Economic Benefits of Biodiversity

  • The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital, by R. Constanza and et al, Nature, Volume 387: 253-260, (1997). Read the paper

  • Wetland
    The Empirics of Wetland Valuation: A Comprehensive Summary and a Meta-Analysis of the Literature (2003), by L.M., Brander, J.G.M. Florax and J.E. Vermat. Read the paper

  • Forest
    The economic value of forest ecosystems (2003), Ecosystem Health, Volume 7(4) December: 284-296, by D. W. Pearce. Read the paper

  • Coral reef
    The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation (2004), by H. Cesar, L. Burke and L. Pet-Soede, WWF Netherlands. Read the paper

  • Pharmaceutical
    The Social Value of Using Biodiversity in New Pharmaceutical Product Research (1996), by R. David Simpson and Amy B. Craft, Resources for the Future. Read the paper

  • United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
    The Valuation of Biological Diversity for National Biodiversity Action (2000). Read the paper

  • World Bank
    • The Domestic Benefits of Tropical Forests: A Critical Review, 1998. Read the paper
    • How much is an ecosystem worth? Assessing the economic value of conservation, October 2004. Read the paper
    • Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation, Environment Department Paper No. 101, October 2004, Read the paper

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    • The Biodiversity Benefits of Coral Reef Ecosystems: Values and Markets, ENV/EPOC/GSP/BIO(2001)5/FINAL, 29-Mar-2002. Read the paper
    • Environmental Goods and Services A Synthesis of Country Studies, OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2005-03. Read the paper

  • IUCN – The World Conservation Union
    The Economic Value of Biodiversity, 1994. Read the paper

  • International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
    The Cost of Avoiding Deforestation: Report prepared for the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change, 2006. Read the paper

Country studies

  • Botswana
    Economic Valuation of Communal Rangelands in Botswana: A Case Study (1998). Read the paper

  • Cambodia
    Balancing the local opportunity costs of wetland protection in Ream National Park (2003), Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #3, IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia. Read the paper

  • Cameroon
    Economic benefits of wetland restoration in Waza Logone Floodplain (2003), Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #4, IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Asia Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group. Read the paper

  • Djibouti
    Biodiversity Economic Assessment (1998). Read the paper

  • Eritrea
    Biodiversity Economic Assessment (1998). Read the paper

  • Lao PDR
    Economic returns from conserving natural forests in Sekong Province (2003), Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #8, IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Asia Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group. Read the paper

  • Oman
    Economic valuation of biodiversity in Oman (2001). Read the paper

  • Pakistan
    Economic costs of reduction in freshwater flows in Indus Delta (2003), Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #5, IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Asia Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group. Read the paper

  • Philippines
    Preservation or Conversion? Valuation and Evaluation of a Mangrove forest in the Philippines (1999), by R. Janssen and J. Padilla, Environmental and Resource Economics, Volume 14. Read the paper

  • Senegal
    The economic value of wild resources in Senegal (2006). Read the paper

  • Seychelles
    Biodiversity Economic Assessment (1997). Read the paper

  • Tanzania
    Catchment Ecosystems and Downstream Water: The Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania (2005), IUCN Water, Nature and Economics Technical Paper No. 7. Read the paper

  • Uganda
    • Managing wetlands for their ecosystem services in Nakivubo Swamp (2003), Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #7, IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia. Read the paper
    • Uganda Biodiversity: Economic Assessment (1999). Read the paper

  • United Kingdom
    • Economics and Funding SIG (2007), Valuing the Benefits of Biodiversity. England Biodiversity Strategy. Reade the paper
    • An Introductory Guide to valuing ecosystem services (December 2007): Executive Summary or Full Report.

  • Zambia
    Local economic dependence on wetland resources in Barotse Floodplain (2003), Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #2, IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Asia Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group. Read the paper

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme