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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Monterrey Consensus

Basis for action: "To develop and implement economic incentives that are supportive of the Convention’s three objectives at local and national levels, consistent and in harmony with the other relevant international obligations"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 2.4

"To fulfil the implementation of the provisions of the Monterrey Consensus on mobilizing international and domestic funding as related to biodiversity"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 3.6

"Mindful of the potential of Aichi Biodiversity Target 3 to mobilize resources for biodiversity, decides to consider modalities and milestones for the full operationalization of this Target at its twelfth meeting, with a view to their adoption"... Decision XI/4, paragraph 8

Indicator: Resources mobilized from the removal, reform or phase-out of incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, which could be used for the promotion of positive incentives, including but not limited to innovative financial mechanisms, that are consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other international obligations, taking into account national social and economic conditions

Asia
Afghanistan trade, technology, governance and sustainable consumption

Bangladesh 1. Estimating green jobs in Bangladesh (2010)
2. Skills for Green Jobs in Bangladesh (2009)

Cambodia What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)

China eliminated in 2007 export subsidies of 553 highly energy-consuming, highly polluting and resource-consuming products, including products from endangered species, leather products, wood products and some disposal wood-made products.
Enhancing synergies of CBD with multilateral trade system, Incorporating biodiversity into policies, regulations and guidance issued by the Ministry of Commerce (In March 2009, the Ministry of Commerce and the State Forestry Administration jointly issued ‘Guidelines for Chinese Enterprises for Sustainable Forest Business and Use in Foreign Countries’. In February 2013, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Environmental Protection jointly issued ‘Environmental Guidelines for International Investment and Cooperation’, which requires enterprises involved to give priority to in-situ conservation and to minimize negative impacts on local biodiversity.), Taking biodiversity into consideration in international trade negotiations., Strengthening supervision of import and export of biological resources, Participating in development of biosafety regulatory systems, Constantly strengthening training of on-site customs officers, Investigating relevant cases in import and export (From January 2009 to December 2012, the anti-smuggling department of the customs investigated 406 cases of smuggling of rare animals and plants and their products, and seized 381 tons of smuggled rare animals and plants and their products, whose value was 5.83 billion yuan RMB. They also investigated 3,573 cases of administrative violations in this regard and seized products worth 130 million yuan RMB).
1. Skills for green jobs in China (2010)
2. environmental impacts of WTO accession, forest imports, endangered species

India 1. Sustainable consumption and production
2. Sustainable Production, Technology
3. Skills for green jobs in India (2010)
4. National Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)

Indonesia 1. Skills for green jobs in Indonesia (2010)
2. What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
3. Strategic Plan: Sustainable Tourism and Green Jobs for Indonesia

Japan expanding environment-related markets and employment, environment-trade interface (forest products, endangered and threatened species, fisheries)

Lao What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)

Malaysia National Sustainable Consumption and Production Blueprint

Republic of Korea 1. Skills for green jobs in the Republic of Korea (2010)
2. Free trade agreements, endangered species, forest products

Mongolia The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises and a framework for SME growth and development (2011)

Nepal Green jobs – Good jobs: a dual challenge

Philippines 1. Green jobs and green skills in a brown Philippine economy (2010)
2. An investigation of an environmentally benign method for small-scale gold mining in the Philippines (2005)

Thailand Skills for green jobs in Thailand (2010)

Turkey employment and the environment, trade and environment (endangered species)

Vietnam What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)

Europe
Austria 1. Notes
2. expanding environment-related markets and employment

Belgium environment-related jobs, net effect of environmental policies on employment, trade and the environment (tropical timber, genetically modified organisms

Czech Republic trade in endangered species

Denmark 1. Skills for green jobs
2. access to nature, environmental employment, international trade in endangered species

Estonia Skills for green jobs

Finland 1. National programme to promote sustainable consumption and production
2. Sustainable consumption and production, Environment and employment, Trade and endangered species

France 1. Skills for green jobs
2. environment and employment, environmental job creation programmes, international trade and tropical timber, endangered species
3. Environmental employment in France 96-98 (2000), by European Commission

Germany Employment potential of biological diversity. Sustainable use of biological diversity offers employment opportunities in a large number of industries and fields of activity. On the one hand it offers massive potential for the sustainable development of rural areas, while on the other, it makes an important contribution to local added value. For example, sustainable tourism that is in harmony with nature and landscape and is based on sustainable management, and hence on resource efficiency and climate protection, provides an excellent basis for making a long-term contribution to regional added value and thus to growth and prosperity. At the same time, sustainable tourism caters for growing consumer demands on the quality front and helps companies to stand up to competition. Strengthening sustainable tourism in rural areas is therefore a special key area for the Federal Environment Ministry. With about 130 national natural landscapes (national parks, biosphere reserves and nature parks) covering about one third of its land area, Germany offers excellent conditions for experiencing nature with great recreation and leisure value. A study by the University of Wurzburg for the BMUB revealed that Germany's 14 national parks alone are visited by about 50.9 million people a year. This involves a gross sales revenue of around €2.1 billion, thereby creating or safeguarding about 70,000 jobs in these regions. At present a similar study is in progress on the 16 biosphere reserves in Germany. The number of jobs in Germany in the organic farming sector, including further processing and sale of the relevant products, has risen to 180,000. In 2011 Germany remained the biggest organic food market in Europe, with sales of €6.6 billion, and the upward trend is continuing. Employment in the field of regrowable raw materials is showing a marked increase. Gross employment in this sector (excluding use of timber) in 2011 was estimated at 224,400 jobs.
Particularly in tropical developing countries, illegal felling is a major cause of deforestation and adverse effects on forests, and therefore results in loss of biological diversity. It also runs counter to the interests of climate protection and poverty alleviation. The EU FLEGT action plan sets out to combat illegal felling. It aims to support the developing countries in their efforts to bring about responsible timber and forestry management by establishing an extensive licensing system and making voluntary trade partnership agreements. An EU Regulation concerning forest law enforcement, governance and trade (EU FLEGT Regulation) has been adopted to implement the FLEGT action plan. In Germany the EU Regulation entered into force on 15 July 2011 in the form of the Act prohibiting trade in illegally felled timber (Holzhandels-Sicherungs-Gesetz – HolzSiG). This regulates Germany's national controls on imports of timber from countries which have signed partnership agreements with the EU on illegal felling – to date these are Ghana, the Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Indonesia and Liberia. Under these agreements the partner countries set up an approval and licensing system to ensure that only legally felled timber is exported to the EU. The second stage follows with the transposition of the EU Timber Regulation of 20 October 2010, which has been fully applicable since 3 March 2013. This regulation prohibits the marketing of illegally felled timber and requires all market participants who place timber and timber products on the EU market for the first time to comply with certain due diligence obligations. These include duties to provide information on the nature and origin of the timber and procedures for assessing and reducing the risk that timber could originate from illegal felling. In Germany appropriate additions have been made to the Timber Trade Security Act. First checks have been carried out by the competent authority, the Federal Institute for Food and Agriculture (Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung – BLE). In March 2013 the Thünen Centre of Competence on the Origin of Timber was established. This develops scientific methods for supervising the new provisions and provides assistance for public authorities, the timber trade, associations and consumers.
1. Skills for green jobs
2. Environmental pressures from German imports and exports. Results of the Environmental-Economic Accounting on embodied energy, carbon dioxide and transport of goods (2007), by German Federal Statistical Office
3. CO2-content of German imports and exports (2010), by Federal Statistical Office of Germany

Greece environment and employment, trade and endangered species

Hungary public work programme at the national park directorates, Environment and employment, Trade and endangered species

Italy Employements, direct and indirect, generated by PAs system. Source: Federparchi on ISTAT data., 2011. To date in whole Italian economy (both public and private), “green” employed – or so called green jobs – are more than 3 million. Beside other 3 million and 700000 are those triggered by green economy. Without considering agriculture, 328,000 companies in Italy, with more than one employed, will invest in 2014 in green technologies in order to save energy and to mitigate environmental impacts, representing about 22% of national companies. This should generate 38% of new jobs anticipated (216,500 on a total of 563,400)(Fondazione Symbola - Unioncamere, 2013).
Expanding green sectors, promoting environmental skills

Luxembourg 1. employment and environment
2. Trade in endangered species

Netherlands Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH)
1.Environmental employment, Trade, tropical timber, endangered species
2. Environmental employment in the Netherlands, 1997 (2000), by European Commission
3. Green Growth in the Netherlands (2011), by Statistics Netherlands

Poland trade and endangered species

Portugal 1. trade and wildlife products
2. Environment Industry and Employment in Portugal, 1997 (2000) by European Commission

Slovenia Trade in endangered species

Spain 1. Skills for green jobs
2. direct environmental jobs, active environmental employment policy

Sweden 1. employment effect of environmental policy, environmental employment market, Trade, timber, endangered species
2. The Environment Industry in Sweden, 1999 (2000), by European Commission
3. The Environment Industry in Sweden, 2000 (2000), by European Commission
4. Environmental Impact of Swedish Trade (2002), by Statistics Sweden

Switzerland Biodiversity trade: protection through use - Switzerland supports the approach adopted by CBD. Therefore, since 2002, Switzerland has developed and implemented the concept of “biotrade” in collaboration with UNCTAD: export products are promoted on the basis of local biological resources. At the same time, the sustainable management of the ecosystem is guaranteed. Since 2003 the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative has also hosted the BioTrade Facilitation Programme (BTFP), which focuses on enhancing sustainable bio-resources management, product development, value adding processing and marketing. The BTFP complements the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative activities. It is currently in its second phase (BTFP II) with various partners implementing its objectives. Activities are funded by the Danish, Dutch and Swiss govern-ments (SECO).
environment and employment, trade, endangered species, forestry

United Kingdom Natural Capital Coalition: http://www.naturalcapitalcoalition.org/
United Kingdom Ecosystem Markets Task Force
1. Skills for green jobs
2. Environment-related employment

Regional Skills for green jobs: European Synthesis Report (2010)

General
CITES Report on the Technical Workshop on Economic Incentives and Trade Policy (1-3 December 2003)
ILO Proposals for the statistical definition and measurement of green jobs
IMF Trade Integration and Political Turbulence: Environmental Policy Consequences (2001)
OECD Environmental Goods and Services: A Synthesis of Country Studies, OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2005-03
UNEP Sustainable Consumption and Production and the SDGs (2014)
The Monterrey Consensus
The Monterrey Consensus provides an international framework of resource mobilization for broad development purposes, within which the strategy for resource mobilization for biodiversity should be considered. Recognizing its importance, the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties adopted the Bonn message on finance and biological diversity, as an input of the Convention on Biological Diversity to the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus held in Doha from 29 November to 2 December 2008. The Bonn message was posted on the website of the Follow-up International Conference, but was not referred to in the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development. Nevertheless, the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration outline a balanced approach to considering all the elements of financing for biodiversity, including mobilizing domestic financial resources for development, mobilizing foreign direct investment and other private flows, international trade as an engine for development, increasing international financial and technical cooperation for development, external debt, and enhancing the coherence and consistency of the international monetary, financial and trading systems in support of development.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme