The Conference of the Parties
Implementation of the programme of work
The International Pollinators Initiative
Animal genetic resources
Impacts of trade liberalization
Impacts of the application of genetic use restriction technologies on smallholder farmers, indigenous and local communities and Farmers' Rights
Recalling decision V/5 and, in particular, its paragraphs 23, 24 and 27,
Reaffirming decision V/5, paragraph 23,
Table 1: Steps for the further implementation of the programme of work by the Executive Secretary and partner organizations
Programme element and activity
Actors and partners
Comprehensive assessment of the status and trends of the agricultural biodiversity
SCBD, FAO, MA
Preliminary assessment Draft full assessment
State of the world's plant genetic resources II
Thematic supplements Country inputs Full draft Report
2003 2004 2006
State of the world's animal genetic resources
Country Reports Strategic priorities report
Status and trends of pollinator diversity
Knowledge, innovations practices of farmers, indigenous local communities
State of the world's traditional knowledge on biodiversity
CBD- Article 8 (j) process
Outline of report
Interactions between agriculture and biodiversity
Component of the Millennium Assessment
First report Workshop: habitat matrices
Draft indicators Field tested indicators
Agreed terminology and classification for production environments
Compilation of existing Classification for MA
Plant genetic resources, animal genetic resources, soil, pollinators
Information on cost effective practices and technologies
Study on trade liberalization marketing and trade policies
SCBD, FAO, WTO
Study on GURTs
Lessons learned from the case-studies
Partnerships and forums
Documentation of successful cases
SCBD, FAO, etc
Pilot projects for the application of lessons learned from programme element 2
Various, including Parties, civil-society organizations, funding agencies
Participation of farmers, indigenous and local communities in national strategies
In-country multi-stakeholder workshops
Policy change, benefit-sharing and incentive measures
Identification of lessons learned from programme element 2
Awareness amongst producer organizations and consumers
Dialogue workshops with producer and consumer organizations
Five regional workshops
Best practice guidelines
Analysis of case-studies on mainstreaming
Development of the clearing-house mechanism
Conservation of genetic resources
Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Reports to FAO CGRFA
2002 2004 2006
Table 2: Reporting schedule
Consideration of assessment results, studies and recommendations
Review of implementation by Parties
- Study on trade liberalization
- Study on GURTs
- Considers second national reports
- Analysis of lessons learned from case-studies
- Preliminary assessment of status and trends of agricultural biodiversity
- Recommendations from SBSTTA on capacity-building and policy
- Draft comprehensive assessment of status and trends of agricultural biodiversity
(Third national reports due)
- Analysis of gaps and opportunities in the implementation of the programme of work
- Considers third national reports
PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVE FOR THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF POLLINATORS
II. OBJECTIVES AND APPROACH
III. ELEMENTS OF THE PLAN
Element 1. Assessment
To provide a comprehensive analysis of status and trends of the world's pollinator diversity and of their underlying causes of its decline (including a focus on the goods and services provided by pollinator diversity), as well of local knowledge of its management. The result of the assessments will determine the further activities that are required.
A number of scientific studies and various separate records strongly suggest that the numbers of crop pollinators are declining in many parts of the world. The yields of some crops are diminishing as a result of insufficient pollinators and many specialists, agronomists and fruit growers are concerned about the sharp declines in the numbers of bees in recent years. However, the scarcity of sound data hampers the elaboration of a comprehensive assessment of the status and trends of pollinator diversity, which is needed in order to inform policy change.
Similarly, a realistic evaluation of the economic value of animal-effected pollination is essential for the efficient planning of the world's agriculture. Existing estimates are contentious. The description and evaluation, in economic terms, of pollinator contributions to agriculture and environmental diversity will improve informed decision making at farm, regional, national and international levels.
In addition to the "taxonomic impediment" (see element 3), there is also a global "taxonomic deficit", that is, the unacceptably high numbers of bee genera for which identification keys are not available.
1.1 Monitor the status and trends of pollinators, through:
1.2 Assess the economic value of pollinators, including evaluation, in economic terms, of different crop-pollinator-pollination systems for optimal use of pollinators in sustainable agricultural systems, through economic analysis of data from various crop-pollinator-pollination systems, including those provided through case-studies under element 2.
1.3 Assess the state of scientific and indigenous knowledge on pollinator conservation, in order to identify gaps in knowledge and opportunities for application of knowledge; including:
1.4 Promote the development of identification keys for bee genera.
Ways and means
Exchange and use of experiences, information and findings from the assessments shall be facilitated by Parties, Governments and networks with consultation between countries and institutions, including the use of existing networks. Capacity-building activities from programme element 3 will assist countries in contributing to the assessment process. Case-studies, carried out under programme element 2, will also assist the assessment process by highlighting and examining important issues in pollinator conservation and sustainable use and in some cases providing data.
The global monitoring programme of pollinators could be carried out in two stages. A first stage would include activities 1.1 (a), (b), and (c), and 1.4. A second stage would apply the findings of the first stage at a larger and representative number of field sites throughout the world in order to collect the data needed to detect changes in diversity and frequency of pollinators, especially of bee species. The project cannot be contemplated without the active participation of many nations, institutions and co-operators. Substantial additional financial resources would be required, especially for the second stage. Mechanisms will need to be put in place to ensure the continuity and sustainability of monitoring over the long term.
Timing of expected outputs
The first stage of the global programme for monitoring of pollinator diversity should be completed by 2005. The second stage would be conducted for an initial period of five years (2006 - 2010) and then, depending on the progress made, renewed for a further five years at a time thereafter. Important and significant trends are likely to emerge only after several years (5-10) of monitoring.
A preliminary report on the state of the world's pollinators would be prepared by 2004 based on existing data, and early results from elements 1 and 2. A first comprehensive report would be prepared by 2010, drawing upon, inter alia, the results of the monitoring programme, and the economic analyses.
Element 2. Adaptive management
To identify management practices, technologies and policies that promote the positive and mitigate the negative impacts of agriculture on pollinator diversity and activity, in order to enhance productivity and the capacity to sustain livelihoods, by expanding knowledge, understanding and awareness of the multiple goods and services provided by pollinators.
In order to secure sustained pollinator services in agricultural and other ecosystems, far more understanding is needed of the multiple goods and services provided by pollinator diversity and the factors that influence their decline. In particular, it is necessary to identify the various interactions between dimensions of agricultural biodiversity at different spatial scales that support effective pollinator functioning. In addition, it is necessary to identify adaptive management practices that minimise negative impacts by humans on pollinators, promote the conservation and diversity of native pollinators, and conserve and restore natural areas necessary to optimise pollinator services in agricultural and other ecosystems.
2.1. Carry out a series of case-studies, in a range of environments and production systems, and in each region:
This activity would address the multiple goods and services provided by pollinator diversity and the interaction between its various components, for example:
2.2. Identify and promote the dissemination of information on cost-effective practices and technologies, and related policy and incentive measures that enhance the positive and mitigate the negative impacts of agriculture on pollinator diversity, productivity and capacity to sustain livelihoods, through:
2.3. Promote methods of sustainable agriculture that employ management practices, technologies and policies that promote the positive and mitigate the negative impacts of agriculture on pollinator diversity. This could include, for example, the protection of natural habitats, within agricultural landscapes, as sources of wild pollinators for crop improvement; the development of guidelines for policy makers and farmers; and the development of model-testing protocols for the introduction of non-native pollinators and to assess impacts of agrochemicals and other technologies on pollinators and pollinator activities.
Ways and means
Case-studies will be carried out and provided by national institutions, civil-society organizations, and research institutes, with support from international organizations for catalysing preparation of studies, mobilizing funds, disseminating results, and facilitating feedback and lessons learned to case-study providers and policy makers. Inputs would be sought from all relevant stakeholders. A framework for the case-studies is provided by the indicative outline for case-studies on agricultural biological diversity http://www.biodiv.org/programmes/areas/agro/case-studies.asp.
A first set of case-studies is already under preparation. Further case-studies would be studies published, analysed and disseminated by 2005. The case-studies should be representative of regional issues and prioritize best practices and lessons learned that can be broadly applied.
Element 3. Capacity-building
To strengthen the capacities of farmers, indigenous and local communities, and their organizations and other stakeholders, to manage pollinator diversity so as to increase its benefits, and to promote awareness and responsible action.
The management of pollinator diversity involves many stakeholders and often implies transfers of costs and benefits between stakeholder groups. It is therefore essential that mechanisms be developed not only to consult stakeholder groups, but also to facilitate their genuine participation in decision-making and in the sharing of benefits. Farmer groups, and other producer organizations, can be instrumental in furthering the interests of farmers in optimizing sustainable, diversified, production systems and consequently in promoting responsible actions concerning the conservation and sustainable use of pollinator diversity.
One major area which needs addressing is the capacity of countries to address the taxonomic impediment, which derives from serious shortfalls in investment in training, research and collections management. It seriously limits our capability to assess and monitor pollinator decline globally, in order to conserve pollinator diversity and to manage it sustainably. The global taxonomic impediment is costly, especially when expressed in terms of those research initiatives in pollination and conservation ecology which are wholly dependent on access to sound bee taxonomy and are rendered wholly non-viable in its absence. There is also a global taxonomic deficit, that is, the unacceptably high numbers of bee genera for which identification keys are not available.
3.1. Promote awareness about the value of pollinator diversity and the multiple goods and services it provides for sustainable productivity, amongst producer organizations, agricultural cooperatives and enterprises, and consumers, with a view to promoting responsible practices.
3.2 Identify and promote possible improvements in the policy environment, including benefit-sharing arrangements and incentive measures, to support local-level management of pollinators and related dimensions of biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems. This could include consideration of how existing or new certification schemes might contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of pollinator diversity.
3.3. Promote enhanced capabilities to manage pollinator diversity at local level by promoting partnerships among and between farmers, researchers, extension workers and food processors, inter alia, through the establishment of local-level forums for farmers, and other stakeholders to evolve genuine partnerships, including training and education programmes.
3.4 Build taxonomic capacity to carry out inventories of the pollinator diversity and distribution in order to optimise their management, through, inter alia, the training of taxonomists and parataxonomists of bees and other pollinators.
3.5 Develop tools and mechanisms for the international and regional exchange of information for the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of pollinators. This may include:
This element is to be implemented primarily through initiatives within countries, including through extension services, local government, educational and civil-society organizations, including farmer/producer and consumer organizations, and mechanisms emphasizing farmer-farmer exchange. There are opportunities for cooperation with the food processing industry in terms of supplying pesticide-free or low-residue products from agricultural systems that maintain pollinator diversity. Pilot projects for this element might be generated under the Initiative. Funding is likely to be on a project or programme basis. Catalytic support may need to be provided through national, regional and global programmes, organizations, facilities and funding mechanisms, in particular to support capacity-building, exchange and feedback of policy and market information, and of lessons learned from this and programme element 2, between local organizations and policy makers, nationally, regionally and globally.
The taxonomic elements would also be promoted through the Global Taxonomy Initiative.
Timing of expected outputs
Ten on-the-ground cases of enhanced partnerships resulting in greater conservation of pollinator diversity at the local level, by 2006. Introduction of mechanisms promoting pollinator diversity by 2010.
Element 4. Mainstreaming
To support the development of national plans or strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of pollinator diversity and to promote their mainstreaming and integration in sectoral and cross-sectoral plans and programmes.
Many countries are now developing biodiversity strategies and action plans in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and many also have a number of other policies, strategies and plans related to agriculture, the environment and national development. Decision V/5 of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity seeks to promote the mainstreaming of agricultural biodiversity considerations into national strategies and action plans; to mainstream the action plans for components of agricultural biodiversity in sectoral development plans concerned with food, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and to promote synergy and avoid duplication between the plans for the various components. Pollinator conservation and sustainable use is an important aspect of agricultural biodiversity and should be integrated into this mainstreaming process. In addition, this requires reliable and accessible information, but many countries do not have well developed information, communication or early-warning systems or the capacity to respond to identified threats.
4.1. Integrate considerations of pollinator diversity, and related dimensions of agricultural biodiversity, including host-plant diversity, at species, ecosystem and landscape levels, consistent with the ecosystem approach, into biodiversity strategies and action plans, and into planning processes in the agricultural sector.
4.2. Support the development or adaptation of relevant systems of information, early warning and communication to enable effective assessment of the state of pollinator diversity and threats to it, in support of national strategies and action plans, and of appropriate response mechanisms.
4.3 Strengthen national institutions to support taxonomy of bees and other pollinators, through, inter alia:
4.4 Include considerations of pollinator diversity, and related dimensions of agricultural biodiversity, including host plant diversity, at species, ecosystem and landscape levels, consistent with the ecosystem approach, in formal educational programmes at all levels. Integrate pollination issues as a component of sustainable management into agricultural, biological and environmental science courses and curricula and in primary and secondary schools by using local examples and relevant examples from other regions. Promote applied research on pollination in agricultural ecosystems through training of postgraduates.
Activities would be implemented primarily at national level through enhanced communication, coordination mechanisms and planning processes that involve all stakeholder groups, facilitated by international organizations, and by funding mechanisms.
Additional resources may be needed for national capacity-building.
Progressively increased capacity at national level for taxonomy, information management, assessment and communication.
Consideration of pollinators and related dimensions of agricultural biodiversity incorporated into national biodiversity and/or agricultural sector plans in 50 countries by 2010.