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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Domestic biodiversity expenditures

Indicator:
"Amount of domestic financial support, per annum, in respect of those domestic activities which are intended to achieve the objectives of this Convention;" --- Decision X/3, paragraph 7(3)

2008 Strategy for Resource Mobilization

Strategic objective 1.1 - "To improve the existing financial information base through enhancing accuracy, consistency and delivery of existing data and improved reporting on funding needs and shortfalls for the Convention's three objectives"

Target:
"Endeavour for 100 per cent, but at least 75 per cent, of Parties provided with adequate financial resources to have reported domestic biodiversity expenditures, as well as funding needs, gaps and priorities, by 2015, in order to improve the robustness of the baseline and to refine the preliminary targets, as appropriate." ...Decision XI/4, paragraph 7(c)

Eastern Africa
Burundi (2014) Allocations from the budget to the Ministry in charge of Agriculture and Livestock has gradually increased to above 10% of the annual state budget
Allocations to environment USD1,807,500(2006), USD2,001,667(2007), USD3,343,333(2008), USD6,416,667(2009)

Comoros 2009

Djibouti The budget of the Environment Directorate is 3 million FDJ (USD16,667) per year (2006)

Eritrea Government subventions of USD 55,000 to the Department of Environment for the period 1997 – 1998

Ethiopia (2014) Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in million US dollars: 2 (2006), 3 (2007), 5 (2008), 6 (2009), 10 (2010)
Federal government allocated USD 4,789,050 regular and capital budget during the period July 1994 - June 2005

Kenya Allocations to the Kenya Wildlife Service, Forest Department and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Environment Component): USD 11,280,085(1994/95), USD 12,440,367 (1995/96), USD 12,160,412 (1996/97), USD 12,235,460 (1997/98), USD 11,851,790 (1998/99), USD 12,914,404 (1999/00), USD 13,563,230 (2000/01), USD 17,665,750 (2001/02), USD 24,145,750 (2002/03), USD 20,679,310 (2003/04), USD 18,367,840 (2004/05)
(2009) Government institutions, public expenditure and the role of development partners: Meeting Kenya’s environmental challenges

Madagascar Budget allocations are voted annually, depending on the annual external funding. In 2005, the allocation amounted to USD4,468,785

Malawi (2014) Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in US dollars: 2,000(2010), 1,500(2011), 3,000(2012), 1,800(2013)
1. Reports 1998, 2005, 2006, 2010
2. Guidelines for the Preparation of the 2013/14 Budget
(2010) Guidance note on how to integrate the environment into the budget process in Malawi

Mauritius (2014) Central biodiversity expenditure: USD8,349,000 (2010)
(2006) Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: About 35 million USD annually (This includes both recurrent and capital measures on fisheries, environmental management, Parks management, agricultural services, waste water management, agricultural research and extension programme, support to NGOs through special fund) (2006)

Mozambique (2008) Environmental Institutions, Public Expenditure and the Role for Development Partners: Mozambique Case Study

Rwanda 1. Report2006
2. Public Environmental Expenditure Review
3. PEER manual

Seychelles Government allocation of approximately USD 10 million per year including solid and liquid waste management, fisheries, management of protected areas, agricultural research and extension programmes (2010)
(2000) Environment Management Plan of Seychelles EMPS 2000 – 2010: Managing for Sustainability

Uganda (2014) Central government biodiversity conservation-related investments (2004-05 to 2011-12). Since the 2005/06 financial year, the budgetary allocation for biodiversity conservation related investments at the national level have increased. Investments in tourism and wildlife management, environment management and agriculture have increased from $20 to $27.7 million, $65 to $82 million and $59 to $139 million for tourism and wildlife, water and environment and agriculture respectively. The financing gap for biodiversity conservation related investments in Uganda is estimated at $455 million/year. The current financing is $216 million while $671 million is required. The largest financing gaps is in the agriculture sector at $366 million/year
(2014) Directly related central biodiversity expenditure: USD163,372,591 (2006), USD 221,886,905 (2007), USD 41,817,905 (2008), USD 29,442,396 (2009), USD 283,595,186 (2010), USD 303,552,107 (2011), USD 65,000,000 (2012), USD 145,600,000 (2013), USD 152,800,000 (2014)
1. 1998, 2006, 2009
2. Mainstreaming environmental Issues into Budget Framework
3. Budgeting, Expenditure Review And Status Of Financing (March 2014)

United Republic of Tanzania 2006

Zambia budgetary allocation of US$1,000 for subscriptions (2006)

Zimbabwe Nominal Zimbabwe government expenditure on issues related to biodiversity conservation (ZS million in real terms) (Forestry Commission, Natural Resources, National Parks, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Research, Water Resources): 276 (1987-88), 274 (1988-89), 187 (89-90), 237 (90-91), 187 (91-92), 272 (92-93), 202 (93-94), 169 (94-95), 162 (95-96), 137 (96-97)

Northern Africa
Algeria 29 billion Algerian dinars for the forestry program, the steppe ecosystem, biodiversity and management of natural resources (2005). As part of the five-year national economic and social development for 2005-2009, the budget for the protection of biodiversity, coastal and marine environment reached a total of 35.5 billion dinars.
Morocco (2014) L’État accorde une importance particulière aux secteurs sociaux dans les programmes de développement mis en oeuvre. Elle se matérialise par la part de ces secteurs dans le budget général et qui représente 55% actuellement contre 36% en 1994. En ajoutant le budget alloué au RAMED (Régime d’assistance médicale) et à l’INDH (Initiative Nationale pour le Développement Humain), soit environ 5 milliards de DH en 2012, la part du budget des secteurs sociaux, dans le budget de l’État atteint, en 2012, 57% et 16,8% du PIB. Ce sont les secteurs de l’enseignement et de la santé qui ont enregistré l’évolution la plus importante au cours de cette période puisque leur budget a plus que triplé (respectivement 3,5 et 3,9 fois) entre 1994 et 2012. Ces deux secteurs représentent, en 2012, 90% du budget alloué aux départements sectoriels à caractère social et 46,2% du total des secteurs sociaux contre respectivement 87% et 74% en 1994. Le montant total indicatif pour la concrétisation des effets escomptés est de 147,7 millions de dollars US.
2005, 2009

Western Africa
Benin En ce qui concerne la mobilisation des ressources financières, il faut dire que les partenaires techniques et financiers ont été d’un grand soutien pour le Bénin dans la mesure où presqu’aucun des projets n’a été financé à 100% par le budget national. La conservation de la biodiversité n’est pas une activité économique rentable qui peut s’auto financer au Bénin. Les ressources publiques nationales n’arrivent pas à couvrir toutes les charges de gestion. Les parcs génèrent des recettes propres, mais insuffisantes d’où la nécessité de procéder au financement à long terme des Parcs Nationaux du Bénin. Dans ce cadre un nouveau Projet d’Appui à la Gestion des Aires Protégées (PAGAP) à vue le jour depuis Février 2012. D'un coût total d'environ 3 milliards 285 millions de francs CFA (environ 6,57 millions de dollars américains), conjointement financé par la Banque mondiale, le Fonds mondial pour l'Environnement (FEM) et la Coopération financière Allemande (KFW), ce projet étudiera également pendant son exécution les possibilités d'extension du réseau des aires protégées, notamment au centre et au sud du pays, et préparera la mise en place d'un mécanisme financier pour la prise en charge durable des coûts récurrents de la gestion des réserves de faune.
2002

Burkina Faso Summary of expenditures (in millions of F CFA): 3,338.97 (1992), 4,978.95 (1993), 6,487.02 (1994), 5,130.22 (1995), 4,677.98 (1996)

Cape Verde The Government of Cape Verde has allocated the amount of 13,937,564 American dollars in 2006, for the Protection and Conservation of the Environment Program (2007)

Cote d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire spent 6.48 billion CFA francs for the preservation of biodiversity (2009)

Gambia (2014) Government Allocation of Financial Resources to Department of Parks and Wildlife: D3.34 million (2007), D4.44 million (2008), D5.32 million (2009), D6.47 million (2010), D5.32 million (2011), D5.07 million (2012)
(1998, 2003, 2006) Governmental allocations

Ghana The Ministry of Environment and Science allocated an amount of ¢364,915,064 (equivalent to $40,546.118) for activities relating to biodiversity conservation in 2004 and 2005

Guinea 2002

Guinea Bissau 2008

Mali 1. Report 2005
2. Budget Support, Aid Instruments and the Environment: Mali Country Case Study (2008)

Mauritania 1999, 2005, 2009

Niger La mise en oeuvre de la SNPA/DB nécessite un investissement de 420,503,660,000 FCFA dont 116,160,150,000 FCFA d’acquis et 304 343 500 000 FCFA à rechercher.
In 2002, the budgetary allocation for sectors related to biodiversity (Agriculture, Livestock, Wildlife and Forestry) was estimated at 241 631 822 000 FCFA (Investment of state: 107 828 000 000 FCFA, Multilateral donors: 687 878 257 140 FCFA, Bilateral donors: 5,111,554,735 FCFA, Communities and beneficiaries: 4,072,473,552 FCFA). For the period from 2005 to 2007, the funds used for the rural sector (agriculture, livestock, forestry, wildlife and water) were 144 765 411 000 FCFA (Ministry of Economy and Finance, 2005-2007)

Senegal Evolution of financial resources of the environment sector (in million FCFA): 16792 (2003), 9793 (2004), 17870 (2005), 25379 (2006), 24880 (2007), 32325 (2008), 30546 (2009), 31481 (2010)

Sierra Leone Government Funds 1995-96 for the forestry programme was estimated to be 123,227,009 Leones

Togo 2005

North and Central Americas
Belize Allocations for Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Forestry Department - US$800,000, Agriculture Department – US$2.6 million, Fisheries Department – US$420,000

Costa Rica (2012) Central government spending in millions: 75.96 (2007), 52.76 (2008), 87.64 (2009), 94.25 (2010), 140.43 (2011), 122.40 (2012)
The budget of the National System of Conservation Areas, SINAC MINAE has grown from 500 million in 1992 to about 2,500 million colones (to 2000), which represented an increase of almost 5 times more

Honduras Budget allocations of approximately U.S.$400,000 for Biodiversity Management in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and the Department of Protected Areas and Wildlife (2008)

Mexico 1. Technical note on the Environmental Protection Expenditure Account of Mexico
2. Amount of budgets in million pesos: 217.0 (2000), 565.7 (2001), 512.1 (2002), 796.4 (2003), 645.2 (2004)
3. environment-related expenditure and financing, SEMARNAT budget, federal budget for natural protected areas, public expenditure on biodiversity and forests

Panama 2000, 2007

Canada (2012) Federal, provincial and local biodiversity expenditure estimates in million Canadian dollars: 6,987 (2006), 7,823 (2007), 7,952 (2008), 7,959 (2009), 8,185 (2010)
(2014) Canadians made an estimated $41.3 billion in nature-related expenditures. Within that total, $40.4 billion dollars was spent in Canada engaging in nature-related activities. Expenditures included transportation (e.g., gasoline, plane, or bus tickets); accommodations (e.g., hotels); food; and equipment, fees, and supplies (e.g., camping or hiking gear, entry fees, boats) as well as investments in maintaining land at least partly for conservation purposes. A further $874 million was contributed by Canadian individuals for donations or memberships to nature or conservation groups. Of all nature-related expenses, Canadians overwhelmingly spent money on non-motorized, non-consumptive nature-based recreation activities—totaling slightly less than $14.5 billion, or roughly 36% of all reported nature-related expenditures. Expenses on motorized recreation (snowmobiles, ATVs or motorboats) totalled approximately $6.1 billion (15% of all expenses); nature-based leisure accounted for $6.2 billion (15%); non-commercial fishing $2.2 billion (5%); and non-commercial hunting and trapping $1.8 billion (5%). Birding accounts for $537 million, or 1% of all expenditures.
For 2005-2006, the total budget of Biodiversity Convention Office (BCO) of Environment Canada was approximately $1.5 million
(2004) pollution abatement control and environmental expenditure

United States of America (1999) Trends in State Governments’ Expenditures on Parks and Recreation: 1989/90 through 1999/2000
(2014) Budget Justifications and Performance Information Fiscal Year 2014 - National Park Service budget authority in billions US dollars: 3.01 (2012), 3.43 (2013), 3.12 (2014 request)
(2005) Total environmental expenditure

South America
Argentina 2003

Brazil (2012) Central, state and local biodiversity spending in million US dollars: 2,813.35 (2006), 2,868.52 (2007), 3,124.2 (2008), 3,407.29 (2009), 3,858.73 (2010)
Central government spending, state/provincial and local/municipal spending, private/markets spending, as well as funding programmes and an earlier survey on biodiversity projects

Chile 1. Spending on renewable natural resource issues and biodiversity in approximately USD35.208 million for 2002 and USD25.39 for 2003, representing a 20.21% and a 20.01% respectively of total environmental expenditure. The 2009 Budget, provides resources for the protection of the environment-through CONAMA-by 19,870 million pesos (approximately U.S. $ 38 million), which is a real increase of 9.5% over 2008
2. environmental expenditure and financing

Colombia (2014) The percentage share of the environmental sector was 0.71% in 1998, 0.27% in 2009, and 0.39% in 2013
Enviornmental expenditure in millions of 2002 pesos: 201.811 (1995), 182.686 (1996), 108.888 (1997), 66.129 (1998), 59.637 (1999), 54.734 (2000), 59.079 (2001), 64.561 (2002), 43.045 (2003)

Ecuador Evolución del gasto total del SNAP continental, periodo 2003-2012; Inversión del Fondo de Áreas Protegidas en el SNAP 2009-2013
The percentage of expenditure allocated to the environment, in 2003, accounted for 0.39% of the General State Budget. In 2005 the share was 0.40% - approximately $ 29.7 million

Guyana G$ 88,609,145 (2004), G$ 98,456,023 (2005), G$ 135,211,683 (2006)

Paraguay The national budget allocated 0.28% of its total to SEAM (2003)

Peru Between 1990 and 1997, Peru had budget allocation of 79 million dollars, while 291 million dollars between 1999 and 2004

Central Asia
Kazakhstan (2014) At the national level in accordance with existing state programs, in recent years there is a steady increase of the funds spent on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Thus, the current “Zhasyl Damu” Program for 2010 had total funding of 31914.1 million Tenge (about $ 212 800 000), the plan for 2014 – 38 089.9 million Tenge (about $ 253 900 000). Investments in the Concept of transition to a “green economy” will be made to an average of 1% of GDP until 2050.
Annually (2004-2005), the budgetary allocations from the republican budget to the CFH for development and maintaining protected areas is, at least, KZT 2,000 mln. =US $15.4 mln. For conservation and restoration of fish resources the Fishery Committee receives, at least, KZT 1,000 mln. = US $7.7 mln. The realization of the development of specially protected natural territories of the Republic of Kazakhstan allocated from the state budget: 2007 - 5.5 million tenge, 2008 - 72.33 million tenge, 2009 - 69.98 million tenge

Kyrgyz Republic 1. Environmental Expenditure Data Collection and Reporting in Kyrgyz Republic
2. Information on financing and technical assistance provided to the organizations and institutions of the State Forestry Service in thousands of US dollars: 509.65 (1996), 736.03 (1997), 29.64 (1998), 1598.41 (1999), 1394 (2000), 1205.37 (2001), 2185.57 (2002), 2604.72 (2003), 2421.34 (2004), 2361.3 (2005). Information on financing of the state reserves by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Ministry of Ecology and Emergency Situations from the republican budget: 216.58 (1996), 171.8 (1997), 108.94 (1998), 98.85 (1999), 104.08 (2000), 95.63 (2001)

Tajikistan In 2003-2004, the National Biodiversity and Biosafety Center was allocated about 45 thousand somoni (US$ 15 thousand).

Turkmenistan Within 1996-2006 period, budgetary allocations accounted for 15% of total spending

Uzbekistan Budget allocations (national, regional budgets, the budgets of the ministries) in thousand US dollars: 268 (1995), 294 (1996), 301.8 (1997), 330 (1998), 506.4 (1999), 508.6 (2000), 445.2 (2001), 655 (2002), 480.3 (2003), 637 (2004)

Eastern Asia
China (2014) Investments into biodiversity conservation (2001-2011). In recent years, China has increased substantially its investments into biodiversity conservation. The investments into projects, such as natural forest resources protection, wild animal and plant conservation, establishment of nature reserves and wetland conservation, have increased from 9.7 billion yuan RMB in 2001 to 21.77 billion yuan RMB in 2011, with the average annual increase of 13.7%, providing financial support to biodiversity conservation.
1. Central biodiversity expenditure US dollars 2,005 million in 2010
2. During 1992-2004, China invested over 137 billion RMB for biodiversity conservation, equivalent to US$16.6 billion
3. Environmental expenditure

Democratic People's Republic of Korea 1998

Japan (2014) central biodiversity expenditure (2006-2012), state and provincial, local and municipal (2012), The Basic Policies for Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform including conservation and utilization of biodiversity. Central JPY million: 317,416 (2006), 285,056 (2007), 279,602 (2008), 261,233 (2009), 144,156 (2010), 144,732 (2011), 139,285 (2012). Central, provincial and local JPY million: 165,827 (2012)
1. Submission 2012
2. environmental expenditure, public expenditure on nature conservation

Mongolia In 2000, 40.5% of the total budget of 2.3 billion MNT, approved for the environment sector, was spent on nature protection and restoration activities.

Republic of Korea 1. Budgetary allocations 166.727 billion Korean Won in 2005
2. Korea: Development of Statistics for Environmental Protection Expenditures and Revenues
3. environmental expenditure, government expenditure for nature conservation and biodiversity protection

South-Eastern Asia
Cambodia In 2003, the percentage of budget allocation for central Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries were approximately 0.27% and 1.06% of the total national budget allocated for expenditures at the central level respectively. At the provincial level, however the budget allocation for line departments of each of the two ministries above represents 25.3 and 41.15 % of the global budget allocated for each of the two ministries respectively. This figure has been increased in 2005 and 2006.

Indonesia National Budget for Development (APBN): Rp. 569,878,995,000 (2003); Rp. 618,217,974,200 (2002); Rp. 464,202,000,000 (2001); Rp. 302,191,944,019 (1999/2000)

Lao People's Democratic Republic 2010

Malaysia 2005, 2007

Philippines At the national level, the budget given to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the primary agency responsible for biodiversity conservation is only Philippine Peso 5.1 billion for the year 2001. In 2007 and 2008, the DENR budget was PhP 7.5 Billion (0.67% of national budget) and PhP 8.3 Billion (0.68% of national budget), respectively, with about 80% allocated for personnel costs and capital outlay, leaving only a small portion for programs. For 2009, DENR proposed a budget of PhP 12.4 Billion, 40.71% higher than the 2008 budget. The 2009 budget represents roughly 1% of the proposed total national budget of PhP 1.415 Trillion.

Singapore 1997

Thailand (2014) Central biodiversity expenditure: 31,000,000 (2006), 26,793,800 (2007), 22,966,000 (2008), 36,606,200 (2009), 32,425,400 (2010), 28,814,000 (2011), 31,788,400 (2012), 29,884,000 (2013)
1997

Viet Nam Budgetary allocations are annually estimated about USD 2 million for implementation of BAP of Vietnam (2006)

Western Asia
Armenia The budgets for conservation of forests, conservation of protected areas and reproduction and inventory of fish resources in thousands US dollars: 366.6 (1998), 372.7 (1999), 327.7 (2000), 483.4 (2001), 464.8 (2002), 496.9 (2003), 708.3 (2004), 1776.5 (2005). The state budget allots the following financing for protected areas management (AMD million): 2000 -126.2, 2001 - 260.2, 2002 – 253.8, 2003 – 302.2, 2004 -331.2, 2005 – 410.5, 2006 -367.4, 2007 – 401.6 , 2008 – 419.4. (Exchange rate - 1 USD = 304 AMD)

Bahrain 2006

Cyprus 2005

Georgia 1. Environmental Expenditure in the NIS: Georgian Country Report
2. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (hunting and fishing administration, programs), protected areas (administration, programs), forestry (administration, programs) in thousand US dollars: 4594.43 (1997), 2111.67 (1998), 925.32 (1999), 148.53 (2000), 192.51 (2001), 160.53 (2002), 176.49 (2003), 246.37 (2004), 668.04 (2005)

Israel 1. The budget of the Nature and Parks Authority for biodiversity activities is about $10 million (2008)
2. budget and expenditure for environmental protection, public expenditure on biodiversity

Jordan 2005

Lebanon 2006, 2009

Oman 1997, 2010

Qatar 2007

Saudi Arabia 2004, 2007

Syria 2006

Turkey 1. Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: 15 000 000 $ - 20 000 000 $ (2007)
2. expenditure on nature conservation and biodiversity protection

Yemen 2004, 2009

Eastern Europe
Belarus Activities for the conservation of biodiversity and research and development in thousands of US dollars: 736 (2001), 1129.3 (2002), 1659.2 (2003), 2071 (2004)

Bulgaria (2014) State budget (in million euros): 18.97 (2010–2011), 51.68 (2012–2013)
(2014) Central biodiversity expenditure in million euros: 15.82 (2012), 35.74 (2013)
(2012) Central government (US$ million): 14.13 (2006), 20.13 (2007), 31.65 (2008), 20.57 (2009), 14.78 (2010), 8.94 (2011)
(2010) Pilot Study on Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts: (Summary), (Tables)
(2010) 2010

Czech Republic Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in millions of Czech crowns (CZK): 1879.16 (2006), 1285.91 (2007), 1100.04 (2008), 1510.08 (2009), 1986.22 (2010), 1703.33 (2011), 1426.95 (2012)
1. Report2005, Report2009
2. public expenditure for nature conservation and landscape protection, support for non-productive agricultural functions

Hungary 1. Financial resources from the Ministry of Environment and Water and Other budgetary resources (million HUF): 3395 (1998), 3912 (1999), 4998 (2000), 6388 (2001), 7712 (2002), 8950 (2003), 7404 (2004), 5992 (2005)
2. Public expenditure on nature conservation
3. EPEA in Hungary - Final report (2005), by European Commission

Poland (2014) Central, state and local biodiversity expenditure in US dollars: 65,859,418 (2006), 690,916,980 (2007), 615,754,573 (2008), 600,869,598 (2009), 579,213,233 (2010)
1. Submission 2012
2. 2001, 2005, 2009
3. environmental expenditure
4. EPEA in Poland - Final report (2005), by European Commission

Republic of Moldova 1. Environmental and Natural Resources Management Expenditure in the Republic of Moldova
2. 2001, 2009

Romania The sums allocated for biodiversity conservation represented about 1.5-2% of the total sum available for environmental protections, representing about 1.8 million USD every year starting in 1994 until 2000

Russian Federation 1. Environmental Expenditure in the NIS: Russian Country Report
2. financing of state natural reserves and national parks in Russia in millions rubles: 1162.8 (2003), 1447.4 (2004), 1270.4 (2005), 1680.7 (2006), 2084.3 (2007)

Slovakia 1. 2001, 2009
2. public expenditure on nature and biodiversity management, environmental expenditure
3. EPEA in Slovakia - Final report (2005), by European Commission

Ukraine 1. Environmental Expenditure Data Collection and Reporting Systems in Ukraine
2. Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: 10 mln USD /year (core budget 2007)

Northern Europe
Denmark (2014) Central, state and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of US dollars: 226.59 (2006), 213.89 (2007), 288.98 (2008), 270.12 (2009), 209.03 (2010), 301.5 (2011), 370.43 (2012), explanation
1. Survey of the possibilities of collecting questionnaire-based data on environmental protection expenditure for the manufacturing industry
2. Pilot Survey of Environmental Protection Investments and Current Expenditure in the Manufacturing Industry
3. Danish Environmental Expenditure Accounts 2008
4. Submission 2012
5. Reports
6. public expenditure on nature and biodiversity protection, environmental expenditure
7. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
8. Pilot Survey of Environmental Protection Investments and Current Expenditure in the Manufacturing Industry in Denmark (2004), by European Commission

Estonia (2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 149.58 (2011)
(2014) The Environmental Programme supports 10 environmental areas. Nature Conservation Programme is directly related with biodiversity but also other programs have a greater or smaller impact on biodiversity –water management, waste management, environmental management, forestry, fisheries, environmental awareness, protection of atmospheric air, maritime and ground source programs. During 2008–2013, 234 million euros were allocated from the environmental program, 31 million euros of the amount was allocated via the Nature Conservation Programme. In 2013, 838 projects were supported for 37 million euros, including from the Nature Conservation Programme 141 applications for 5.9 million euros. As of 25.09.2013, the EIC has given loans with an intended purpose for 113 clients, with the loan portfolio of 103 million euros. Loan focus has been directed at local authorities and water companies for the development of water management projects.
1. Submission 2012
2. Report

Finland (2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 613.3 (2006), 640.4 (2007), 716.5 (2008), 646.1 (2009), 682.2 (2010), 649.1 (2011)
1. Public sector environmental protection expenditure 2011
2. Submission 2012
3. Report
4. Governmental expenditure on nature and biodiversity conservation, environmental expenditure

Ireland 1. The budget allocated for the National Parks and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government for the years 2002-2004 was €69.636m. Ireland's National Development Plan 2007-2013 (NDP) allocated €167 million the Natural Heritage Sub-Programme, €4.7 billion for the Water Services Sub-Programme. Almost €2.5 billion was spent on the Rural Development Strategy and Programme from 1994 to 2007.
2. The budget for the NPWS (not including salaries) increased from Eur 22 million in 2002 to Eur 34 million in 2007 to EUR 47 million in 2008.

Latvia 1. The direct budget allocations for the nature protection are approx. 2 M euro annually. Indirect allocations through the Latvian Environmental protection fund are 0.5 M euro annually.
2. EPEA in Latvia - Final report (2005), by European Commission

Lithuania 1. In the period of 2004-2006 in the frame of the “Action Programme of Cohesion encouraging for 2004-2006” 39 mil. litas were allocated for protection of biodiversity and landscape (75% EU funds and 25% from the State budget) and 11 mil. litas were allocated for coastal zone management (75% EU funds and 25% from the State budget). In the frame of the State programme “Environmental Protection Promotion Programme” during the 2006-2008 year period 1,5 mil. litas were allocated for protection and management of biodiversity and landscape (including scientific studies of protected species, enforcement of control of use of nature resources, public information).
2. EPEA in Lithuania -Final report (2005), by European Commission

Norway 1. Ministry of Environment, County governor, County councils in millions of NOK: 2376.94 (2006), 2594.76 (2007), 2969.01 (2008), 3568.46 (2009), 3698.89 (2010)
2. Methodology work for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure - 2002 data for Manufacturing, Mining and Quarrying, and Steam and Hot Water Supply; Methodological work for the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry (NACE 11) and preliminary figures for 2002
4. Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NORREA) Project 2003
5. Pilot studies for the development of Environmental Accounting: Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NORREA) Project 2005
6. Expenditure on nature and outdoor recreation
7. Methodology work for environmental protection investment and current expenditure in the manufacturing industry (2002), by European Commission

Sweden 1. Refined Environmental protection expenditures in Sweden
2. Public environmental protection expenditures and subsidies in Sweden
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts in Sweden – a pilot application and analysis
4. Environmental Protection Expenditure – new data collection and additional information
5. budget appropriations that promote the environment rose from just over SEK 4bn to just under SEK 13bn annually in the period 1995–2006
6. public environmental expenditure
7. Refined Environmental protection expenditures in Sweden (2002), by European Commission
8. Public EPE and subsidies in Sweden (2005), by European Commission

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (2014) Public sector expenditure on biodiversity in the UK, 2000-1 to 2012-13.
(2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure (GBP £m in 2012 prices): 2606 (2006), 3034 (2007), 2656 (2008), 3349 (2009), 3437 (2010), 2832 (2011)
1. In 2010-11, £459 million pounds of public sector funding was spent on UK biodiversity. Since 2000-1 public sector spending on UK biodiversity has increased by 79 per cent (at 2010/11 prices). Over the same period GDP increased by 17 per cent.
2. Public sector expenditure on UK and global biodiversity 2012
3. Indicators of funding of expenditure on biodiversity in the UK, and of UK Government funding on conservation of global biodiversity
4. Expenditure on the Farmland Birds PSA Target (2010)
5. Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01
6. Environmental Protection Expenditure by Industry: 2010 UK Survey
7. Environmental expenditure
8. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
9. Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01 (2002), by European Commission
10. Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01 (2010), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics

Southern Europe
Albania Domestic budget from 600,000 to 800,000 US$ per year (2007)

Bosnia and Herzegovina 30.000 KM (Budget of Government o Federation BiH) (2005)

Croatia (2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 61.59 (2006), 65.88 (2007), 69.78 (2008), 69.97 (2009), 73.21 (2010)
Report

Greece (2014) Central and location biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 53.32 (2007), 57.75 (2008), 48.8 (2009), 76.11 (2010), 103.06 (2011), 95.55 (2012), 110.74 (2013)
1. Pilot survey for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry - Reference year 2001
2. Report
3. public environment expenditure
4. Pilot survey for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry Reference year 2001 (2004), by European Commission

Italy (2014) State biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 872.46 (2006), 878.76 (2007), 972.6 (2008), 969.32 (2009). Central and state: 1,378.99 (2010), 1,889.38 (2011), 1,813.48 (2012); Availability of Financial Resources in Italy in 2010-2012 (“Biodiversity protection” and “Sustainable use and management”)
1. The first Italian EPEA for waste and wastewater management
2. Submission 2012
3. Government expenditure on environmental protection

Malta 1. Environmental Accounts (EPEA)
2. Report

Portugal 1. The annual budget of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature in million Euros: 37.17 (2001), 36.46 (2002), 31.37 (2003), 27.64 (2004), 26.43 (2005), 28.45 (2006), 22.39 (2007), 24.34 (2008), 18.63 (2009)
2. Public expenditure on biodiversity and landscapes, public environmental expenditure
3. EPE - Implementation of data collection using web forms (2005), by European Commission

Serbia The level of environmental investments between 2001 and 2005 was about 0.3% of GDP

Slovenia Direclty related state biodiversity expenditure in millions euros: 8.595 (2007), 11.87 (2008), 109.434 (2009), 9.977 (2010), 11.675 (2011), 9.356 (2012)
1. Data collection on Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts
2. Report
3. expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection, public environmental expenditure

Spain Central, autonomic and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euros: 1559 (2006), 1783 (2007), 1833 (2008), 2217 (2009), 1624 (2010), 1380 (2011)
1. Submission 2012
2. Report
3. environmental expenditure

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Report

Western Europe
Austria 1. Environmental expenditure in industry – Improvement of existing methodology for data collection
2. Financing of domestic environmental protection expenditure 2011 in million
3. Allocations in federal agricultural and environment budgets: agrarian environment measures 316 Mio. € (budget item 1/60366), 191 Mio. € (budget item 1/60376) and within environmental expenses (budget item 1/61208) (2005)
4. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
5. expenditure for environmental protection and water supply, budgetary support to environmental investment
6. Environmental expenditure in industry - Improvement of existing methodology for data collection in Austria (2002), by European Commission
7. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission

Belgium 1. Current environmental protection expenditure by the Belgian industry (1999)
2. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium – 1997
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium – 1997-2000
4. Environmental expenditures by the Belgian industries in 2002 - Imputation techniques and results
5. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium : 1997- 2002
6. Central and regional biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 211.35 (2010)
7. Public expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection in Belgium amounted to EUR 130‑150 million annually during 2000‑03, an increase from EUR 90‑110 million a year during 1996‑99. The share of investment expenditure steadily increased, from 11% in 1996 to 44% in 2003
8. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
9. public expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection
10. Current environmental protection expenditure in Belgium (2001), by European Commission
11. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium 1997-2000 (2003), by European Commission
12. EPE by the Belgian industries in 2002 - Imputation techniques and results (2004), by European Commission
13. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium 1997-2002 (2005), by European Commission

European Union Central biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 6472.36 (2007), 6472.36 (2008), 6472.36 (2009), 6472.36 (2010), 6472.36 (2011), 6472.36 (2012)
1. Environmental expenditure statistics: General Government and Specialised Producers data collection handbook, 2007
2. Environmental expenditure statistics: Industry data collection handbook, 2005
3. OECD/Eurostat Environmental Protection Expenditure and Revenues Joint Questionnaire/SERIEE Environmental Protection Expenditure Account: Conversion Guidelines, 2005
4. SERIEE - Environmental protection expenditure accounts - Compilation Guide, 2002
5. SERIEE - European System for the collection of economic information on the environment, 1994 version
6. Submission 2012
7. Reports
8. Environmental protection expenditure in Europe - Data 1995-2009

France (2014) Évolution de la dépense nationale en faveur de la protection de la biodiversité et des paysages
(2014) Central, state and provincial, local and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 1064 (2007), 1184 (2008), 1292 (2009), 1394 (2010), 1589 (2011)
(2012) Submission
Reports
(2011) Environmental spending
Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
(2005) national expenditure on biodiversity and landscapes, environmental protection expenditure
(2002) Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications, by European Commission

Germany Central, state and provincial, local and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: central 200 (2013), state and local 839 (2009)
1. Submission 2012
2. Reports
3. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
4. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission

Luxembourg 1. Reports
2. public expenditure on environmental protection

Netherlands Central and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 301.2 (2007), 419.6 (2008), 465.4 (2009), 551.2 (2010)
1. Environmental protection expenditure accounts for the Netherlands
2. Environmental protection expenditures from the Netherlands in foreign countries
3. Environmental protection expenditures of households home improvement
4. EPE estimation method for NACE (45-96)
5. Submission 2012
6. Reports
7. Environmental expenditure

Switzerland Central, state and provincial, local and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of CHF: 578.6 (2006), 661.4 (2007), 684 (2008), 714.3 (2009), 740.7 (2010), 748.8 (2011), central and state 690.3 (2012)
1. Estimating Public and Private Financial Contributions to Biodiversity: submission 2012
2. Dépenses de protection de l’environnement des entreprises en 2003 - Premiers résultats
3. 1998, 2009
4. allocation of federal funding to biodiversity, expenditure on protection of the environment
5. Dépenses de protection de l'environnement des entreprises en 2003 - Switzerland (2005), by European Commission
6. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission

Oceania
Australia 1. Report 1998, 2005, 2009
2. Australian Bureau of Statistics dedicated to Natural Resource Management 2006-7
3. environmental expenditure, funding parks management
4. Cost Sharing for Biodiversity Conservation
5. Environment Protection Expenditure, Australia, 1995-96 and 1996-97 (1999), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
6. Producing National Estimates of Environmental Protection Expenditure: The application of PAC and SERIEE in Australia (2000), by UNESCAP
7. Environment Expenditure, Local Government, Australia, 2002-03 (2004), by Australian Bureau of Statistics

Cook Islands Reports

Fiji Reports

Kiribati Reports

Marshall Islands Reports

Micronesia Reports

Nauru (2014) 3% of its total workforce of permanent staff that were employed in three key government agencies with environmental and for that matter biodiversity related mandates and roles – the Environment Office at the Department of Commerce, Industries and the Environment, the Lands and Surveys in its roles for land management and the office of Quarantine in terms of its pest or invasive species control and prevention role – for the years 2009 and 2011. This percentage dropped to 2% in 2013.
Development Fund Annual Projections for two Fiscal Years 2011-12 and 2012-13 shows a constant 13% projections for two environment related agencies the CIE (Environment) and NFMRA (Fisheries)

New Zealand (2014) Central and municipal biodiversity expenditure in million NZD: 763.97 (2006), 761.13 (2007), 881.36 (2008), 917.24 (2009), 841.09 (2011). Central 729.87 (2010), 827.47 (2012)
(2014) Annual ‘Vote Conservation’ and ‘Vote Environment’ appropriations (source: www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/votehistory/envir/, downloaded November 2013)(2009-10 to 2013-14)
Reports
(2007) expenditure on bio-security, public environmental expenditure
(2003) Environmental Protection Expenditure Account for the Public Sector: Years ended June 2001 to June 2003, by Statistics New Zealand

Niue budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries at $60,000.00 in 2004-2005 annual budget

Palau The National Government appropriates approximately 1.4 million fiscally to environment related programs within ministries

Papua New Guinea Estimating Expenditure on Biodiversity Conservation, including economic incentives, national government and donors, non-government organizations, and mining companies

Samoa The Government of Samoa has increased its national budget allocation for the implementation for the Biodiversity Conservation Unit since its establishment in 1990 from $50,000.00 to $510,145 (Samoan tala) in 1998/99

Solomon Islands A baseline data from 2010-2014 shows that 37 % of biodiversity protection activities comes from official development, 28% from NGOs, 15% from the government and 20% from other public funds. Since 2013 there has been a significant increase of budget towards environmental protection from official development supports and national government as administered by the ECD.
Reports

Tonga Reports

Vanuatu Reports

Status and trends
The average percentage of environmental expenditure of central governments in gross domestic products of some 40 countries has stayed around 0.2 per cent over the period between 2002 and 2010, and the average percentage of general governments including lower levels of governments has been around 0.7 percent, implying that a difference of 0.5 percent of gross domestic products for environmental protection has come from provincial and local governments. Several countries registered higher than 1 percentage of general government environmental protection spending in their national domestic products in 2009.
Although the overall trend in environmental spending is rather stable, many countries reported quantum jump in national budgets for biodiversity and ecosystem services. The two diagrams from Namibia provide a snapshot of the story that can also be found in South Africa, Vietnam, and Antigua and Barbuda, where ten-fold increase in biodiversity funding was reported. Globally speaking, national budgetary support to biodiversity and ecosystem services is estimated to be in the range between US$15 billion - $45 billion in 2010. If one per mille of gross domestic products can be allocated for biodiversity and ecosystem services, some US$63 billion may be expected in 2010.

Counting

Ideas of Mobilization

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme