Ecosystem Approach Sourcebook - Case-Study Details

 
1. Project Details
Author or Responsible Organization R. D. Smith and E. Maltby. (2003). Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key Issues and Case Studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x +118 pp.
Project Title Siberut Island National Park and Biosphere Reserve
Date of Publication
Project Status Ongoing
Project Start Date
Project End Date
Countries Indonesia
Regions
Funding Source
 
2. Background to Project
Project Issue/Problem Statement Sustainable use, conservation and cultural diversity are all threatened by outside economic pressures and newly devolved government.
Project Description Siberut island is a humid tropical island the western half of which is a National Park and a central portion of which is a Biosphere Reserve. Previous attempts to deliver sustainable development through an Integrated Conservation and Development Project (1992-1999) have largely failed, as they were largely top-down approaches that placed unrealistic demands on the limited local capacity. New activities identify communities as the main actors managing the National Park and Biosphere Reserve and seek to build on the respect for local land tenure and resource rights established by the ICDP. Activities promoted by UNESCO-MAB, the National Park and a local NGO in cooperation with the local government and Adat (customary law) councils are small scale and based in buffer zones. These activities have been welcomed by the communities involved and aim to: 1. Support sustainable development; 2. Increase the (locally defined) quality of life; 3. Preserve the values of local societies; and 4. Avoid increasing conflicts between conservation and development.
Highlighted Aspects of Ecosystem Approach · Conservation, equitable sharing of benefits and the sustainable use of biological diversity are all addressed. · The importance of preserving ecosystem functioning and inter-ecosystem linkages is recognized. · Intersectoral cooperation is recognized to be a major obstacle to delivering the EA across the whole island of Siberut as the management of various zones is the responsibility of different government sectors. However, intersectoral cooperation is not prioritized in current actions in which communities are identified as the main actors and beneficiaries. Private sector interests have not been directly considered yet. The lack of intersectoral cooperation is identified as a major obstacle to taking management decisions that consider the effect of actions on adjacent ecosystems. Extension of the Biosphere Reserve to cover the entire island and surrounding marine area is recommended as the best way of achieving integrated management. · The participatory approach is key to achieving sustainable use but the importance of local communities working with other agencies is also emphasized. This partnership gives local communities a wider perspective on the implications of their choices. · The activities have been developed with and promoted by local community members. Management is therefore decentralized. The current political changes in Indonesia influences decentralization and the expression of societal choice. The creation and zonation of the National Park partially reflects societal choice but for this to be fully realized the opinions of Mentawaians (90% of the population) should have priority. It should be noted that outside economic influences such as logging activities are increasingly influencing societal choice. · Balancing the need for long-term objectives and short-term economic gain is especially acute on Siberut. The devolution of administrative authority in the Siberut region has significantly increased demands for short-term revenue from logging.
Conclusions There is an urgent need to promote the EA and Biosphere Reserve concepts at all levels and among all stakeholders. The lack of an integrated approach to biodiversity management that covers the whole island is an obstacle to resolving the significant and acute tensions between conservation, sustainable use and development. Decentralization in Indonesia is posing obstacles to implementation of the EA.
 
3. Sectors and Biomes
Sectors Agriculture
Forestry
Others
Biomes Agricultural Biodiversity
Forest Biodiversity
 
4. Tools and Approaches
Tools and Approaches   Relevance
Score
  Further
Information
Public Participation 3-High
- Local community approaches 3-High
- Conflict management methods 3-High
Governance, Law and Policy 3-High
- Policy development, planning and reform 3-High
Management and Incentives 3-High
- Incentives 3-High
Cross-sectoral Research and Working 3-High
 
5. Issues
Issues   Relevance
Score
Invasive Alien Species 3-High
Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices - Article 8(j) 3-High
 
6. Ecosystem Approach
Principles and Operational Guidance   Relevance
Score
  Reason
(Only if NOT relevant)
Principle 1: The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choices 3-High
Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level 3-High
Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems 3-High
Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context 3-High
Principle 5: Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach 3-High
Principle 6: Ecosystem must be managed within the limits of their functioning 3-High
Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales 3-High
Principle 8: Recognizing the varying temporal scales and lag-effects that characterize ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term 3-High
Principle 9: Management must recognize the change is inevitable 3-High
Principle 10: The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity 3-High
Principle 11: The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices 3-High
Principle 12: The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines 3-High
Operational Guidance A: Focus on the relationships and processes within ecosystem 3-High
Operational Guidance B: Enhance benefit-sharing 3-High
Operational Guidance C: Use adaptive management practices 3-High
Operational Guidance D: Carry out management actions at the scale appropriate for the issue being addressed, with decentralization to lowest level, as appropriate 3-High
Operational Guidance E: Ensure intersectoral cooperation 3-High
 
7. Lessons Learned and the Outcomes
Lessons Learned · There is an urgent need to promote the EA and Biosphere Reserve concepts at all levels and among all stakeholders. · The lack of an integrated approach to biodiversity management that covers the whole island is an obstacle to resolving the significant and acute tensions between conservation, sustainable use and development. · Decentralizations in Indonesia is posing obstacles to implementation of the EA.
Outcomes
Other Information
 
8. References
References R. D. Smith and E. Maltby. (2003). Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key Issues and Case Studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x +118 pp.
 
9. Contact Details
Contact Person Ms Leah Mohammed
Job Title Intern
Organization CBD
Address Montreal World Trade Centre
393 Saint-Jaques, 8th floor
Postal Code H2Y 1N9
City Montreal
ZIP/State/Province Quebec
Country Canada
Telephone 514-288-2220
E-mail Address leah.mohammed@biodiv.org
 
 

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