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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Market for green products

Basis for action: "To explore opportunities presented by promising innovative financial mechanisms such as markets for green products, business-biodiversity partnerships and new forms of charity"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 4.4

Indicator:
Number of initiatives, and respective amounts, supplementary to the financial mechanism established under Article 21, that engage Parties and relevant organizations in new and innovative financial mechanisms, which consider intrinsic values and all other values of biodiversity, in accordance with the objectives of the Convention and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of Their Utilization

Africa
Ethiopia Specialty market and co-management of Bale Wild coffee

Ghana Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products (2009)

Kenya 1. Good Wood, wwf version
2. Rainforest Alliance Certification

Madagascar La promotion de l’écotourisme. L’écotourisme génère des bénéfices nationaux qui sont constitués, d’une part, des Droits d’Entrée dans les Aires Protégées (DEAP) collectées par Madagascar National Parks (MNP), et, d’autre part, de la valeur ajoutée nationale (transport, hôtellerie, restauration, artisanat, guidage). Par conséquent, les communautés locales peuvent en bénéficier directement. Une part de ces recettes est versée aux communautés locales pour mettre en oeuvre des projets sociaux dans les zones périphériques des aires protégées (AP).

Mauritius Organic farming

Mali Better Cotton Initiative

Namibia Organic certification developed; Forestry Stewardship Council certification for Charcoal; Team Namibia; Eco awards Namibia Programme
Communal area conservancies

Rwanda Promotion of organic fertilizers use (through Girinka program), a policy of one cow per poor family; composting technologies dissemination to replace harmful chemical fertilizers in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts to soil fertility and human well-being

Sierra Leon Increasing incomes and food security of small farmers in West and Central Africa through exports of organic and fair-trade tropical products (2009)

South Africa 1. Green markets in biodiversity and information disclosure scheme, nature-based tourism
2. Tourism Certification, National Standards and Biodiversity Conservation, South Africa

Swaziland 1. Improving Primary Producer Incomes through Organic Certification: The Marula Case Study from Swaziland (2007)
2. Organic Certification – Sustainable Harvesting Volume (2004)

Tanzania FSC Certification for maintaining ecosystem services, Tanzania (2012)

Tunisia 1. Opportunities for Promoting Aromatic, Medicinal and Non-Ligneous Plants in Arid Regions in Tunisia (2007)
2. Organic agriculture and the law – Tunisia (2012)

Uganda 0.21 percent of Uganda’s coffer was exported as organic and 0.5 percent as sustainable coffer (including fair trade, organic and shade coffee), the premiums earned by farmers ranged between 22 and 35%. Organic certification system for the export of shea products from the Kidepo Criticial Landswcape
coffee, beans, cotton, maize and simsim from organic farming
1. Biotrade
2. Mainstreaming Sustainable Land Management in the National Biotrade programme – Case of Uganda

Zambia Community Markets for Conservation

Regional 1. Conference on Ecological Agriculture: Mitigating Climate Change, Providing Food Security and Self-Reliance for Rural Livelihoods in Africa (2008)
2. New markets & emerging opportunities: the case of natural products (2007

Asia
China China has actively promoted development of organic farming. By 2012, China has had 20,000 km2 of land for eco-farming, ranking top in Asia. Eco-farming initiatives and demonstration projects for rural new energy were undertaken to enhance capacities for sustainable agricultural development, with focus on reuse of straw, use of biogas and solar energy in rural areas and establishment of eco-farming bases, with a view to increasing eco-farming efficiency and farmers’ income and improving the rural environment. So far more than 41 million rural households have used biogas and more than 150 million people benefited from this.
1. Harnessing Ecosystem Services for Local Livelihoods: the Case of Tea Forests in Yunnan, China
2. Development of ecological agriculture, logging quota system

India Organic farming is being promoted across the country under the National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF), a central sector scheme (www.ncof.dacnet.nic.in) continuing since India's 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007). A variety of incentives are disbursed to farmers under the NPOF scheme to encourage organic farming, which reduces negative impacts on the environment and biodiversity. Area under certified organic farming increased from 42,000 hectares during 2003-2004 to 10,50,000 hectares in 2009-2010. 'Green certification', such as the Green Thumb Certification Programme of the Applied Environmental Research Foundation, Pune, encourages conservation initiatives taken up by the private sector.
National Programme for Organic Production(NPOP).launched in 2004
1. Organic farming, certification
2. Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: India (2007)
3. Organic agriculture and the law – India (2012)
4. Sikkim – One of the organic states
5. Participatory Guarantee Systems for organic agriculture

Indonesia 1. Indonesia Certification program
2. Non-governmental standard development and certification for Palm Oil: Ecosystem services and local administrators in the case of the “Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil” (RSPO)(2010)

Iran Organic farms

Israel Markets for eco-tourism

Japan 90 million and 40 million hectors certified by FSC and Sustainable Green Ecosystem Councils (SGEC) (Public Procurement Policy in 2001, Wood Procurement Guidelines in 2006), 8,782 wood producers certified by March 2013, certified rice sold in average 30% higher than uncertified
Rice on Sado Island that is certified as being grown in harmony with animals
1. Conserving Satoyama through environment-friendly rice production - Kabukuri-numan and surrounding rice paddies; restoring rice paddy habitats to reintroduce the oriental white stork in Toyooka City; reintroducing the crested ibis and rice production; fish cradle rice paddies project
2. eco-labelling
3. Restoring agricultural wetlands benefits both farmers and geese
4. Organic agriculture and the law – Japan (2012)
5. Reintroducing the Japanese Crested Ibis in Sado, Japan (2010)
6. Fertilizing the fields with ducks, Japan (2013)

Kazakhstan The amount of financial resources (from all sources), spent for fishery activities in the period from 2010 to 2013. Positive incentives for use of fish resources are realized by granting fishery ponds to users on a long-term basis. To date, 1791 fishery ponds (sites) are secured for 1004 users who have signed fishery contracts for 10 years. Users invest their own funds for the protection and reproduction of fish resources, researches and strengthening the material - technical base. During 2006-2013 users invested over 10 billion tenge (about $ 67,000,000) to these spheres.

Lebanon 1. Tax incentives for local production
2. Business for the poor: Healthy Basket, a socially responsible company trading in organic produce in Lebanon and the Middle East

Malaysia Introduction of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) to be implemented by farmers. The Malaysian Good Agricultural Practices (MyGAP) initiative was launched in 2013. It is essentially a rebranding and consolidation exercise of three schemes namely the Malaysian Farm Certification Scheme for Good Agricultural Practices, the Livestock Farm Practices Scheme and the Malaysian Aquaculture Farm Certification Scheme. It is a comprehensive certification scheme for agricultural, aquaculture and livestock sectors which is implemented based on the Malaysian Standard (MS). The Malaysian Organic Scheme (MOS) is a certification programme to certify farms that are operated using organic methods according to the criteria and guidelines stipulated within the Malaysian Organic Scheme Standard. The Standard is based on the Malaysian Standard entitled ‘MS1529:2001 The Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Plant Based Organically Produced Foods’. It also covers the conditions and criteria regulated by law in relation to impacts to environment, food safety and as well as employee health and safety. Benefits derived from such a certification can be summarised as follows: Yield produced from farms that have been certified can be labelled as an organic product and have the right to use the Malaysian Organic label on these products. Consumers are provided the assurance that the products purchased are truly organic and do not contain unwanted chemical residues as the product has been endorsed as being in compliance to the MOS. As the use of chemical fertiliser and pesticide are prohibited under the organic farming scheme, it directly translates to the fact that no contamination to the environment or the possibility of poisoning among manufacturers or workers has occurred.

Myanmar organic fertilizer standard developed, and government approval required for certification

Nepal 1. Himalayan biotrade
2. Himalayan biotrade

Philippines The 60/40 Scheme for Turtle Egg Use, wwf version

Qatar Ecotourism

Republic of Korea Eco-labelling scheme

Thailand Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: Thailand (2007)

Turkey 1. Organic Farming
2. organic agriculture

Regional 1. Using economic incentives to conserve CITES-listed species: A scoping study on ITQs for sturgeon in the Caspian Sea (2004)
2. The Market for Organic Products in Asia-Pacific

Americas
Argentina Organic agriculture and the law – Argentina (2012)
Brazil 1. Certified Forest Products Buyers Group
2. Applying Capitalism to Protect Dwindling Brazilian Forestland (2008)
3. Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: Brazil (2007)
Bolivia Cupuazu: pulp production and commercialization
Canada 1. Certified forests, environmental certification
2. Forest certification
3. Just Us, Coffee Roasters, Nova Scotia and Mexico Fair Trade Cooperative (2010)
4. Organic agriculture and the law – Canada (2012)
Colombia 1. Alas de Colomnbia (Colombian Wings): breeding of native butterflies
2. Market creation and promotion for bio-products
Costa Rica Bioprogramme, sustainable tourism
Ecuador 1. Jambi Kiwa: medicinal plants from Chimborazo
2. Fishery certification
3. National biotrade programme, certification
4. Engaging local and national stakeholders´ in sustainable trade of natural products
5. The BioTrade Initiative: Linking the sustainable use of biodiversi ty wi th poverty alleviation
Guatemala Marketing strategy
Mexico projects, tourism certification
Perú AEDES: Agro-export and ecoturism
United States of America 1. Forest Management and Stump-to-Forest Gate Chain-of-Custody Certification Evaluation Report for the Collins Lakeview Forest (2008)
2. Forest Management and Stump-to-Forest Gate Chain-of-Custody Certification Evaluation Report for the Collins Almanor Forest (2008)
3. Forest Management and Stump-to-Forest Gate Chain-of-Custody Certification Evaluation Report for the Collins Pennsylvania Forest (2005)
4. Analysis of the Status of Current Certification Schemes in Promoting Conservation (2002)
5. Organic agriculture and the law – USA (2012)
Venezuela The Caiman and the capybara: commercial use of wildlife
Regional 1. Communities Contributing to Biodiversity: Biodiversity Products from Latin America and the Caribbean (2010)
2. Certification in Latin America: Experience to Date (1998)

Europe
Belgium Increasing areas under organic farming, legislation concerning the production and labelling processes of biological products as well as concerning grants for organic farming in the Walloon Region, BioForum Wallonie (coordination), and the Bio Pilot Centre (technical guidance structure), strategic plan for the development of biological agriculture to 2020, the Wallonia Nature Network - Catalogue of actions, certified forest land (nearly 90% on public land)
1. certified organic farming, certification of sustainable forestry management, product labelling
2. biodiversity criteria in public procurement policies, forest certification, organic farming

Bulgaria Biological agriculture

Croatia (2014) The FSC certificate of the state-owned company Croatian Forests (Hrvatske šume d.o.o.) in 2012 for sustainable and responsible management of state forests which make 78% of all forests and forest land in Croatia, was extended for the period of five years. Area under organic production is growing - from 0.8% of utilized agricultural area in 2008 to 2.4% in 2012.
(2014) Markets for green products - Green Business Support Programme

Czech Republic 1. certification of environmentally sound tourism, organic farming
2. Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: Czech Republic (2007)

Denmark Development in total organic production area 1995-2012
1. Organic farming
2. fish organic label, organic farm, forest certification, eco-labelling

European Union 1. Organic Farming, EU Eco-labelling and Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)
2. Organic agriculture and the law – European Union (2012)
3. Promoting Sustainable Fishing Initiatives under the European Fisheries Fund (2007)
4. EU Eco-labelling and Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)

Finland Field area under organic farming 1990–2012 and development of the market for organic products 2011–2013 and a target set for 2015 by Pro Luomu
; There are two voluntary forest certification schemes in operation in Finland: FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) promotes responsible forestry and the first national standard came into force in spring 2011. So far, a bit less than 500 000 hectares of forests have been certified http://fi.fsc.org/index.htm (in Finnish), predominantly by forest-based industry companies as well as private forest owners under group certification of the companies. The regulations regarding management and use are revised at five-year intervals in the standard development group under Forest Stewardship Council Finland (in Finnish). PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes) promotes ecologically, socially and economically sustainable forestry throughout the world. The PEFC system includes requirements for forest management and use, verification of origin of wood raw material, as well as for the independence and competence of the auditors. The regulations regarding management and use are revised at five-year intervals. The Finnish PEFC standards are now under revision. The Finnish PEFC system is maintained and developed by PEFC Finland – Finnish Forest Certification Council. The rules of the council can be found here (in Finnish). Approximately 20.7 million hectares of Finnish production forests are certified under the Finnish PEFC system. The Finnish system was endorsed for membership of PEFC in the year 2000. Ecological sustainability criteria take into account biodiversity widely e.g. by preserving typical forest habitats and ensuring species survival. For example, as a result of PEFC certification the number of retention trees at clear felling sites has increased being nowadays about ten per hectare.
1.
Organic farming
2. Finnish Forest Certification System
3. The Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry and the Development of Forest Certification: Finnish Case Study on Biodiversity Incentive Measures (2002)

France (2014) Innovative initiatives for biodiversity financing - Green Market. Full report
(2014) Development of organic agriculture. End of 2012, 24,425 farms were engaged in organic farming, an increase of 5.6% compared to 2011 (1,290 additional operations). The "organic" farms then represented 4.7% of farms in France. With 4 billion euros in sales in 2012 (against 2.1 billion euros in 2007), the consumption of organic products in the home was 2.4% of the total food market (against 1.3% in 2007).
Organic farming

Germany Organic farm (1994-2010), 5.9 percent of agricultural land used for organic farming. Percentage of forestry land certified (2000-2011) by PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and FSC (Forest Stewardship Council): in 2011, PEFC-certified forests about 70%, and FSC-certified forests about 5% of the total forest area in Germany
Organic farming, forest certification

Hungary Area of organic farming and the number of organic farmers between 2005-2012 . The National Action Plan for the Development of Ecological Farming 2014-2020 adopted in January 2014 aims to integrate environmental risk mitigating measures into ecological farming, to support biodiversity conservation measures and to protect beneficial living organisms (e.g. non-cultivated edges and bands, sowing edge plants for providing nutrients to pollinating insects). It also determines the areas where different aspects of ecological farming can be integrated with other agricultural programs, like gene conservation, backyard gardening, habitat management, etc.
Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: Hungary (2007)

Italy Trend in the number of companies and UAA under organic farming (1990-2011), Certified forest areas in Italy according to the schemes PEFC and FSC (1998-2012). At the end of 2009 about 12% of national forested areas have been acknowledged under at least one of the two certification schemes, PEPC (Programme for the Endrosement of Forest Certification) or FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). By the end of 2012 forested areas with the double certification totalled to 34,725 ha, with 5,800 in Tuscany, 16,347 in Lombardia and 12,578 in Trentino.
1. Organic Agriculture in Protected Areas: The Italian Experience (2010)
2. Voluntary certification

Liechtenstein Sustainable farming

Luxembourg certification systems for sustainable forest management

Malta organic farming, eco-certification

Netherlands Increasing area used for organic farming in the Netherlands (1994-2012): organic farming which is still only 2.6% of the total land used within the agricultural sector. Forest area (ha) in the Netherlands with a FSC-label (1996-2012). certification label approved by the Timber Procurement Assessment Committee (TPAC). To date the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC), Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS) and Timber Legality & Traceability Verification (TLTV). No less than 65.7% of timber products sold in the Netherlands was FSC or PEFC certified in 2011. The consumption of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) labeled fish is increasing.
1. Counting government procurement
2. Green Investment Funds: Organic Farming (1997)
3. Market Creation: Organic Agriculture in the Netherlands (2002)
4. policy programme ‘Biodiversity works: for nature, for people, forever’

Norway Organic farming, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Standard

Poland Forest Stewardship Council, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, sustainable agriculture and organic farming
Certification in forestry and agriculture

Portugal forest certification

Republic of Moldova Ecological agricultural and food products

Romania Ecological sustainable tourism

Russian Federation 1. Linking Economic Development and Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Far East through Tiger Friendly Certification
2. Organic farming in private protected area, Russia
3. A new Tweed from “Forest Sheep“ Wool Quality production and the use of a sheep genetic resource for extensive pasturing

Serbia Organic farming

Slovak Republic organic farming

Spain Superficie Forestal Certificada (2008-2012)

Sweden Forestry certification within the Forest Steward Council (FSC) system and/or Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) (More than 60 percent of forest areas are certified). The area of organic agriculture is 15.7 % of arable land.
Forestry certification, organic coffee

Switzerland Around 5,600 farms follow the provisions for organic farming (BioSuisse, 10%) and 20,000 those of IP Suisse, the association for environmentally friendly agriculture. These farms make targeted use of the agricultural policy direct payments incentives for additional ecological services (e.g. through the designation of additional ecological compensation areas) and obtain higher market prices for their products. If all farms were to fulfil the criteria of these labels, Swiss agriculture would have considerably fewer environmental deficits.
Sustainable forest management: Environmentally friendly, socially and economically sustainable forest management is documented through certification. Both of the certification systems (FSC and PEFC) are used in Switzerland. Approximately 53% of Switzerland's forest area is currently certified.189 In 2009, the certified area was highest, encompassing a total of 706'000 ha. Since then, the certified area has declined by 7% (2012), due to renounced recertification.
1. organic agriculture and quality labels
2. Organic farming, forest certification

United Kingdom Organic farming, sustainable forestry certification

Oceania
Australia Compendium of Sustainable Agriculture Programs, Activities and References (2004)

Cook Islands Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Cook Islands (2009)

Fiji Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Fiji (2009)

Kiribati Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Kiribati (2009)

Micronesia Environmental certification

New Zealand forest certification, fishery quota management system, official organic assurance programme

Niue 1. Organic farming
2. Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Niue (2009)

Papua New Guinea 1. Eaglewood management areas
2. Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Papua New Guinea (2009)

Samoa 1. Environmental certification (green products), organic farming
2. Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Samoa (2009)

Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Government Policy on Organic Agriculture Systems (2010)
Log Export by province (1995-2005)
1. Benefits of Forest Certification – a case study from the Solomon Islands (2012)
2. Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Solomon Islands (2009)

Tonga 12 Organic Certified sites
Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Tonga (2009)

Vanuatu 1. The Vanuatu Organic Cocoa Growers Association (VOCGA) : A Case Study of Agriculture for Growth in the Pacific (2009)
2. Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Vanuatu (2009)

Status and trends
Global Monitoring Report 2012: Market for green products refers to the trade mechanism for products certified using criteria that support the three objectives of the Convention. Such products are either natural products including wild plant and animal products used as food sources or used for biochemicals, new pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, personal care, bioremediation, biomonitoring, and ecological restoration, or nature-based products involving many industries, such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry, biotechnology based on genetic resources, recreation and ecotourism. Nearly 50 countries reported national measures to promote certification and organic products, and nearly forty certification schemes and standards are available internationally for agriculture, finance, fisheries, forestry, mining, tourism, carbon and biotrade. Some countries committed themselves to create specific products brands, and part of the revenues from the sale of these products are reallocated to finance programmes to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. American Express, Apple, Beats by Dr. Dre, Belvedere Vodka, Bugaboo, Converse, Dell, Gap, Nike, Penfolds, and Starbucks contributed 161 million USD to the Global Fund to fight Aids, tuberculosis and malaria since 2006.
The market for green products is driven by green producers, and can be scaled up by green purchasers. Many governments, influenced by the directives and Action Plan for Green Public Procurement in the EU, have established green procurement policies that stimulate markets that might otherwise be slow to develop. Standards and criteria can well inform green private procurements. In 2009, goods and services expense of governments were US$2,221 billion - 12 per cent of their total expenses, and 3.8 per cent of global gross domestic products. Any percentage of this amount means a significant market for green products.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme