Ecosystem Approach Sourcebook - Case-Study Details

 
1. Project Details
Author or Responsible Organization R D Smith and E Maltby. (2003) 'Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key issues and case studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK x + 118pp.
Project Title The Marine Reserve of Galapagos,Ecuador
Date of Publication
Project Status Ongoing
Project Start Date
Project End Date
Countries Ecuador
Regions Latin America and the Caribbean
Funding Source
 
2. Background to Project
Project Issue/Problem Statement During the 1990s the Marine Reserve of Galapagos was the site of strong disagreements between the interests of the area ’s different users. The major conflict stemmed from the exploitation of marine resources (e.g. sea cucumbers), which resulted in confrontations between the local artisanal fishermen and the rest of the users of the reserve. A new participatory process aimed to protect and conserve coastal- marine ecosystems and biodiversity of the Galapagos Archi- pelago for the benefit of humankind, science and education.
Project Description A number of issues contributed to the recent conflict in the Galapagos: the marine reserve unit was not recognised by the Ecuadorian National Protected Areas System; legal aspects of the reserve were weak in terms of conservation; the institutional capacity for the control of the reserve was insufficient; and the approved management plan for the reserve was rigid and non-adaptive and never implemented or even known of by local fishermen. To deal with this complex situation, a participatory process, involving all stakeholders, was designed and orientated towards the conservation of the marine area of the reserve. A Core Group was established by local stakeholders including the local fishing community, the National Army, conservation and tourism sectors and the Galapagos National Park representatives. The main task of the Core Group was to elaborate a new management plan supported by the Special Regime Law for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Galapagos ’ Province. This law established the reserve as part of the National Patrimony of Protected Areas and the Galapagos National Parks Directorate as the administrative body of the Marine Reserve. In addition, the area of the Marine Reserve was extended from 15 to 40 nautical miles (the total area is 133,000 square km)and industrial fishing activities were forbidden within the Marine Reserve limits. In 1999,the new management plan for the reserve, shaped by the Core Group, was approved.
Highlighted Aspects of Ecosystem Approach • Conservation, equitable sharing of benefits and sustainable use of resources were simultaneously addressed. • Research on ecosystem functioning was carried out, including a study of human-environment relationships in the archipelago. • The goods and services identified were scientific research, fishing and tourism activities. Beneficiaries of these goods and services were identified as all those persons directly or indirectly involved in tourism, fishery and research-conservation activities carried out in the reserve. • Planning and management employs an adaptive strategy that is supported by the Special Regime Law. • Through the learning-by-doing process an appropriate scale of management was employed according to the nature of the problem and the participants. • The case study identifies and illustrates the linkages between the different sectoral groups as well as the need for and constraints on such linkages. • Principle 9 is indirectly referred to in the Special Regime Law, which recognises that changes occur in systems and that these should be considered in decision-making.
Conclusions Problems associated with socio-economic pressures, conservation measures and unsustainable use of natural resources must be resolved through a management process that involves all local stakeholders. • The economic appraisal of conservation and the sustainable use of resources generates interest from the political and economic sectors. • Good communication and high-level political support is needed for the development of the overall management system.
 
3. Sectors and Biomes
Sectors Fisheries
Biomes Marine and Coastal Biodiversity
 
4. Tools and Approaches
Tools and Approaches   Relevance
Score
  Further
Information
Public Participation 3-High
- Methods for stakeholder consultation 3-High
- Conflict management methods 3-High
Education and Awareness 3-High
- Communication 3-High
Governance, Law and Policy 3-High
- Policy development, planning and reform 3-High
Management and Incentives 3-High
- Conservation enterprises/Diversification 3-High
Protected Areas and Land Use Policy 3-High
- Protected/managed areas 3-High
Cross-sectoral Research and Working 3-High
 
5. Issues
Issues   Relevance
Score
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity 3-High
Tourism and Biodiversity 3-High
Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices - Article 8(j) 3-High
 
6. Ecosystem Approach
Principles and Operational Guidance   Relevance
Score
  Reason
(Only if NOT relevant)
Principle 1: The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choices 3-High
Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level 3-High
Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems 3-High
Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context 3-High
Principle 5: Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach 3-High
Principle 6: Ecosystem must be managed within the limits of their functioning 3-High
Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales 3-High
Principle 8: Recognizing the varying temporal scales and lag-effects that characterize ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term 3-High
Principle 9: Management must recognize the change is inevitable 2-Medium
Principle 10: The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity 3-High
Principle 11: The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices 3-High
Principle 12: The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines 3-High
Operational Guidance A: Focus on the relationships and processes within ecosystem 2-Medium
Operational Guidance B: Enhance benefit-sharing 2-Medium
Operational Guidance C: Use adaptive management practices 2-Medium
Operational Guidance D: Carry out management actions at the scale appropriate for the issue being addressed, with decentralization to lowest level, as appropriate 2-Medium
Operational Guidance E: Ensure intersectoral cooperation 2-Medium
 
7. Lessons Learned and the Outcomes
Lessons Learned Problems associated with socio-economic pressures, conservation measures and unsustainable use of natural resources must be resolved through a management process that involves all local stakeholders. • The economic appraisal of conservation and the sustainable use of resources generates interest from the political and economic sectors. • Good communication and high-level political support is needed for the development of the overall management system.
Outcomes
Other Information
 
8. References
References Smith, R.D. & Maltby, E. (2003) Using the Ecosystem Approach to implement the Convention on Biodiversity: key issues and case studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridg, UK. x + 118pp.
 
9. Contact Details
Contact Person Ms. Diana Mortimer
Job Title Ecosystem Approach Officer
Organization Joint Nature Conservation Committee
Address Monkstone House, City Road,
Postal Code PE13 4LA
City Peterborough
ZIP/State/Province Cambs
Telephone +44 1733 866857
Fax +44 1733 555948
E-mail Address diana.mortimer@jncc.gov.uk
 
 

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