External Debt and Nature

  • United Nations: Recent developments in external debt

    Secretary General of the United Nations provides a report on the status of external debt to the General Assembly every year. See the report on 26 July 2007.

  • World Bank and International Monetary Fund on debt issues

    The 2006 Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), and Debt Sustainability Framework (DSF).

  • Paris Club (http://www.clubdeparis.org/)

    Paris Club is an informal group of official creditors whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor nations. Paris Club creditors agree to rescheduling debts due to them, and provide debt relief through a postponement and, in the case of concessional rescheduling, a reduction in debt service obligations.

  • OECD debt-for-environment swaps (website)

    OECD seeks to facilitate policy dialogue on opportunities and risks of debt-for-environment swaps. Read the study on Lessons Learnt from Experience with Debt-for-Environment Swaps in Economies in Transition.

  • France- debt for nature swaps

    France- Cameroon Debt for Nature Swap in 2006 (News)

  • German debt for nature swaps

    The 2004 note outlines main steps involved and mentioned Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras, Madagascar, Nicaragua, Peru, Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia and Kenya. Read the note.

  • USAID Enterprise for the Americas Initiative (website)

    Established in 1991, the Enterprise for the Americas (EAI) Initiative enabled Latin American and the Caribbean countries to redirect some debt payments into a local fund to support child survival and environmental programs. The EAI program is inactive in terms of negotiation of new agreements. Involved countries include: Argentina; Bolivia; Chile; Colombia; El Salvador; Jamaica; Peru; and Uruguay.

  • USAID Tropical Forest Conservation Act (website)

    The Tropical Forest Conservation Act (TFCA) was enacted in 1998 to offer eligible developing countries options to relieve certain official debt owed the U.S. Government while at the same time generating funds in local currency to support tropical forest conservation activities. As of October 2006, 12 TFCA agreements have been signed, which will generate more than $135 million over the life of the agreements, plus additional investment funding and potential counterpart funding, for tropical forest conservation in 11 countries over the next 10 to 25 years: Bangladesh; Belize; Botswana; Colombia; El Salvador; Guatemala; Jamaica; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines

  • WWF debt-for-nature swaps (website)

    WWF was one of the pioneers of the debt-for-nature swap and successfully executed its first swap in Ecuador in 1987. See a list of WWF commercial debt swaps from 1988 to 2003. Also see bilateral debt-for-environment swaps by creditor as of 2003, and commercial debt-for-nature swaps as of 2003. Read Madagascar experience.

  • The Nature Conservancy debt for nature swaps (website)

    The Nature Conservancy has been involved in debt swaps for more than a dozen years. The featured examples include: Belize; Colombia; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Jamaica; Panama; and Peru.

  • Conservation International (website)

    Conservation International’s examples of debt for nature include Colombia; Ghana; Guatemala; Peru

  • CBD interest in debt relief and debt for nature swaps

    The Conference of the Parties encouraged Parties and Governments, international and regional financial institutions and development agencies, as well as other donors, to further explore opportunities to utilize various initiatives including debt-relief instruments to promote conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (read decision VII/21) The Conference of the Parties requested the Executive Secretary to compile information concerning the impacts of external debts on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and examine the possibility of utilizing debt for nature initiatives for supporting the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and make this information available on the website of the Convention (Read decision VI/16)

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme