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The Ecosystem Approach Advanced User Guide


1. Introduction

Explanation
Different sectors of society view ecosystems in terms of their own economic, cultural and societal needs. Indigenous peoples and other local communities living on the land are important stakeholders and their rights and interests should be recognized. Both cultural and biological diversity are central components of the ecosystem approach, and management should take this into account.  Societal choices should be expressed as clearly as possible. Ecosystems should be managed for their intrinsic values and for the tangible or intangible benefits for humans, in a fair and equitable way.

Guidelines for meeting this task
Involve all stakeholders (interested parties) (including indigenous and local communities) in:
clearly articulating, defining and agreeing upon the goals of management
defining problems
making choices (see Task 12).

There need to be clearly defined boundaries (in time and space, see Task 7) for the area being managed so that those involved are fully aware of the range/limitation of the management processes. 

Ensure that those stakeholders that cannot directly represent themselves (e.g. future generations, the natural world) are adequately represented by someone else. 

Ensure that all stakeholders have an equitable capacity to be effectively involved, including equitable access to information, ability to participate in the processes, etc.  

Ensure that the decision-making process compensates for any inequities of power in society, so that those who are normally marginalized (e.g. women, the poor, indigenous people) are not excluded or stifled in their participation. 

Make sure all actions are transparent to everyone concerned. This includes identifying who the decision-makers are for each decision, how the decisions will be taken (what process will be used), and what are the limits on the discretion of the decision-maker (e.g. what are the criteria for the decision in law, and where applicable what is the overall policy guidance within which the decision must fit).  

Ensure that the recognition of stakeholder interests occurs within the full range of decisions over time and space and across the different levels (eg local and national government). In doing so, however, ensure that “stakeholder fatigue” does not develop, by incorporating known stakeholder views into future decisions, and allowing efficient stakeholder input.  

Where possible, use existing societal mechanisms (eg existing local groups), or build new mechanisms that are compatible with existing or desired societal conditions. Ensure that decision-makers are accountable to the appropriate communities of interest. 

Develop within the project team the capacity to broker negotiations and trade-offs, and manage conflicts among relevant stakeholder groups in reaching decisions about management, use and conservation of biological resources.

There need to be mechanisms in place to ensure that, once an appropriate societal choice has been made, the decision can be implemented over the long term, (eg policy, legislative and control structures need to be in place).

Tools
Tools that can be used to ensure all members of society are involved in decisions associated with the management of land, water and living resources include:
Workshop based methods
Community based methods
Methods for stakeholder consultation
Local community approaches
Social analysis
Conflict management methods

Further explanation
The objectives for managing land, water, and living resources are a matter of societal choice, determined through negotiations and trade-offs among stakeholders who have different perceptions, interests, and intentions.  In this regard it should be noted that:

Human society is diverse in the kind and manner of relationships that different groups have with the natural world, each viewing the world around them in different ways and emphasizing their own economic, cultural, and societal interests and needs. All relevant sectors of society need to have their interests equitably treated, which may involve providing for different outcomes in separate locations or at different times. It is also necessary to ensure that the needs of future generations and the natural world are adequately represented. Given this diversity, good decision-making processes that provide for negotiations and trade-offs are necessary to establish broadly acceptable objectives for the management of particular areas and their living resources.

Good decision-making processes incorporate the following characteristics:
All interested parties (particularly including indigenous and local communities) should be involved in the process,
It needs to be clear how decisions are reached and who the decision-maker(s) is (are),
The decision-makers should be accountable to the appropriate communities of interest,
The criteria for decisions should be appropriate and transparent, and
Decisions should be based on, and contribute to, inter-sectoral communication and co-ordination.
Good decisions depend on those involved having access to accurate and timely information and the capacity to apply this knowledge.

Explanation
Biological diversity is critical both for its intrinsic value and because of the key role it plays in providing the ecosystem and other services upon which we all ultimately depend.  There has been a tendency in the past to manage components of biological diversity either as protected or non-protected.  There is a need for a shift to more flexible situations, where conservation and use are seen in context and the full range of measures are applied in a continuum from strictly protected to human-made ecosystems.

Guidelines for answering this question
Integrated natural resource management systems and practices need to be developed to ensure the appropriate balance between, and integration of, the conservation and use of biological diversity, taking into account long- and short-term, direct and indirect, benefits of protection and sustainable use as well as management scale.  Develop policy, legal, institutional and economic measures that enable the appropriate balance and integration of conservation and use of ecosystems components to be determined.  Promote participatory integrated planning, ensuring that the full range of possible values and use options are considered and evaluated.   Seek innovative mechanisms and develop suitable instruments for achieving balance appropriate to the particular problem and local circumstances.   Manage areas and landscapes in a way that optimizes delivery of ecosystem goods and services to meet human requirements, conservation management and environmental quality.   Determine and define sustainable use objectives that can be used to guide policy, management, and planning, with broad stakeholder participation. 
Identify solutions which relieve sectoral pressure on existing resources. 

Tools
Environmental assessment tools
Environmental accounting
Public participation


Further explanation
Biological diversity provides ecosystem goods and services on which humans ultimately depend. In this regard it should be noted that:
[item] The ecosystem approach is designed to support the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the equitable sharing of benefits derived from the use of biodiversity.
Sustainable use and management depends on also achieving conservation objectives.
Management for conservation and sustainable use are not inherently incompatible, and can potentially be integrated.
Integration can be achieved at various scales and in various ways including both spatial and temporal separation across the landscape as well as through integration within a site.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme