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COP Decisions

 Event  Decision Reference to Health
COP 11 Dec/XI/6 XI/6 Cooperation with international organizations, other conventions and initiatives

28. Notes that the indicative list of indicators, as contained in decision XI/-- of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, contains a number of indicators that may be relevant to the links between biodiversity and health, including trends in benefits that humans derive from selected ecosystem services, trends in health and well-being of communities that depend directly on local ecosystem goods and services, and trends in the nutritional contribution of biodiversity and food composition, requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with relevant organizations and based on the views of Parties, to develop these indicators further, in line with decision XI/-- of the Conference of the Parties, and encourages Parties, other Governments and relevant stakeholders, to make use of them;

29. Welcomes the strengthening of collaboration between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the World Health Organization, and with other relevant organizations and initiatives, and requests the Executive Secretary to establish a joint work programme with the World Health Organization, and, as appropriate, with other relevant organizations and initiatives, to support the contribution that the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 can make to achieving human health objectives;
COP 10  Dec/X/1  
 Annex I

 NAGOYA PROTOCOL ON ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES AND THE FAIR AND EQUITABLE SHARING OF  
 BENEFITS ARISING FROM THEIR UTILIZATION TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

 “The Parties to this Protocol,
 Recognizing the importance of genetic resources to food security, public health, biodiversity conservation,  
 and the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change” and “Mindful of the International Health Regulations
 (2005) of the World Health Organization and the importance of ensuring access to human pathogens for
 public health preparedness and response purposes”
 
 ARTICLE 8
 “SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS […]
 (b) Pay due regard to cases of present or imminent emergencies that threaten or damage human, animal 
 or plant health, as determined nationally or internationally. Parties may take into consideration the need for
 expeditious access to genetic resources and expeditious fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out
 of the use of such genetic resources, including access to affordable treatments by those in need, especially
 in developing countries;
 (c) Consider the importance of genetic resources for food and agriculture and their special role for food 
 security”
 
 ARTICLE 36
 “2. Non-monetary benefits may include, but not be limited to: […]
 (m) Research directed towards priority needs, such as health and food security, taking into account 
 domestic uses of genetic resources in the Party providing genetic resources”
 
COP 10  Dec/X/2  I. THE RATIONALE FOR THE PLAN
 “3. Biological diversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services essential
 for human well-being. It provides for food security, human health, the provision of clean air and water; it 
 contributes to local livelihoods, and economic development, and is essential for the achievement of the
 Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction […]
 9. On the other hand, scenario analysis reveals a wide range of options for addressing the crisis. 
 Determined action to value and protect biodiversity will benefit people in many ways, including through
 better health, greater food security and less poverty. It will also help to slow climate change by enabling
 ecosystems to store and absorb more carbon; and it will help people adapt to climate change by adding 
 resilience to ecosystems and making them less vulnerable. Better protection of biodiversity is therefore a
 prudent and cost-effective investment in risk reduction for the global community”
 
 II. VISION
 “11. The vision of this Strategic Plan is a world of ‘Living in harmony with nature’ where ‘By 2050, 
 biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a
 healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people’”
 
 “Strategic goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
 Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and  
 contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the 
 needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable”
 
COP 10  Dec/X/17  X/17. Consolidated update of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation 2011-2020
 “The Conference of the Parties, […]
 
 Recalling that the national implementation of the Strategy contributes to the Millennium Development 
 Goals, especially on poverty reduction (goal 1), the health crisis (goal 6) and environmental sustainability
 (goal 7)”
 
 D. RATIONALE FOR THE STRATEGY
 “9. Of urgent concern is the fact that many plant species, communities, and their ecological interactions,
 including the many relationships between plant species and human communities and cultures, are in
 danger of extinction, threatened by such human-induced factors as, inter alia, climate change, habitat loss  
 and transformation, over-exploitation, alien invasive species, pollution, clearing for agriculture and other 
 development,. If this loss is not stemmed, countless opportunities to develop new solutions to pressing
 economic, social, health and industrial problems will also be lost. Furthermore, plant diversity is of special
 concern to indigenous and local communities, and these communities have a vital role to play in
 addressing the loss of plant diversity”
 
 F. THE TARGETS – 2011-2020
 “Objective III. Plant diversity is used in a sustainable and equitable manner
 Target 13: Indigenous and local knowledge innovations and practices associated with plant resources
 maintained or increased, as appropriate, to support customary use, sustainable livelihoods, local food
 security and health care”
 
COP 10  Dec/X/20  X/20. Cooperation with other conventions and international organizations and initiatives
 “The Conference of the Parties […]
 
 17. Requests the Executive Secretary:
 (a) Recalling paragraph 9 of decision IX/27, to further strengthen collaboration with the World Health
 Organization as well as other relevant organizations and initiatives with a view to promoting the
 consideration of biodiversity issues in health programmes and plans as appropriate, including the
 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, and as a contribution to the achievement of the relevant
 Millennium Development Goals;
 (b) To investigate how implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including on targets
 and issues relating to access and benefit-sharing, can best support efforts to address global health
 issues, and thereby facilitate consideration of biodiversity within national health strategies in line with the
 World Health Declaration,5 and in support of the Millennium Development Goals and report thereon to the 
 World Health Assembly at its sixty-fifth session, in 2012;
 (c) Explore avenues for bridging the gaps between work being carried out to address the impacts of climate
 change on public health and work to address the impacts of climate change on biodiversity;
 (d) Continue collaborating with the Co-Operation on Health and Biodiversity (COHAB) Initiative and other
 relevant organizations to support the mainstreaming of biodiversity issues into health policy and action
 plans”
 
COP 10  Dec/X/22  D. Indicative list of activities
 “5. Parties may wish to consider the activities below, based on concrete examples researched with the
 Global Partnership on Cities and Biodiversity, in order to enable and support their sub-national
 governments and local authorities to contribute to the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
 These activities are considered to be interrelated and complementary: […]
 (h) Promote and support the representation of sub-national governments, cities and other local authorities
 in delegations for official events and activities under the Convention on Biological Diversity, such as
 meetings of the Conference of the Parties, the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological
 Advice, the Working Group on Review of Implementation, and ad hoc technical expert groups. Local 
 authorities can contribute specifically to thematic programmes of work and cross-cutting issues such as
 inland waters, protected areas, invasive alien species, climate change, development and poverty
 alleviation, tourism, health and biodiversity, agriculture, food and nutrition, among others”
 
COP 10  Dec/X/28  “The Conference of the Parties,
 
 Implementation of the programme of work
 6. Concludes that the programme of work on the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems remains a 
 good framework for implementation of relevant activities but that implementation needs to be significantly
 enhanced through better coherence between land-use and water-use policies and activities, better
 incorporation of water issues into other programmes of work of the Convention, including with regards to
 water use and the management of riparian zones and habitats, and improved recognition of the relevance
 of inland water ecosystem services to human health, poverty reduction, sustainable development and
 climate change”
 
COP 10  Dec/X/32  “The Conference of the Parties,
 
 2. Invites Parties and other Governments to: […]
 (g) Where appropriate, review, revise and update national biodiversity strategies and action plans, taking 
 into account the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, to further coordinate at the national level and 
 engage different sectors (including, inter alia, energy, the financial sector, forestry, wildlife management,
 fisheries, water supply, agriculture, disaster prevention, health, and climate change) to fully account for the 
 value of biodiversity and ecosystem services in decision-making”
 
 COP 9  Dec/IX/1  “The Conference of the Parties, […]
 
 2. Notes the significant contribution of agriculture to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
 through demonstrated best practices in the management of agricultural biodiversity, innovation and
 progress in supporting sustainable agriculture, reducing the negative impacts of agriculture and in
 particular its positive contribution to reducing hunger and poverty, improved food security and improved 
 human well being […]
 
 COP 9  Dec/IX/4  B. Follow-up to the in-depth review of the programme of work
 “The Conference of the Parties, […]
 10. Notes with concern that the impacts of invasive alien species continue to grow with increasing global 
 trade, transport and travel, including tourism, and may be exacerbated as result of climate change and
 land-use change, resulting in significant losses of biodiversity, and negatively impacting socio-economic
 conditions, human health and the sustainability of indigenous and local communities, and emphasizes the
 need for additional efforts and resources to address these growing threats”
 
 “Exchange of Information on best practices and lessons learned and development of tools
 15. Further to paragraph 11 of decision VIII/27, invites Parties, other Governments and relevant
 organizations to submit case-studies, lessons learned and best practices for the implementation of the
 Guiding Principles, 3/ and other measures to address the threats from invasive alien species, and, where
 relevant, invasive alien genotypes. Submissions from Parties should focus, inter alia, on examples of the 
 successful use of:
 (a) Risk assessment procedures, to evaluate inter alia the socio-economic, health and environmental  
 impacts of invasive alien species, including practical implementation of the precautionary approach, in
 accordance with principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; […]
 (c) Methods for assessing the socio-economic, health and environmental impacts of invasive species and
 for assessing the costs of invasive species and the benefits of controlling them”
 
 “Management, pathways and assessment
 24. Further to paragraph 4 of decision VI/23 6/ invites Parties, other Governments, and relevant research
 organizations to study the impact of other drivers, in particular, land use change, climate change adaptation
 and mitigation activities, on the introduction, establishment and spread of invasive alien species, and their
 related socio-economic, health and environmental impacts”
 
 COP 9  Dec/IX/13  D. Plan of action for the retention of traditional knowledge: measures and mechanisms to address the
 underlying causes for the decline of traditional knowledge

 “The Conference of the Parties […]
 4. Invites Parties and Governments, with the input of indigenous and local communities, to report on
 positive measures for the retention of traditional knowledge in areas relevant for the conservation and the
 sustainable use of biological diversity, such as those contained in but not limited to the annex hereto:
 Annex
 (a)    Strengthening traditional health-care systems based on biodiversity […]
 
 COP 9  Dec/IX/27  IX/27. Cooperation among multilateral environmental agreements and other organizations
 “The Conference of the Parties […]
 9. Requests the Executive Secretary to continue collaborating with the World Health Organization and the
 Cooperation on Health and Biodiversity (COHAB) Initiative, as well as relevant organizations to support the
 work of Parties on biodiversity and health related issues above, including by developing compendiums of
 tools developed under the Convention that could be used for capacity-building and awareness-raising in 
 the health sector”
 
 COP 9  Dec/IX/31  PROGRAMME PRIORITY AREA 6: SAFEGUARD BIODIVERSITY […]
 “Outcome 6.2 Operational national biosafety frameworks contribute to the safe use of biotechnology and to  
 the protection of the environment and human health”
 
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/1  B. Overall purpose and scope of the programme of work […]
 “20. In addition to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 7, on environmental sustainability, this
 programme of work will contribute to the achievement of other Millennium Development Goals relating to
 poverty eradication and health. While the reference to poverty reduction and health is not explicitly stated
 throughout the programme of work, it is understood that the conservation and sustainable use of island
 biodiversity will contribute significantly to food security, sustainable livelihoods, health improvements and
 human well-being”
 
 “Timeframe & Global Targets  Island-specific Priority Actions for the Parties
 Goal 8: Maintain capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods
 Target 8.2: Biological resources that
 support sustainable livelihoods, local
 food security and health care,
 especially of poor people living on
 islands, maintained
 8.2.1. Develop policies, programmes and actions to ensure the
 capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and
 biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food
 security and health care, especially of poor people
 Rationale: Island communities are largely depedent on local  
 biodiversity for food and livelihoods
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/15
 “Goals and Targets  Relevant Indicators
Target 8.2. Biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people maintained. - Health and well-being of communities who depend directly on local ecosystem goods and services
- Biodiversity used in food and medicine”
 
 “Goal 8. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods
 Provisional
 goals and 
 targets as per  
 the framework
 Marine and
 coastal
 biodiversity
 Inland waters
 biodiversity
 Forest
 biodiversity
 Mountain
 biodiversity
 Dry and sub-
 humid lands
 biodiversity
 Island
 biodiversity
 Target 8.2:
 Biological
 resources that
 support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food  
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people,
 maintained
 Marine and
 coastal
 biological
 resources that
 support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people,
 maintained
 and, where
 depleted,
 restored
 Inland water
 biological
 resources
 that support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people,
 maintained
 and, where
 depleted,
 restored
 Forest
 biological
 resources
 that support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people
 dependent
 upon forests,
 maintained
 Mountain
 biological
 resources
 that support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people
 living in
 mountains,
 maintained
 Biological
 resources
 that support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people
 living in dry
 and sub
 humid lands,
 maintained
 Biological
 resources that
 support
 sustainable
 livelihoods,
 local food
 security and
 health care,
 especially of
 poor people
 living on
 islands,
 maintained”
 
 Headline Indicator: “Health and well-being of communities who depend directly on local ecosystem goods
 and services; biodiversity for food and medicine (indicator under development)”
 
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/22  VIII/22. Marine and coastal biological diversity: enhancing the implementation of integrated marine and  
 coastal area management

 “The Conference of the Parties, […]
 4. Invites Parties and other Governments, with the help of coastal-management practitioners and relevant
 organizations, and within their respective capacities to […]
 (e) Ensure that information about the social, economic, health, environmental, and cultural benefits of
 integrated marine and coastal area management are widely disseminated among government officials,
 policy makers, users of coastal resources and the general public”
 
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/23  VIII/23. Agricultural biodiversity
 
 Annex
 “PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR A CROSS-CUTTING INITIATIVE ON BIODIVERSITY FOR FOOD AND  
 NUTRITION

 
 A. Rationale
 1. Biodiversity is essential for food security and nutrition, and offers key options for sustainable livelihoods.
 Environmental integrity is critical for maintaining and building positive options for human well-being.
 Existing knowledge warrants immediate action to promote the sustainable use of biodiversity in food
 security and nutrition programmes, as a contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development
 Goals (MDGs). Such action would counteract the simplification of diets, agricultural systems and
 ecosystems, and the erosion of food cultures. Considering the difficulty in precisely identifying optimal
 diets, a diversity of foods from plants and animals remains the preferred choice for human health.
 Traditional food systems provide positive synergies between human and ecosystem health, and culture
 offers an essential context for mediating positive dietary choices;
 2. An interdisciplinary initiative on biodiversity for food and nutrition, based on the ecosystem approach that
 makes the most of locally-available biodiversity and initiative to address nutrition problems will assist
 countries and stakeholders in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Without urgent action that
 directly engages the environmental, agricultural, nutrition and health communities, biodiversity and the
 positive options offered by domesticated and wild biodiversity for addressing food security, nutrient
 deficiencies, and the emerging burden of non-communicable disease, will be lost
  
 Element 1. Developing and documenting knowledge
 
 Operational objective 1
 To substantiate the links between biodiversity, food and nutrition, in particular clarifying the relationship
 between biodiversity, dietary diversity and food preferences, and the relevant links between human health
 and ecosystem health.
 
 Rationale
 Current evidence on the links between biodiversity, food and nutrition is sufficient to warrant immediate
 action, but more work is needed. Developing and documenting knowledge of these links will provide a
 sound scientific basis for the initiative, allowing for the better design of activities, and the development of
 comprehensive public awareness-raising initiatives on the importance of biodiversity to human diets and
 health, and the link between human health and ecosystem health
 
 Element 2. Integration of biodiversity, food and nutrition issues into research and policy instruments
 
 Operational objective 2
 To mainstream the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity into agendas, programmes and
 policies related to nutrition, health, agriculture and hunger and poverty reduction.
 
 Rationale
 Existing research and policy instruments often overlook the importance of biodiversity and associated  
 knowledge in addressing local problems of hunger and malnutrition. In nutrition studies, the most
 commonly used research instruments aggregate food data into broad categories, obscuring the
 contribution of individual species or cultivars to human nutrition and health. Under prevailing regulatory  
 frameworks, food quality standards that are not adapted to local foods may also inadvertently constrain food
 producers, limiting their ability to provide an array of species and varieties to markets. Policies,
 programmes and projects aimed at addressing poverty reduction and food security sometimes emphasize
 the provision of staple food sources and dietary supplements while overlooking the value of locally
 available diverse food sources. In these cases, the value of biodiversity for food and nutrition, especially to
 poor and disadvantaged groups, is not fully realized. A proactive focus on biodiversity will be needed in
 order to encourage practitioners and researchers to modify current approaches, and to shift research and
 policy emphasis towards examining issues of food quality, and not simply food quantity.
 
 Rationale
 Diversity is being replaced by uniformity in the agricultural market place, and in human diets more
 generally. Yet a diverse resource base remains critical to human survival, well-being, the elimination of
 hunger and providing the basis for adaptation to changing conditions (including environmental change).
 Promoting the broader use of biodiversity promises to contribute to improved human health and nutrition,
 while also providing opportunities for livelihood diversification and income generation. Indigenous and local
 communities, and the preservation of their local socio-cultural traditions and knowledge, play a critical role,
 as do women, for the maintenance of diverse food systems. These combined outcomes can serve to r
 reduce poverty, providing important contributions to maintain and enhance biodiversity conservation efforts
 at multiple scales.
 
 Element 4 – Public awareness
 
 Operational objective 4
 To raise awareness of the links between biodiversity, food and nutrition, and the importance of biodiversity
 conservation to meeting health and development objectives, including the elimination of hunger.
 
 Rationale
 Biodiversity programmes and policies can be made more relevant to policymakers and stakeholders, and
 more effective on the ground, by making clear the crucial links between biodiversity and human well-being.
 When rural people perceive that biodiversity has greater value through positive impacts on both income and
 health, they are more likely to maintain and protect it. In addition, issues of food production as they relate to
 nutrition and health can serve to mobilize both urban and rural consumers who may not otherwise be
 motivated by environmental or ethical arguments to support agricultural sustainability. Food security issues
 can then serve as a way to re-establish links between local production and global consumption, and
 between the rich and poor.
 
 Activities
 4.1 Development of a communication strategy, and associated publications and other materials to address
 the general public, decision makers, local communities, and the nutrition, agriculture, health and
 environment communities
 4.2 Convening of regional and national workshops to raise awareness of the links between biodiversity,
 food and nutrition, and of activities supporting these links”
 
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/25  “Main Valuation Techniques (Source: Adapted from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)
 Revealed  
 Preference
 Method
 Description  Applications  Data
 Requirements
 Potential
 Challenges/Limitations
 Cost of illness,
 human capital
 Trace impact of
 change in
 ecosystem
 services on  
 morbidity and
 mortality
 Any impact that
 affects health (e.g.
 air or water  
 pollution)
 Change in service;
 impact on health
 (dose-response
 functions); cost of
 illness or value of
 life
 Lacking dose-response
 functions linking
 environmental conditions to
 health; value of life cannot
 be estimated”
 
 
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/28  “A. Stages in the process
 5. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a
 proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-
 health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. The effective participation of relevant stakeholders, including
 indigenous and local communities, is a precondition for a successful EIA. Although legislation and practice
 vary around the world, the fundamental components of an EIA would necessarily involve the following
 stages […]”
 
 COP 8  Dec/IIX/30  “The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, […]
 Recalling decision VII/15, paragraph 15, […]
 3. Encourages Parties and other Governments, when addressing research needs and activities on the
 impacts of climate change on biodiversity, to involve indigenous and local communities and other relevant
 stakeholders, particularly on issues related to ecosystem health, human health, traditional knowledge, and
 livelihoods”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/4  “The Conference of the Parties […]
 25. Emphasizes the critical role of inland water biodiversity for sustainable livelihoods and, accordingly,
 requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
 Nations and other relevant organizations, to prepare a study on the linkages between conservation and
 sustainable use of inland water biodiversity and poverty alleviation/ sustainable livelihoods, including
 human health considerations, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its eighth meeting. The
 study should contain proposals on ways and means to ensure that implementation of the programme of
 work contributes appropriately to poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods”
 
 “Goal 3.3. To ensure projects and actions with the potential to impact negatively on the biological  
 diversity of inland water ecosystems are subjected, in accordance with national legislation and where
 appropriate, to suitably rigorous impact assessments, including consideration of their potential impact
 on sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local
 communities
[…]
 Objectives
 (a) Undertake environmental impact assessments, in accordance with national legislation and where
 appropriate, for all projects with the potential to impact on the biological diversity of inland water
 ecosystems, ensuring that these take into account the “inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-
 health impacts, both beneficial and adverse”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/12  “Annex II: ADDIS ABABA PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY
 A. Underlying conditions for sustainable use […]
 (d) The basic necessities of life, such as food, shelter, freshwater and clean air are produced either directly
 or indirectly from using biological diversity. In addition, biodiversity provides many direct benefits and
 ecosystem services necessary for life. In many countries, there is complete or substantial dependence on
 harvested plants and animals by millions of people, often among the poorest, for their livelihoods.  
 Increasingly other uses such as pharmaceuticals for disease prevention and cure are becoming evident
 and are also met from using biological diversity. Finally, indigenous and local communities and their
 cultures often depend directly on the uses of biological diversity for their livelihoods. In all of these
 instances, governments should have adequate policies and capacities in place to ensure that such uses
 are sustainable”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/13  “The Conference of the Parties […]
 6. Invites relevant Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other Governments, as well as
 national, regional and international organizations to: […]
 (d) Allocate, as appropriate, adequate financial resources to developing countries, in particular the least  
 develop countries and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in
 transition, and to build capacity for effective mitigation, border control and quarantine measures with a view
 to improve synergies with policies relating to trade, food security, human health and environmental
 protection, scientific research and exchange of information”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/14  “The Conference of the Parties
 1. Adopts the Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development annexed to the present decision […]
 8. Implementation […]
 72. In relation to indigenous and local communities, monitoring and evaluation should include
 development and use of appropriate tools to monitor and evaluate tourism impacts on the economy of
 indigenous and local communities, particularly their food and health security, traditional knowledge,
 practices and customary livelihoods. Use of indicators and early warning systems should be developed as
 appropriate, taking into account traditional knowledge, innovation and practices of indigenous and local
 communities, and guidelines developed under the Convention on Biological Diversity relating to traditional
 knowledge. Measures should also be taken to ensure that indigenous and local communities involved in,
 or affected by tourism, have the opportunity to be involved effectively in monitoring and evaluation”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/16  “II. USE OF TERMS
 6. For the purpose of the Guidelines: […]
 (d) Environmental impact assessment – is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of, and
 proposing appropriate mitigation measures for, a proposed development, taking into account interrelated
 socio-economic, cultural and human health impacts, both beneficial and adverse […]
 (f) Social impact assessment – is a process of evaluating the likely impacts, both beneficial and adverse, of
 a proposed development that may affect the rights, which have an economic, social, cultural, civic and
 political dimension, as well as the well-being, vitality and viability, of an affected community – that is, the
 quality of life of a community as measured in terms of various socio-economic indicators, such as income
 distribution, physical and social integrity and protection of individuals and communities, employment levels
 and opportunities, health and welfare, education, and availability and standards of housing and
 accommodation, infrastructure, services”
 
 “G. Identification of actors responsible for liability, redress, insurance and compensation
 20. In order to maintain the health, wellbeing and security of affected indigenous and local communities
 and the ecosystems that sustain them, and, to the extent that it is possible, in order to prevent adverse
 cultural, environmental and social impacts of any proposed developments, actors that should bear the r
 responsibility for liability, redress, insurance and compensation should be clearly identified”
 
 “42. In social impact assessments, social development indicators consistent with the views of indigenous  
 and local communities should be developed and should include gender, generational considerations,
 health, safety, food and livelihood security aspects and the possible effects on social cohesion and
 mobilization”
 
 “43. In determining the scope of a social impact assessment, the following should be considered: […]
 (f) Health and safety aspects”

 “44. In the conduct of baseline studies, the following areas should, inter alia, be addressed: […]
 (b)    Health status of the community (particular health problems/issues - availability of clean water -
 infectious and endemic diseases, nutritional deficiencies, life expectancy, use of traditional medicine, etc”
 
 “6. Health and safety aspects
 50. In the impact assessment process, the health and safety aspects of the proposed development should
 be scrutinized. Safety aspects should include such risks as physical injury during construction, and health
 risks resulting from various forms of pollution, sexual exploitation, social disturbance, disruption to habitats
 of medicinal species, and use of chemicals, such as pesticides. Foreign workers should be screened for
 any infectious diseases for which local populations may have no immunity, or for which there is no
 evidence of infection within their communities”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/30
 “A. Focal Area  B. Indicator for Immediate
 Testing
 C: Possible indicators for development by
 SBSTTA or Working Groups
 Ecosystem integrity
 and ecosystem
 goods and services
 - Marine trophic index
 - Water quality in aquatic  
 ecosystems
 - Health and well-being of people living in
 biodiversity-based-resource dependent
 communities
 - Biodiversity used in food and medicine”
 
 “Maintain goods and services from biodiversity to support human well-being
 Goal 8. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods
 Target 8.2: biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care,
 especially of poor people maintained”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/31  “Annex II
 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE AD HOC TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUP ON ISLAND BIODIVERSITY
 A. Mandate […]
 (c) Develop proposals for a programme of work on island biological diversity incorporating priority actions to
 enhance conservation of island biodiversity, sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable
 sharing of benefits from the utilization of genetic resources from islands. In carrying out this work: […]
 (iii) propose ways to link with the Secretary General’s WEHAB (“water, energy, health, agriculture, and
 biodiversity”) initiative, and support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other
 relevant objectives identified by the World Summit on Sustainable Development”
 
 COP 7  Dec/VII/32  “The Conference of the Parties,
 
 2. Requests the Executive Secretary: […]
 (c) To work closely with the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment
 Programme, the Millennium Project of the Secretary General of the United Nations and others to find ways
 to use the 2010 targets and indicators to help achieve target 9 (to “reverse the loss of environmental
 resources”) of Millennium Development Goal 7 (to “ensure environmental sustainability”), and the other
 relevant Millennium Development goals, in particular Goal 1 to halve poverty and hunger, and the health-
 related goals”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/5  “The Conference of the Parties, […]
 Impacts of the application of genetic use restriction technologies on smallholder farmers, indigenous
 and local communities and Farmers’ Rights

 Recalling decision V/5 and, in particular, its paragraphs 23, 24 and 27,
 Reaffirming decision V/5, paragraph 23, […]
 19. Urges Parties and other Governments to assess whether there is a need to develop, and how to ensure
 the application of, effective regulations at national level which take into account, inter alia, the specific nature
 of variety-specific and trait-specific genetic use restriction technologies, in order to ensure the safety of  
 human health, the environment, food security and the conservation and sustainable use of biological
 diversity”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/7  “1. For the purpose of these guidelines, the following definitions are used for environmental impact
 assessment and strategic environmental assessment:
 (a) Environmental impact assessment is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a  
 proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-
 health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. Although legislation and practice vary around the world, the
 fundamental components of an environmental impact assessment would necessarily involve the following
 stages”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/9  “C. Targets
 
 12. The global targets for the year 2010 21/ are as follows, and their terms and technical rationale are
 appended to the present Strategy: […]
 (c)    Using plant diversity sustainably: […]
 (xiii) The decline of plant resources, and associated indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and
 practices that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, halted”
 
 “Target 13: The decline of plant resources, and associated indigenous and local knowledge innovations
 and practices, that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, halted.

 Plant diversity underpins livelihoods, food security and health care. This target is consistent with one of the
 widely agreed international development targets, namely to “ensure that current trends in the loss of
 environmental resources are effectively reversed at both global and national levels by 2015”. It is
 recommended feasible to halt the decline by 2010 and subsequently to reverse the decline. Relevant plant
 resources and methods to address their decline are largely site specific and thus implementation must be
 locally driven. The scope of the target is understood to encompass plant resources and associated
 ethnobotanical knowledge. Measures to address the decline in associated indigenous and local
 knowledge should be implemented consistent with the Convention’s programme of work on Article 8(j) and
 related provisions”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/10  “Annex I
 OUTLINE OF THE COMPOSITE REPORT ON THE STATUS AND TRENDS REGARDING THE KNOWLEDGE,
 INNOVATIONS AND PRACTICES OF INDIGENOUS AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES RELEVANT TO THE
 CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIODIVERSITY, AND THE PLAN AND TIMETABLE FOR ITS
 PREPARATION
[…]
 
 “C. Socio-economic impact assessments […]
 14. In socio-economic impact assessments, social development indicators consistent with the views of
 indigenous and local communities should be developed and should give consideration to gender,
 generational considerations, health, safety, food and livelihood security aspects and the possible effects on
 social cohesion and mobilization”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/15  “Linking biodiversity to macro-economic policies
 15. It is important to explore the linkages with international organizations/agreements focused on economic
 policies, in particular trade policies under the World Trade Organization and other policies such as labour
 (the International Labour Organization) and health (the World Health Organization). In addition, linkages to
 regional and sectoral economic organizations/agreements should be explored to determine their incentive
 compatibility with the objectives of the Convention”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/23  “IV. OTHER OPTIONS […]
 (b)      International cooperation […]
 (c) Invites the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the  
 United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank
 and other development agencies to take this matter into account when considering the impacts of land-use
 change, agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, health and development policies and activities”
 
 COP 6  Dec/VI/24  “E. Objectives […]
 (k) To contribute to poverty alleviation and be supportive to the realization of human food security, health and
 cultural integrity, especially in developing countries, in particular least developed countries and small island
 developing States among them”
 
 “2. Non-monetary benefits may include, but not be limited to: […]
 (m) Research directed towards priority needs, such as health and food security, taking into account
 domestic uses of genetic resources in provider countries”