevant information on items included in the paragraph 1 above to the Executive Secretary; and
(b)An ad hoc Internet-based discussion group or an online conference should be convened by the Executive Secretary in multiple languages, so as to support the meeting of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group identifying major issues related to the items included in its terms of reference in paragraph 3 above.
IX/15IX/17

* Including increasing climate variability and increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.
* Including increasing climate variability and increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.
36 Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigendum), resolution 1, annex I.

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