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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Payment for ecosystem services

Basis for action: "To promote, where applicable, schemes for payment for ecosystem services, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 4.1
Indicator:
Number of initiatives, and respective amounts, supplementary to the financial mechanism established under Article 21, that engage Parties and relevant organizations in new and innovative financial mechanisms, which consider intrinsic values and all other values of biodiversity, in accordance with the objectives of the Convention and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of Their Utilization

Eastern Africa
Burundi (2014) l’adoption du système de paiement des services des écosystèmes en faisant prévaloir le rôle prépondérant joué par les écosystèmes naturels dans l’économie nationale et locale du pays à travers la fourniture de divers services. Il est donc nécessaire d’imaginer un processus pour rémunérer ces différents services de manière à garantir la pérennité des écosystèmes et donc la durabilité des activités économiques en résultant. Il s’agit de créer les conditions d’une meilleure valorisation économique des services des aires protégées. Ce cas peut concerner le secteur de l’agriculture qui bénéficie du support des écosystèmes forestiers en terme de micro-climat, d’apport hydrique (bassin versant), de brume et d’eau de source qui favorisent une production quasi permanente en toutes saisons. Des paiements de ces services écologiques devront être faits par l’office du Thé du Burundi (OTB) dont les services écologiques du Parc National de la Kibira permettent la production du thé en zones riveraines et la Société Sucrière de Mosso (SOSUMO) dont la production du sucre est intimement liée aux fonctions hydriques des marais de la Réserve Naturelle de la Malagarazi. Le secteur de l’énergie garde une importante centrale d’énergie hydro-électrique localisée dans le Parc National de la Kibira qui lui fournit l’eau nécessaire pour faire tourner ses turbines. A ce niveau, le paiement de ces services écologiques peut se faire sur la production du courant électrique et les adductions de l’eau potable dans les zones urbaines par la Régie de Distribution d’Eau et d’Electricité (REGIDESO). De même, l’hôtellerie qui se développe dans les aires protégées et en milieu riverain peut générer des redevances liées à la qualité des attraits touristiques de ces espaces en défens. Il faut ainsi prélever des taxes sur ces recettes.
(2011) Watershed Approach to Sustainable Coffee Production in Burundi (GEF 2011)

Ethiopia Land leasing agreements
(2010) Prospect of Reconciling Conservation and poverty Reduction in the forest Coffee landscapes of Ethiopia: the Role of PES

Kenya 1. Agricultural Productivity and Sustainable Land Management (GEF 2005)
2. Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Mwaluganje Community Wildlife Reserve Ltd. - access to landscape beauty & wildlife, Illngwesi Co.Ltd. - access to landscape beauty and wildlife
3. Wild Life Conservation in Amboseli, Kenya: Paying for Nonuse Values (2006)
4. Sasumua Water Treatment Plant: Private payments to local farmers for improved water quality using payments for ecosystem services in Kenya
5. Watamu Beach Turtle Watch Nest Protection Programme, Kenya

Madagascar (2014) Le paiement des services environnementaux (PSE). La compensation carbone permet de générer des « crédits carbone » dont les revenus vont être versés au profit des communautés locales. Des outils ont été élaborés pour améliorer les méthodologies et les techniques de quantification de carbone qu’on compte harmoniser et être adoptées par tous en vue d’un prix meilleur. Dans le cadre de l’atténuation, il est à noter que Madagascar compte développer le mécanisme REDD+ qui offre une opportunité, aussi bien pour la conservation des forêts et de la biodiversité, que pour l’amélioration des conditions socio-économiques. Toutefois, le financement pour la préparation du mécanisme REDD + par le Forest Carbon Partnership Facility n’a pu être accordé au gouvernement en raison de la crise politique. Certaines ONGs internationales ont joué un rôle important dans le développement de projets pilotes, et ont commencé à négocier des ventes de carbone avec des acheteurs internationaux tels que Mitsubishi, Air France ou Dell. Toutefois, ces transactions ont été largement réalisées sans un cadre réglementaire national. Par ailleurs, compte tenu de l’engouement de la plupart des pays forestiers pour ce marché émergent, et malgré l’intérêt suscité par les forêts malgaches en raison de leur premium atout de biodiversité, l’absence de cadre réglementaire a probablement déjà faire perdre au pays d’autres investisseurs potentiels. La mise en place d’un marché carbone forestier pourrait par ailleurs etre mise en péril par le manque d’implication des communautés locales, qui est une clef du succès de son émergence au niveau international. En effet, l’expérience de ces vingt dernières années montre que malgré l’élaboration de politiques ambitieuses, leur application à travers l’implication des populations locales dans la gestion des forêts n’a pas été une priorité réelle à Madagascar. Le partenariat mondial pour WAVES conclu peut constituer un levier pour la promotion du paiement des services environnementaux (PSE) dans la mesure où les ressources seront désormais valorisées et comptabilisées dans un Système de comptabilité nationale et que les allocations budgétaires seront proportionnelles aux valeurs des capitaux naturels créés.
1. Habitat Conservation: the dynamics of direct and indirect payments
2. The Potential for Conservation Contracts to Contribute to Biodiversity Conservation in Madagascar

Malawi Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust – biodiversity company shares, Mulanje Mountain Conservation Trust – protected area; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Escom-watershed protection contracts, Waterboards - watershed protection contracts, Waterboards - protected area contracts

Rwanda (2014) PES regulatory framework under preparation
1. PES around the Nyungwe National Park
2. PES and poverty reduction
3. Case studies for landscape beauty markets: National Park - access rights
4. Payment for Ecosystem Services and Poverty Reduction in Rwanda (2010)

Uganda (2014) Limited to small projects, about US$2 million per year, Project on testing the effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services
1. Developing an Experimental Methodology for Testing the Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services to Enhance Conservation in Productive Landscapes in Uganda (GEF 2010)
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Mgahinga-Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust – protected area; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Uganda Wildlife Society – a FACE project, Tree Farms AS - carbon forward option; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Budongo Forest Ecotourism Project - package tourism & access rights, Kyambura Game Reserve – conservation agreements
3. Assessing the Market: Conversations with Private Sector Businesses About Payments for Ecosystem Services – A Letter from Uganda (2007)

Tanzania 1. Equitable Payments for Watershed Services
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Tree Farms AS carbon forward option
3. Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Paying local communities not to convert grasslands to crops
4. Direct Payments & other mechanisms for ecosystem conservation: The Tanzania Land Conservation Trust in the Maasai Steppe , The Wildlife Conservation lease program in Kitengela

Zambia Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO)

Zimbabwe 1. Case studies for watershed protection markets: Integrated Catchment Management in Dryland Areas - watershed protection contracts
2. CAMPFIRE and payments for environmental services

Middle Africa
Cameroon 1. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: The African International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) - biodiversity access rights; Access rights for bioprospecting
2. The Green Sahel Reforestation Programme

Gabon CBSP: Sustainable Management of the Mbe River Forested Watershed through the Development of a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Mechanism (GEF)

Northern Africa
Morocco 1. A circular economy approach to agrobiodiversity conservation in the Souss Massa Drâa region of Morocco
2. MENARID Participatory Control of Desertification and Poverty Reduction in the Arid and Semi Arid High Plateau Ecosystems of Eastern Morocco (GEF 2008)

Southern Africa
Namibia Case studies for landscape beauty markets: LianshuluLodge, Mudumu National Park, Caprivi Region - access rights & management agreements

South Africa Biodiversity stewardship programmes, Land Reform Biodiversity Stewardship Initiative, People and Parks Programme, the budget of Working for Water grew by 151% from R477 million in 2009 to R1.196 billion in 2013.
1. Working for Water (WfW) programme, C.A.P.E. Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development Project (GEF 2003), National Grasslands Biodiversity Program (GEF 2007)
2. Biodiversity stewardship programme and payment for ecosystem services; Biodiversity Stewardship Programme
3. Case studies for watershed protection markets: Stream flow reduction licences (SFRL); Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Access rights and ecotourism activities in Kwa-Zulu Natal
4. Partnership for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development: Supporting South Africa’s Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE) Program in the Cape Floristic Region
5. Experiences with the Natural Resources Management (NRM) programmes in South Africa: Reflecting on PES
6. Conservation Stewardship: Options for landowners
7. Conservation Stewardship: Pilot projects in the Swartland and Overberg
8. Payments for Ecosystem Services: towards improved biodiversity conservation and water security in South Africa, a semi-arid, developing country; Working for Water: Addressing social and environmental problems with payments for ecosystem services in South Africa; Working for Water Programme in South Africa (2010); Scientific challenges in the field of invasive plant management (2004); Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges (2004); Biological control in the management of invasive alien plants in South Africa, and the role of the Working for Water programme (2004); Working For Water Programme; WfW Position Paper on Biocontrol
9. Payments for Environmental Services in South Africa

Regional Maloti-Drakensberg Conservation and Development Project Lesotho, South Africa (GEF 2000), Sahel and West Africa Program in Support of the Great Green Wall Initiative Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Nigeria (with PES projects) (GEF 2011)

Caribbean
Belize 1. Management and Protection of Key Biodiversity Areas (GEF 2011)
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: The Belize Protected Areas Conservation Trust – protected areas, Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area - land acquisition & private protected area; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Rio Bravo Conservation Project; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Toledo Ecotourism Association - package holiday, Belize Audubon Society - protected area ecotourism & entrance permits
Dominican Republic Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the Upper Sabana Yegua Watershed System (GEF 2005), Payment for Ecosystem Services in Las Neblinas Scientific Reserve as a Pilot Approach to Ecosystem Management that Promotes the Sustainability of Protected Areas (GEF)
Jamaica 1. Integrated Management of the Yallahs River and Hope River Watersheds (GEF 2011)
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Debt-for-nature swap; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Watershed protection contracts & fees

North and Central Americas
Canada 1. Agri-environmental measures in Canada
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: GHG Emission Reduction Trading (GERT) scheme, Pilot Emission Reduction Trading (PERT) scheme - trading air pollutants, e.g. NOx, volatile organic compounds, SO 2, CO2, KEFI-exchange - carbon credit trading; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Parks Canada increasing self-financing - access rights
3. Conservation Agreements, Alberta’s Land-Use Framework and Land Stewardship Act
Costa Rica 1. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) program Strategy; gm version
2. Conservation, Sustainable Use of Biodiversity, and Maintenance of Ecosystem Services of Internationally Important Protected Wetlands (GEF 2012)
3. Ecomarkets (GEF 1999)
4. Mainstreaming Market-based Instruments for Environmental Management Project (GEF 2006)
5. Programa por pago de servicios ambientales, Canon del agua, Programa Costa Rica por siempre
6. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: INBio's bioprospecting permits, Del Oro - payments for forest pest and disease control services through a land lease, Children's Rainforest, Monteverde – protected areas, Debt-for-nature swaps, Biodiversity-friendly cocoa, Monteverde Coffee - biodiversity friendly coffee; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Certified Tradable Offset (CTOs), Norway purchase of CTOs - AIJ project, Biodiversifix (AIJ project), CARFIX (AIJ approved 1994), ECOLAND (AIJ approved 1994), Klinki Forestry Project (AIJ project approved 1995), Protoype Carbon Fund - Fund for Renewable Energy; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Heredia Public Service Enterprise - national park protection, Energía Global payments, Central Plateau, River Platanar, San Carlos, Monte Verde Cloud Forests, San Jose watershed fund; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: National protected areas - access rights, Hotel contributions to National Parks System - management contracts, Rafting companies payment for river bank conservation - management contracts, Biological corridors for Titi Monkeys - management contracts, Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve - access rights, Talamanca - package holiday; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Government Payments for Environmental Services scheme - contracts for forest protection, sustainable management and reforestation, Norway purchase of Certified Tradable Offsets, & Costa Rican National Power and Light Company purchase of improved water quality, BOLPRO (Agricultural stock market) - sales of trees’ environmental services
7. Workshop on Payment Schemes for Environmental Services: The Use of Market Instruments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica, Institutional Arrangements, Contracts, Monitoring, and Evaluation in Costa Rica (2002)
8. Increasing the efficiency of conservation spending: the case of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica (2007)
9. Program of Payments for Ecological Services in Costa Rica
10. PES as a strategy to minimize risk: The Case of La Esperanza Hydroelectric Power Company, Costa Rica (2010)
11. Certificate for Environmental Services (2010)
12. What are we learning from experiences with markets for environmental services in Costa Rica? A review and critique of the literature (2003)
13. Financing Environmental Services: The Costa Rican Experience and its Implications (1998)
14. Paying for forest environmental services: the Costa Rican experience (2003)
15. Enabling the legal framework for PES, Costa Rica (2010)
16. Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica (2006)
17. The Guanacaste Conservation Area (GCA) in Costa Rica
18. Program of Payments for Ecological Services in Costa Rica
19. Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project – Costa Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua
20. The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed (2003)
21. Payments for environmental services
22. Costa Rica - Introducing Water Use Charges To Pay For Environmental Services
23. Procuencas Project (2010)

El Salvador Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity-friendly coffee; Case studies for watershed protection markets: El Imposible National Park - protected area contract
Guatemala 1. Sustainable Forest Management and Multiple Global Environmental Benefits (GEF 2011)
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Reforestation and carbon sequestration; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Montagua River, Sierras las Minas; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Community tourism in Alta Verapaz Cloud Forest - package holiday, Bird watching -access rights in private lands
3. Conservation Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve: Why payments for ecological services were not successful in Guatemala
4. When Money Flows Upstream: Payment for Watershed Services in Guatemala (2003)

Honduras 1. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Biomass power generation (USIJI project)
2. The importance of precision and targeting in Copan Ruinas watershed, Honduras (2010)
Mexico 1. Conservation of Coastal Watersheds to Achieve Multiple Global Environmental Benefits in the Context of Changing Environments (GEF 2012), Environmental Services Project (GEF 2005), Mainstreaming the Conservation of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity at the Micro-watershed Scale in Chiapas (GEF 2009)
2. Paying for biodiversity benefits, hydrological ecosystem services programme and programme to develop ecosystem services markets for carbon sequestration and biodiversity and to establish and improve agro-forestry systems, forest land use change compensation programme
3. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve – Biodiversity-friendly coffee, Northern Chihuahua – biodiversity management contract, Biodiversity-friendly cocoa; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Agroforestry in Scolel Te (AIJ) - protocarbon credits, Community silviculture in Sierra Norte, Oaxaca (AIJ), Chiapas carbon offsets, Halophyte Cultivation in Sonoro (registered USIJI project); Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Community recreational park near Mexico City - package tours, Community ecotourism in Oaxaca - package tours
4. Bundling of ecosystem services in agroforestry, Mexico (2009)
5. Defining Environmental Goods and Services: A Case Study of Mexico (2005)
6. Payments for hydrological environmental services (PSAH) programme
7. Paying for the Hydrological Services of Mexico’s Forests
8. Manual para el Desarrollo de Programas de Pago por Servicios Ambientales Hidrológicos Locales (2005)
9. An Assessment of Mexico’s Payment for Environmental Services Program (2005)
10. Payment for Forests Watershed Environmental Services in Mexico
11. Mexico City State forests hydrological services, Temporary Employment Program (PET), Transferable hunting rights

Nicaragua 1. Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project; gm version
2. Integrated Mangement in Lakes Apanas and Asturias Watershed (GEF 2010)
3. Payments for hydrological Ecosystem Services in the Gil González Watershed - A Public-Private-Partnership Case Study (2013)
4. Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project – Costa Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua

Panama 1. Second Rural Poverty, Natural Resources Management and Consolidation of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Project (GEF 2005)
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Reforestation in Chiriqui Province (USIJI), Reforestation bonds in Darien; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Darien - Committee for saving the Filo del Tallo hills, Chagres watershed payments scheme; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Sale of environmental services in Darien
United States of America 1. USDA agri-environmental programme, Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Stewardship Incentives Program, New York City watershed management
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Yellowstone National Park - Research Specimen Collection Permit; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: The Sky Trust - carbon emission permits, Environmental Synergies, Inc., Forest Forever Fund - conservation easements and carbon credits, Montana Offset Coalition, Carbon offset projects; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Recreational Fee Demonstration Program – access rights and concessions; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Ecolotree-soil contaminant removal, Boulder Creek Riparian Enhancement Project, Long Island Sound sediment compensation fund, Lower Boise River Effluent Trading System - Reduction Credit Certificates, Portland Water District water quality scheme - land acquisition and planting contracts, Rahr Malting Company - pollution reduction credits worth 1 lb CBOD/day equivalent, Cannon River Watershed Partnership - land management contracts, Leases for forested aquatic environments, NYC Watershed Programme - land acquisition, conservation easements, forest and land management contracts, Tar-Pamlico Basin -nutrient pollution credits, Salem Public Works Department - land management contract, Model watersheds programme - land management contracts, Little Butte Creek - salmon habitat restoration contract, The Deschutes Basin Land Trust - land and water rights acquisition, Salmon Safe certified agricultural produce, Salmon habitat credits, Chester Water Authority – Land management contracts, Salt Lake City Corporation - land acquisition & conservation easements, Seattle Public Utilities water quality improvement scheme - land acquisition, Rock River Basin - Phosphorus credits; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Conservation easements, Tree rights deposits and The Forest Bank, Tradable development rights, Tradable pinelands development credits, Payments for environmental services – Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program
3. Cost-Effective Agri-Environmental Payment Programs: U.S. Experience in Theory and Practice (2005)
4. Environmental Services Markets: Farm Bill Proposals (2007)
5. The Florida Ranchlands Environmental Services Project: Field Testing a Pay-for-Environmental Services Program
6. Integrating Biophysical and Economic Information to Guide Land Conservation Investments (2003)
7. Ecosystems services of trees can save costs for cities: the example of Miami (2010)
8. How New York City Used an Ecosystem Services Strategy Carried out Through an Urban-Rural Partnership to Preserve the Pristine Quality of Its Drinking Water and Save Billions of Dollars and What Lessons It Teaches about Using Ecosystem Services (2002)
9. Wetland and Riparian Stewardship in Pennsylvania: A Guide to Voluntary Options for Landowners, Local Governments and Organizations (1997)
10. Conestoga Reverse Auction Project, Pennsylvania, USA (2010)
11. Conserving Bobolinks in Rhode Island, USA (2013)
12. Colorado River Water Bank: Making Water Conservation Profitable
13. Water Quality Trading and Offset Initiatives in the U.S.: A Comprehensive Survey (2004)
14. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17 Case Studies (1993)
15. US Conservation Reserve Program
16. A New Currency for Conservation: Markets and Payments for Ecosystem Services from Our Nation’s Forests and Farms (2005)
17. Workshop on Payment Schemes for Environmental Services: The U.S. Experience with Land Retirement for Natural Resource Conservation, Evaluating Bids in the U.S. Conservation Reserve Program (2002)
Regional Integrated Silvo-Pastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua (GEF 2001), Public-Private Funding Mechanisms for Watershed Protection (GEF)

