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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Climate funding

Basis for action: To encourage the Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol to take into account biodiversity when developing any funding mechanisms for climate change"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 4.6

Indicator:
Number of initiatives, and respective amounts, supplementary to the financial mechanism established under Article 21, that engage Parties and relevant organizations in new and innovative financial mechanisms, which consider intrinsic values and all other values of biodiversity, in accordance with the objectives of the Convention and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of Their Utilization

Commission Guidance Regarding Disclosure Related to Climate Change, Final Rule, SEC, 75 Fed. Reg. 6290 (2010)

USD 10.2 billion was the initial resource mobilization result of the Green Climate Fund: highlights of UNFCCC CP.20 and KP.10 decisions (8 January 2015)

Africa
Burundi L’opérationnalisation au Burundi du mécanisme REDD + et MDP nouvelles sources de ressources financières non négligeables pour la conservation de la biodiversité, la gestion durable des forêts et l’amélioration des stocks de carbone terrestres. Le mécanisme de développement propre (Clean Development Mechanism-CDM) est déjà opérationnel et pourra, dans un proche avenir aboutir au financement des projets déjà approuvés au niveau national. Quant au mécanisme REDD+, le Burundi est en phase préparatoire de production du Readness Prepartion Proposal (R-PP) et de mise en place du système national de Mesurage, Notification et Verification (MNV).

Cameroon La stratégie Nationale pour le REDD+

Comoros Climate action

Democratic Republic of the Congo Afforestation on the Batéké plateau – Ibi Batéké

Egypt (2014)Ethiopian Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy

Eritrea Climate planning

Ghana Realising REDD: Implications of Ghana’s Current Legal Framework for Trees

Kenya Climate strategy

Madagascar REDD Vente carbones : Le crédit carbone est une source de financement encore mal exploitée à Madagascar, malgré qu’il ait été présenté, il y a trois ans, comme une opportunité pour financer le développement durable dans la lettre de politique sur le mécanisme du développement propre (MDP) de Madagascar. Tandis qu’au niveau mondial, le marché a représenté quelques 30 milliards de US dollars en 2006, Madagascar a vendu au total 40000 unités de crédit ayant généré 200000$ à raison de 5$ la tonne dans le cadre d’un marché volontaire pour la mise en place de la nouvelle aire protégée Makira (suivant le concept de déforestation évitée, hors MDP). Le projet de reforestation du corridor, correspondant à 3020 Ha de reboisement censé rétablir la connectivité des corridors de l’Est, devrait générer autour de 1 million de $ avec un premier paiement en 2009 ; le gouvernement de Madagascar compte également vendre 9 millions de tonnes de carbone sur 30 ans en contrepartie de la protection du Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena. Entre autres, un projet pilote de lutte contre la déforestation et la dégradation des ressources forestières intégrant l’approche sur les forêts engagées comme réservoirs de carbone, le Projet FORECA aété initié depuis quelques années.
Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor

Malawi NAPA

Mauritius Climate activities

Morocco Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

Namibia Understanding Climate Finance Readiness Needs in Namibia
2. Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively

United Republic of Tanzania 1. Tanzania National Climate Change Finance Analysis
2. Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively

Uganda 1. Uganda National Climate Change Finance Analysis
2. NAPA

Zambia 1. Understanding Climate Finance Readiness Needs in Zambia
2. Understanding readiness to access and use climate finance effectively

Regional 1. Climate Finance Regional Briefing: Middle East and North Africa
2. Climate Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa (2011)

Asia
Bangladesh 1. Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review: A methodology to review climate policy, institutions and expenditure
2. Country-driven approaches to climate finance: insights from Bangladesh

Cambodia Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

China Biodiversity and Climate Change

India Khasi Hills community REDD+ initiative, Meghalaya, India
Green India Mission (GIM)

Indonesia 1. Climate Finance in Indonesia: Lessons for the Future of Public Finance for Climate Change Mitigation
2. International Public Finance to Address Climate Change in Indonesia – Lessons for the Future of European Development Cooperation
3. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Ulu Masen Ecosystem, Aceh

Japan 1. Climate assistance
2. Japan’s private climate finance support: mobilising private sector engagement in climate compatible development(2012)

Mongolia The renewed action plan for national REDD+ development integrating with Green development in 2011. The assessment of the financial value of mongolia’s forest sector and its key financial constraints was made in 2013.
Readiness for Climate Finance: An assessment and route map

Nepal Promotion of REDD and PES, a REDD+ pilot project in three sub-watersheds
Nepal Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (CPEIR)

Philippines Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

Thailand Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

Regional Climate Finance Regional Briefing: Asia and Pacific

Europe
Austria Climate assistance

Belgium 1. Cooperation projects on Rio conventions
2. Climate assistance

Denmark Climate assistance

European Union European Union Institutions Climate assistance

Finland Climate assistance

France 1. Wetland Carbon Partnership
2. Climate assistance

Germany German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change in December 2008
Environment and Climate Fund (using a part of the revenues of the sale of emission allowances within the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) to support biodiversity related projects on national level through the National Forest and Climate Fund (http://www.waldklimafonds.de); International Climate Initiative (www.international-climate-initiative.com/en)
1. International Climate Initiative (ICI)
2. Climate assistance
3. Germany’s private climate finance support: Mobilising private sector engagement in climate compatible development

Greece Climate assistance

Iceland Climate assistance

Ireland Climate assistance

Italy 1. Biodiversity adaptation to climate change
2. Climate assistance

Liechtenstein Climate assistance

Luxembourg Climate assistance

Netherlands Climate assistance

Norway Climate assistance

Portugal Climate assistance

Republic of Moldova Moldova Soil Conservation Project

Spain Climate assistance

Sweden Climate assistance

Switzerland Climate assistance

United Kingdom Woodland Carbon Code
1. Climate assistance
2. The UK’s private climate finance support: mobilising private sector engagement in climate compatible development (2012)

Oceania
Australia 1. National Biodiversity and Climate Change Action Plan
2. Climate assistance

Cook Islands Climate change adaptation plan

Fiji REDD initiatives

New Zealand The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) covers all sectors as of 2013. However, not all sectors have obligations to surrender units, e.g. agriculture just has to report on levels of emissions. Applied to forestry, it encourages the replanting of forests, mainly as production forests, and the promotion of regeneration of shrublands. The ETS also limits the ability to deforest areas of forest land and there are financial penalties where Crown cover drops below 30% of a hectare and/or areas are reduced by more than 2 hectares within a 5-year period. Two additional schemes exist as an option to earn revenue from carbon forests (Permanent Forest Sink Initiative and the Afforestation Grants Scheme). A nutrient trading scheme operates to reduce the nitrogen load to Lake Taupo (Taupomoana) by 20%. Farms occupy only 18% of the land near Taupo but contribute more than 90% of the nitrogen input to the lake (Rutherford & Cox 2009). The scheme uses the Overseer® model to determine how much nitrogen is leaving farms and entering the lake. The percentage reduction in nutrients will be set and the transfer of discharge consents between land-users will be allowed for within the bounds set by the cap on nutrient inputs. Community sewage is controlled outside the market. Forestry companies are excluded from the market because exports from forestry are similar to the natural and uncontrollable exports from native forest and scrub. There is an $81.5 million fund to protect lake water quality and purchase nitrogen discharge allowances and/or farmland (ibid).
1. Delivering and Tracking Climate Change Related ODA
2. New Zealand

Niue Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change Project (PACC)

Samoa 1. Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review
2. National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)

Solomon Islands National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)

General
IIED Exploring the market for voluntary carbon offsets (2006)
ODI 1. Fossil fuel subsidies and climate
2. Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: REDD+ Finance
3. Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: Mitigation Finance
4. Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: Adaptation Finance
5. The Green Climate Fund
6. Mobilising International Climate Finance: Lessons from the Fast-Start Finance Period
7. Understanding climate change finance flows and effectiveness – mapping of recent initiatives (2013)
8. Leveraging private investment: the role of public sector climate finance (2011)
9. Coding and tracking adaptation finance: lessons and opportunities for monitoring adaptation finance across international and national scales (2012)
10. Defining climate-related forest activities, finance and expenditure in national budgetary systems
11. At cross-purposes: subsidies and climate compatible investment (2013)
12. Scaling Up: How Germany, Japan, Norway, UK, and US Approached Fast-Start Climate Finance
OECD OECD Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure: Expanding access to clean energy for green growth and development
TEEB REDD and beyond
UNDP 1. Beyond carBon: ecosystem-based benefits of redd+
2. Integrated Solutions: Water, Biodiversity, and the Clean Development Mechanism (2009)
3. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners (2011)
4. Blending Climate Finance Through National Climate Funds: A Guidebook for the Design and Establishment of National Funds to Achieve Climate Change Priorities
5. Catalyzing Climate Finance: A Guidebook on Policy and Financing Options to Support Green, Low-Emission and Climate-Resilient Development (2011)
6. Integrating Climate Change Risks and Opportunities into National Development Processes and UN Country Programming (2012)
7. REDD+ Benefit Sharing: A Comparative Assessment of Three National Policy Approaches
8. Making REDD work for the Poor (2008)
9. The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE): A Tool for Prioritizing Sub-National REDD Opportunities and Constraints
10. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits
11. The Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (CPEIR): a methodology to review climate policy, institutions and expenditure (2012)
World Bank 1. Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Adaptation: Nature-Based Solutions from the World Bank Portfolio (2008)
2. Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change: The Economic Problem (2010)
3. Enhancing Carbon Stocks and Reducing CO2 Emissions in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Projects (2012)

Status and Trends

Counting

Ideas of Mobilization

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme