Ecosystem Approach Sourcebook - Case-Study Details

 
1. Project Details
Author or Responsible Organization R. D. Smith and E. Maltby. (2003). Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key Issues and Case Studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x +118 pp.
Project Title Community-Based Natural Resource Management:The Campfire Programme in Zimbabwe
Date of Publication
Project Status Ongoing
Project Start Date
Project End Date
Countries Zimbabwe
Regions Africa
Funding Source
 
2. Background to Project
Project Issue/Problem Statement The Communal Areas Management Programme for IndigenousResources (CAMPFIRE) is a Community-Based NaturalResource Management (CBNRM) initiative that aims to promote the sustainable use of natural resources, especially wildlife, for socio-economic development.
Project Description In the semi-arid and arid regions of Zimbabwe, home to most of the population, communities had no vested interest in conserving wildlife, as they had become increasingly alienated from its management and use. CAMPFIRE seeks to overcome these obstacles by demonstrating the livelihood and conservation benefits that result when the management and use of natural resources are decentralised. The focus has been wildlife management in communal areas, particularly those adjacent to national parks, where people and animals are in conflict over resources. Wildlife management and use has the potential to bring rapid economic returns in agriculturally marginal areas.
Highlighted Aspects of Ecosystem Approach · By recognizing that local populations need to experience real benefits if protected areas are to succeed in their conservation goals, this case study illustrates efforts to simultaneously achieve all three of the CBD objectives. However, the focus is on sustainable use to support rural social and economic welfare. · Design and expansion of CAMPFIRE has been in response to the expressed needs of the participating population.· The project has identified a number of questions relating to defining the lowest appropriate level of management: How should the unit of management be defined? Is it feasible to have different levels of devolution in one country? Participants realized that government will need to retain the right to intervene in situations where actions by some communities can negatively affect others, e.g. strategic resources and threatened species. The feasibility of devolving the management of wildlife from the district level to the ward and/or village levels is being investigated.· The institutional problems of two government agencies led to the neglect of key strategic and policy issues.· The only evaluation of goods and services related to wildlife use. Nonetheless, economic evaluation has allowed the long-term value of wildlife to communities to be contrasted with agriculture, cultural and political values, the programmes of donors and the demands of safari activities. Adaptive management is seen to be important but the necessary ecological, social and economic monitoring and indicators have yet to be systematically applied.
Conclusions Wildlife protection can best be ensured when producer communities are given an economic and management stake in the wildlife resource. Administrative and institutional structures are needed. Communities can benefit more from wildlife than from agriculture in arid and semi-arid lands. Collaboration with a diversity of institutions has been the key to success
 
3. Sectors and Biomes
Sectors
Biomes Dry and Sub-Humid Lands Biodiversity
 
4. Tools and Approaches
Tools and Approaches   Relevance
Score
  Further
Information
Public Participation 3-High
- Community based methods 3-High
Governance, Law and Policy 3-High
- Policy development, planning and reform 3-High
Management and Incentives 3-High
- Adaptive management 3-High
Protected Areas and Land Use Policy 3-High Sustainable wildlife management next to protected areas
 
5. Issues
Issues   Relevance
Score
Economics, Trade and Incentive Measures 3-High
Protected Areas / In-Situ Conservation 3-High
Public Participation 3-High
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity 3-High
 
6. Ecosystem Approach
Principles and Operational Guidance   Relevance
Score
  Reason
(Only if NOT relevant)
Principle 1: The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choices 3-High
Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level 3-High
Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context 3-High
Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales 3-High
Principle 8: Recognizing the varying temporal scales and lag-effects that characterize ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term 3-High
Principle 9: Management must recognize the change is inevitable 3-High
Principle 10: The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity 3-High
Principle 11: The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices 3-High
Principle 12: The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines 3-High
Operational Guidance B: Enhance benefit-sharing 3-High
Operational Guidance D: Carry out management actions at the scale appropriate for the issue being addressed, with decentralization to lowest level, as appropriate 3-High
Operational Guidance E: Ensure intersectoral cooperation 3-High
 
7. Lessons Learned and the Outcomes
Lessons Learned · Wildlife protection can best be ensured when producer communities are given an economic and management stake in the wildlife resource.· Administrative and institutional structures were needed.· Communities can benefit more from wildlife than from agriculture in arid and semi-arid lands.· Collaboration with a diversity of institutions has been key to success.
Outcomes
Other Information
 
8. References
References R. D. Smith and E. Maltby. (2003). Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key Issues and Case Studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x +118 pp.
 
9. Contact Details
Contact Person Ms Leah Mohammed
Job Title Intern
Organization CBD
Address Montreal World Trade Centre
393 Saint-Jaques, 8th floor
Postal Code H2Y 1N9
City Montreal
ZIP/State/Province Quebec
Country Canada
Telephone 514-288-2220
E-mail Address leah.mohammed@biodiv.org
 
 

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