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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Mainstreaming in donor organizations

Basis for action:
"To integrate considerations on biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services into the priorities, strategies and programmes of multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, including sectoral and regional priorities, taking into account the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 5.1

"To integrate effectively the three objectives of the Convention into the United Nations development system, as well as international financial institutions and development banks"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 5.3

Indicator:
Number of international financing institutions, United Nations organizations, funds and programmes, and the development agencies that report to the Development Assistance Committee of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/DAC), with biodiversity and associated ecosystem services as a cross-cutting policy
Aggregated financial flows, in the amount and where relevant percentage, of biodiversity-related funding, per annum, for achieving the Convention’s three objectives, in international financial institutions
Aggregated financial flows, in the amount and where relevant percentage, of biodiversity-related funding, per annum, for achieving the Convention’s three objectives, in United Nations organizations, funds and programmes

International financial institutions and development banks
World Bank (WB) 1. Projects (2013)
2. Annual Report (2013)
3. Global Tiger Initiative (GTI), Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF), Save Our Species Program, International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC), Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO), Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES)
4. OP 4.01 - Environmental Assessment; OP 4.03 - Performance Standards for Private Sector Activities; OP 4.04 - Natural Habitats; OP 4.07 - Water Resources Management; OP 4.09 - Pest Management; OP 4.10 - Indigenous Peoples; OP 4.36 - Forests; OP 4.37 - Safety of Dams; OP 7.50 - Projects on International Waterways
5. Environment Strategy 2012-2022: Toward a Clean, Green Resilient World (2012), Assessing the environmental co-benefits of climate change actions, The Role of Biodiversity and Ecosystems, Strengthening Environmental Institutions and Governance, Valuing Ecosystem Services, Financing Environmental Services in Developing Countries
6. The World Bank’s Approach to Global Programs: An Independent Evaluation
7. Global Monitoring Report 2008 - MDGs and the Environment: Agenda for Inclusive and Sustainable Development

International Development Association (IDA) 1. A record $52 billion for the 17th replenishment of the International Development Association (IDA) (December 2013)
2. Strengthening support for regional projects : background note 2013
3. IDA at Work: Protecting National and Global Resources

International Finance Corporation (IFC) 1. Investment Project Commitments
2. IFC's updated Sustainability Framework (2012)
3. The Business Case for Sustainability (2012)
4. IFC Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability - Effective January 1, 2012
5. Public Private Equity Partnerships: Accelerating the Growth of Climate Related Private Equity Investment (2011)
6. Climate Finance: Engaging the Private Sector (2011)
7. Biodiversity and Agricultural Commodities Program (BACP)

Asian Development Bank (ADB) 1. Projects on environment and climate change 2013
2. Environmental and Social Safeguards
3. Strategy 2020: Working for an Asia and Pacific Free of Poverty
4. Environment Policy of the Asian Development Bank 2002
5. Safeguard Policy Statement 2009
6. Addressing Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific: Priorities for Action 2010
7. Environment Operational Directions 2013–2020, Projects with Environmental Sustainability as Theme 2001–2012

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) 1. Environmental and Social SafeguardsReview of Safeguards
2. Financial instruments and mechanisms for climate change programs in Latin America and the Caribbean: A guide for Ministries of Finance
3. Establishment of the BES Program and the Multidonor Fund
4. Private Sector Development Strategy: Fostering Development through the Private Sector
5. IDB Integrated Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Sustainable and Renewable Energy
6. Inter-American Development Bank Sustainability Report 2011
7. Leveraging Opportunities for Sustaining Growth: IDB Biodiversity Platform for Latin America and the Caribbean
8. Forest Financing in Latin America: The Role of the Inter-American Development Bank
9. Natural Partners: How People in Latin America Are Forging a New Relationship with Their Natural Environment
10. Profile of Markets for Certified Green Products, Derived Environmental Services, and Financing Mechanisms
11. Investing in Biodiversity Conservation: Proceedings of a Workshop (1997)
12. IDB Investments in Brazilian Protected Areas during the 1990s
13. Financing Biodiversity Conservation (2000)
14. Terms of Trade and Fiscal Sustainability when the Sovereign Exploits a Natural Resource (2013)
15. Are Environmentally Related Taxes Effective? (2013)

African Development Bank (AfDB) 1. Environmental and Social Safeguards
2. African Development Bank’s Integrated Safeguards System: Policy Statement and Operational Safeguards (2013)
3. African Development Bank Group’s Policy on the Environment (2004)
4. Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Guidelines (2003)
5. Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures for African Development Bank's Public Sector Operations (2001)
6. Procédures en matière d’étude environnementale relatives aux opérations du secteur privé de la Banque africaine de développement (2000)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 1. History, Environmental and Social Safeguards
2. Environmental and Social Policy 2008
3. Environmental and Social Procedures, April 2010
4. Annual Report 2012
5. Sustainability report 2012
6. 20 years of investing in the green economy
7. Guide to EBRD financing
8. Agribusiness Sustainable Investment Facility 2013
9. Mandatory versus voluntary payment for green electricity

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1. IMF and the Environment, History
2. Annual Report 2013: Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy

United Nations organizations, funds and programmes
United Nations 1. Real-term decline in total contributions in 2011
2. Environmental Profile of the United Nations System Organizations: Review of their in-house environmental management policies and practices (2010)

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP (UNCDF and UNV)) 1. Environmental and Social Safeguards
2. Annual Report 2013: Support Global Progress
3. Changing with the World: UNDP Strategic Plan: 2014–17
4. United Nations Development Programme Biodiversity and Ecosystems Global Framework 2012-2020
5. Biodiversity and the Millennium Development Goals
6. Investing in Development: the Millennium Development Goals, Aid and Sustainable Capital Accumulation
7. The Global Partnership for Development: The Challenge We Face, MDG Gap Task Force Report 2013
8. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013
9. Breaking Down the Silos: Integrating environmental sustainability in the post-2015 agenda
10. Scaling Up Support to the MDGs: Final draft approved by UNDP MDG Steering Committee, July 2008

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 1. Annual Report 2012
2. The UNICEF Strategic Plan, 2014-2017: Realizing the rights of every child, especially the most disadvantaged

United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) WFP Strategic Plan (2014–2017)

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) UNHCR Global Appeal 2014-2015 - Identifying needs and funding requirements

World Health Organization (WHO) Biodiversity and health

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 1. Environmental and Social Safeguards
2. Reviewed Strategic Framework 2010-19
3. Medium Term Plan 2014-17 and Programme of Work and Budget 2014-15
4. Organization-wide Strategy on Partnerships; FAO Strategy for Partnerships with Civil Society; FAO Strategy for Partnerships with the Private Sector
5. World Agriculture towards 2015/2030
6. Preparation of the State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
7. FAO’s South-South Cooperation Strategy
8. TCP Manual: Managing the decentralized Technical Cooperation Programme, December 2009

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 1. Population Dynamics in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Report of the Global Thematic Consultation on Population Dynamics
2. Financial resource flows for population activities in 2011
3. The Demography of Adaptation to Climate Change
4. Population Matters for Sustainable Development

International Labour Organization (ILO) 1. South-South Cooperation and Decent Work: Good Practices
2. Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy
3. Working towards sustainable development: Opportunities for decent work and social inclusion in a green economy
4. Introduction to policies and programmes for green jobs 2012
5. Mainstreaming environmental issues in sustainable enterprises: An exploration of issues, experiences and options
6. Assessing green jobs potential in developing countries
7. Skills for Green Jobs: A Global View
8. An enabling environment for sustainable enterprises

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1. Biodiversity in UNESCO
2. Education for sustainable development: Sourcebook
3. Shaping the Education of Tomorrow. 2012 Report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

Other Specialized agencies 1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination, Technical Reports Series 475; Technical Cooperation Strategy (GOV/INF/824); IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2012-2017); Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency (INFCIRC/267)

2. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): Sustainable Alternative Aviation Fuels Activity; Environment Report 2013; Flightpath to a Sustainable Future (Rio+20 Review)​; ICAO's Policies on Charges for Airports and Air Navigation Services, Doc 9082/6; ICAO's Policies on Taxation in the Field of International Air Transport, Doc 8632

3. International Maritime Organization (IMO): IMO and the Environment; IMO’s contribution to sustainable maritime development: Capacity-building for safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans through the Integrated Technical Co-operation Programme

4. Universal Postal Union (UPU): Sustainable Development Project Group report on the activities 2008-2012

5. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): WIPO Development Tools and Services (WIPO/PUB/1015); A Stronger Voice: The WIPO Voluntary Fund (WIPO/PUB/936); WIPO-UNEP Study on the Role of Intellectual Property Rights in the Sharing of Benefits Arising from the Use of Biological Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge (WIPO/PUB/769); Draft Intellectual Property Guidelines for Access to Genetic Resources and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits arising from their Utilization

6. World Meteorological Organization (WMO): WMO Strategic Plan 2012-2015 (WMO-No. 1069); Environment

7. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO): Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook: Enhancing capacities for Sustainable Tourism for development in developing countries; UNWTO Annual Report 2012; UNWTO Technical Product Portfolio 2011

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 1. Environmental and Social Safeguards
2. Climate change strategy
3. IFAD Strategic Framework 2011-2015
4. Private-Sector Strategy: Deepening IFAD’s engagement with the private sector
5. Private Sector Policy: Development and Partnership Strategy
6. IFAD Partnership Strategy 2012
7. Environment and Natural Resource Management: IFAD’s Growing Commitment

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Smart investments

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC/UNDCP) Fundraising Strategy 2012-2015

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) OCHA in 2012 & 2013: Plan and Budget

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women) UN Women Fund for Gender Equality, UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Environmental and Social Safeguards; Annual Report 2012

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) Guide to Financing Infrastructure and Basic Services; Working with Nature: Urban Patterns for a Green Economy; Guide to Municipal Finance

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Environmental and Social Safeguards

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

Regional commissions 1. Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
2. Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)
3. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
4. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
5. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

International Trade Centre (ITC)

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Bilateral agencies
Australia (2014) Integration of environment into Australia’s aid programme and poverty reduction strategies. Under Australia’s EPBC Act, there is a requirement to assess any proposal put forward by a Commonwealth agency or employee of the Commonwealth that is likely to have significant impacts on the environment anywhere in the world. This includes projects under Australia’s aid programme, which is legally obliged under the EPBC Act to ensure that through its international aid work it is not causing, or likely to cause, a significant negative impact on the environment. These potential impacts must be diligently assessed and managed. Integration of environmental considerations into Australia’s aid programme is guided by the Environment Management Guide for Australia's Aid Program (the Guide). This is a mandatory process of assessment and management of potential environmental impacts arising from Australia's aid activities and delivery strategies. The Guide requires staff in Australia’s aid programme to identify possible impacts as early as possible and put in place appropriate processes to avoid environmental harm or manage impacts if they are unavoidable. The Guide also ensures that Australia assesses and manages the positive impacts the aid programme may have on the environment, such as the sustainable use of natural resources to reduce poverty. The Guide also describes the legal responsibilities under the EPBC Act.
(2013) Australia review: AusAID
Australian Agency for International Development

Austria (2009) Austria review: ADA
Austrian Development Agency
(2013) Bilateral aid in support of the environment

Belgium (2010) Belgium review: BGDC
Directorate General for Cooperation and Development

Canada (2012) Canada 2012 review: CIDA, DFAIT, the Department of Finance, IDRC and Citizenship and Immigration Canada
(2004) Environmental ODA

Czech Republic (2005) as a donor

Denmark (2011) Denmark review: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Danish International Development Agency

Finland (2012) Finland review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs

France (2013) France review French Development Agency

Germany (2010) Germany review
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit and Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung
(2011) ODA, International Climate Initiative, Global Climate Partnership Fund

Greece (2011) Greece review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(2009) environmental development assistance

Hungary (2008) ODA and the environment

Iceland Icelandic Development Agency (ICEIDA)

Ireland (2009) Ireland review
Department of Foreign Affairs
(2009) Irish Aid Environment Policy for Sustainable Development

Italy (2009) Italy review
Direzione Generale per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo
(2013) ODA and the environment

Japan (2011) Japan review
Japan Bank for International Cooperation and Japanese International Cooperation Agency

Republic of Korea (2012) Republic of Korea review: Korea International Cooperation Agency
(2006) Environment-related ODA

Liechtenstein Liechtenstein

Luxembourg (2012) Luxembourg review
Luxembourg
(2009) ODA and environment

Netherlands (2011) Netherlands review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS), International Policy Programme Biodiversity of the Netherlands: 2002 -2006
(2003) Environmental ODA

New Zealand (2010) New Zealand review: International Aid & Development Agency

Norway (2014) The white paper Towards greener development (Meld. St. 14 (2010–2011)) provides a framework for cooperation between the Ministry of Climate and Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on environment in development cooperation. The government’s intitative on climate and energy (Energy+), the Clean Energy for Development initiative and Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (budget of around USD 500 million a year since 2008). The programme Oil for Development aims to transfer Norwegian expertise assisting developing countries to manage their petroleum resources in a way that promotes lasting poverty alleviation and incorporates environmental concerns. Biodiversity considerations are incorporated through land-use planning, environmental impact assessments, mapping and monitoring of species and habitats and vulnerability analyses.
(2013) Norway 2013 review
(2011) Norad and Norfund
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation

Portugal (2010) Portugal 2010 review
Instituto Português de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento, I.P.

Slovenia (2012) ODA and environment

Spain (2014) Plan Director de la Cooperación Española (2013-2016)
(2011) Spain 2011 review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(2004) ODA and environment

Sweden (2013) Sweden review
Swedish International Development Authority
(2004) environmental development aid

Switzerland (2013) Switzerland review
Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation
(2007) development assistance related to environmental protection

United Kingdom (2010) United Kingdom review
Department for International Development
(2002) Development assistance and the environment

United States (2011) United States review
(2011) International Environmental Finance Tools, Agency for International Development
(2013) USAID Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Programs: annual report
(2013) Foreign Aid: International Donor Coordination of Development Assistance
(2013) Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress
(2011) U.N. System Development Assistance: Issues for Congress
(2011) Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
(2005) Environmental assistance

European Union (2012) EU review: Directorate General for Development and Co-operation EuropeAid
European Development Fund
(2009) WWF study on biodiversity and the EU budget 2009

OECD (2002) The DAC Guidelines: Integrating the Rio Conventions into Development Co-operation
(2001) First Draft of the Policy Guidance on Mainstreaming the Global Environment Conventions in Development Co-Operation
(1999) Summary of Environmental Assessment Policies and Procedures for Development Assistance Activities
A History of the Development Assistance Committee and the Development Co-Operation Directorate in Dates, Names and Figures
(2003) Environment and Export Credits: 2002 Revised Coverage Matrix
A Comparison of Management Systems for Development Co-Operation in OECD/DAC Members

Status and trends
7 international financial institutions are known to have some policy elements on biodiversity and ecosystem services, and 26 developed countries that are members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee have reported projects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Among 24 United Nations organizations, funds and programmes that have noticeable operational activities, only 6 entities are known to have biodiversity-specific operational activities and/or policy consideration.

The integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services is much more visible within multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, international financial institutions and development banks than within the operational system of the United Nations. The Chief Executives Board for Coordination of the United Nations has never devoted a specific theme on biodiversity and ecosystem services, and biodiversity only features visibly in a limited number of operational activities of the United Nations system. There are many good examples in bilateral donor organizations. USAID has published annual reports of Biodiversity Conservation Forestry Programs for a number of years by now.

The recent campaign on climate change has succeeded in introducing three features in most donor agencies: announcing an explicit policy statement on climate change mitigation and adaptation, establishing a visible operational institutional unit for climate change, and creating a pool of dedicated staff on climate change. Providing employment is key to mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services by donor agencies, and this is particularly helpful in an ear of heightened unemployment challenges. It is important that all donor agencies hire and retain more staff members on biodiversity and ecosystem services, and establish appropriate enabling working environments, including operational policy and unit on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme