Transportation through land, air and sea result in emissions of carbon dioxide as well as issues such as water, waste, noise. Shipping moves approximatly 80% of the worlds commodites.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is a Fortune 500 multinational corporation headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio. Four billion times a day, P&G brands touch the lives of people around the world. P&G markets approximately 300 brands of consumer products in roughly 180 countries. It is a global company that employs approximately 135,000 people in 80 countries with more than 2,000 in Canada. P&G is a leading consumer packaged goods company with roughly $80 billion in annual global sales of products ranging from beauty and grooming, health and well being to household care under brand names such as Gillette®, Crest® and Dawn®. P&G is credited with many business innovations including brand management and the soap opera.
Alcoa is a world leader in the production and management of primary aluminum, fabricated aluminum and alumina combined, through its active and growing participation in all major aspects of the industry. The Company employs 63,000 people in 31 countries. Alcoa Canada employs 4,235 employees (3,603 in Quebec) and runs four plants with an annual production capacity of over one million metric tons of ingots, castings, billets and aluminum rods: Baie-Comeau, Bécancour (held at 25% by Rio-Tinto Alcan) and Deschambault smelters, as well as the Bécancour Rod Plant. The company also runs 13 transformation facilities in Canada and owns a monitory share of a hydropower facility in Canada.
Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) is one of five product groups operated by Rio Tinto, a leading international mining group. It is a global supplier of quality bauxite, alumina and aluminum and operates 42 sites over the world (bauxite mines, smelter-grade alumina refineries, specialty alumina plants, smelters, power facilities), employing 24,000 people in 27 countries. RTA owns, operates or has interests in 6 bauxite mines and deposits in 4 countries, 10 alumina refineries in 5 countries, including 1 in Canada, 23 smelters in 10 countries, including 7 in Canada and 12 power stations in 4 countries. RTA operates 19 sites in Canada (including 7 hydro power plants and 4 supporting facilities) and employs 8,300 people in Canada.
Vale Inco, one of the largest mining companies in the world, is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Brazilian mining company Vale. It is Vale’s nickel division, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario. It produces nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and silver. Vale Inco operates in 40 countries and employs over 11,000 people worldwide (close to 7,000 employees in Canada). Sales in 2008 reached almost $8 billion US. In Canada, Vale Inco operates two wholly integrated mining milling smelting and refining complexes, an electrocobalt refinery and precious metals processing facility and a mine and mill concentrator facility. Vale Inco has recently begun construction on an additional nickel processing facility and operate two research and technology facilities where 90% of worldwide research is carried out.
Xstrata plc is a global diversified mining company, with operations and projects in 19 countries. Xstrata’s activities are organised into five global commodity businesses and a technology business, each of which operates with a high level of autonomy. Xstrata Nickel, Xstrata Copper and Xstrata Zinc have signifi cant interests in Canada, including exploration, development, mining, mineral processing, smelting and recycling operations and projects. In Canada Xstrata operates 8 mines, 7 metallurgical sites (including smelters and refineries) and manages 9 closed sites.
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