South America
Argentina 1. Establishment of Incentives for the Conservation of Ecosystem Services of Global Significance (GEF 2008)
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: La Plata/Fontana, Patagonia
Bolivia 1. Removing Obstacles to Direct Private-Sector Participation in In-situ Biodiversity Conservation (GEF 2002)
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Logging rights purchase, Debt for nature swap; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Noel Kempff Climate Action Project; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Bermejo River - watershed protection contracts
3. Paying for ecosystem services
4. Selling two environmental services: In-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia
5. Bees for Water – Bolivia
6.Compensation for Hydrological Environmental Services in Los Negros Cloud Forest (2006)
7. Rapid Hydrological Analysis of the Los Negros Watershed in support of a Compensation-for-Watershed Services (CWS) Mechanism
8. Fair deals for watershed services in Bolivia (2007)

Brazil 1. Green Grant Program – Bolsa Verde, Acre State Carbon Project
2. Ecosystem Restoration of Riparian Forests in Sao Paulo (GEF 2004), Espirito Santo Biodiversity and Watershed Conservation and Restoration Project (GEF 2007), Recovery and Protection of Climate and Biodiversity Services in the Paraiba do Sul Basin of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil (GEF 2012), Sustainable Land Management in the Semi-Arid Sertao (GEF 2004)
3. Brazil-EU Dialogue on PES
4. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: CONAMA - park mitigation requirement, National Environmental Fund – protected areas, Reserve requirement offsets; Case studies for bundled environmental services: ICMS Ecológico; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Peugeot investment in carbon offsets, Atlantic Forest protection for carbon; Case studies for watershed protection markets: SEMAE - watershed restoration contract
5. Conserving Forests Through Periodic Grants: Bolsa Floresta, Brazil (2010)
6. Payment for Environmental Services: Subsidy to Rubber-Tappers in the State of Acre (Ac) –Imazon Study, Actors and Development in the Municipality of Gurupá and the Challenges of Ces – Fase Study, Populations and Environmental Services in Fully Protected Conservation Areas: The Case of Jaú National Park – Fva Study, Conservation, Development and Environmental Services in the Area of the Mata Atlântica: The Case of Vale Do Ribeira, Sp –Vitae Civilis Study (2002)
7. The Development of Markets and Economic Incentives for Sustainable Forestry: Application to the Brazilian Amazon (2002)
8. Implementation of Payment for Ecosystem Services Schemes by Local Governments: the Water Conservation Project of Extrema/Minas Gerais, Brazil (2010)
9. Chico Mendes Law: Addressing social and environmental problems with payments for ecosystem services in Brazil
10. Workshop on Payment Schemes for Environmental Services: Market-Based Innovation for Environmental Conservation in Brazil (2002)

Chile Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Private protected areas; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Water share trading and payments for watershed protection

Colombia Sistemas Silvopastoriles, Manejo de Ecosistemas y Pago por Servicios Ambientales (2002-2008), Reglamentación del artículo 111 de la Ley 99 de 1993 y pago por servicios ambientales
1. Colombian National Protected Areas Conservation Trust Fund LAC (GEF 2005), Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Dry Ecosystems to Guarantee the Flow of Ecosystem Services and to Mitigate the Processes of Deforestation and Desertification (GEF 2012), Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Palm Cropping in Colombia with an Ecosystem Approach (GEF 2010), Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Sustainable Cattle Ranching (GEF 2008)
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: ECOFUNDO –protected areas, Conservation coffee; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Valle delCauca - land acquisition and land management contracts, National watershed management contracts, Compoalegre Users Association - land acquisition
3. Forestry project for the basin of Chinchina river (PROCUENCA)
4. Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project – Costa Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua
5. Linking People and Nature through Watershed Conservation in the East Cauca Valley, Colombia
6. National Strategy for Environmental Services Payment

Ecuador El Programa Nacional de Incentivos a la Conservación del Patrimonio Natural “Socio Bosque”: Convenios, beneficiarios, superficie conservada e incentivos entregados por el Programa Socio Bosque 2009-2013
1. The Yasuni-ITT Initiative: rationale for the initiative, valuation, support and donors to the Initiative, Yasuni ITT Trust Fund, government guarantee, governance, anticipated level of funding, moving forward, and closure
2. Pimampiro payments for watershed services scheme, Strategy on PES
3. National Protected Areas System (GEF 2001)
4. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Ethno-bioprospecting-access rights, Debt-for-nature swaps, The Tagua Initiative – biodiversity friendly accessories; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Programme FACE de Forestación (PROFAFOR) – a FACE project, Bilsa Biological Reserve; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Water Conservation Fund in Quito, Cuenca City - land acquisition & watershed protection; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: TropicEcological Adventures - access rights and management agreements, Cofan Ecotourism project - access rights and package holiday, Transturi's Flotel in Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve - access rights, Sionas, Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve - tourism services, Maquipucuna Reserve -ecotourism access rights, FUNEDESIN-land purchase & management agreements, Kapawi Ecolodge and Reserve - leasing forest land & management agreement
5. Markets and contracts for ecosystem services
6. The Socio Bosque Program in Ecuador
7. Proyecto Socio Bosque de Conservation (2012)
8. The Yasuni-ITT Initiative in Ecuador
9. A long-term financial mechanism for conservation agreements in the Ecuadorian Chocó (2012)
10. Decentralized Payments for Environmental Services: Comparing the Cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador (2005)
11. Decentralised environmental payments
12. Inter-municipal cooperation in watershed conservation through the establishment of a regional water fund – FORAGUA – in Southern Ecuador (2012)
13. The impacts of payments for watershed services in Ecuador: Emerging lessons from Pimampiro and Cuenca (2004)
14. Payment for Environmental Services at the Local Level: Comparing two Cases in Ecuador
15. Payments for Watershed Services: Maintaining natural forest cover and ensuring clean water supplies with payments for ecosystem services in Ecuador
16. Payment for Water-Based Environmental Services: Ecuador’s Experiences, Lessons Learned and Ways Forward (2005)
Water fund for catchment management in Quito, Ecuador (2010)

Guyana 1. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Conservation Concession
2. Conservation Incentive Agreements and other PES-type initiatives (2004)
3. Conservation Concession: Protecting forest ecosystems with payments for ecosystem services in Guyana

Paraguay Case studies for bundled environmental services: Mbaracayu initiative
Peru 1. Conservation and Sustainable Use of High-Andean Ecosystems through Compensation of Environmental Services for Rural Poverty Alleviation and Social Inclusion in Peru (GEF 2012), SFM Sustainable Management of Protected Areas and Forests of the Northern Highlands of Peru (GEF 2009), Strengthening Biodiversity Conservation through the National Protected Areas Program (GEF 2007)
2. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity-friendly coffee, Rainforest Cookies; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Private ecotourism concessions, Posada Amazonas - joint ecotourism venture in the Amazon - tour package, Peru Verde's joint ecotourism ventures - package tour; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Applied Energy Services, Inc. Shady Point
3. Compensation scheme for upstream farmers in municipal protected area, Peru (2010)
4. Rewarding water-related ecosystem services in the Canete Basin, Peru (2013)

Suriname Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: International Cooperative Biodiversity Group project – biodiversity access rights
Venezuela 1. Biodiversity Conservation in the Productive Landscape of the Venezuelan Andes (GEF 2005)
2. La Experiencia Venezolana en Esquemas de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales (2006)
3. Conserving Biodiversity and Commercializing Non-timber Forest Products in Venezuela’s Caura Basin (2013)

Regional Communities of Conservation: Safeguarding the World's Most Threatened Species Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela (GEF 2009)

Eastern Asia
China Subsidies were given to those farmers who have returned their cultivated land to forests according to verified areas (By the end of 2012, cumulatively 324.7 billion yuan RMB, benefiting 120 million farmers each household 7,000 yuan RMB. Since 1999, the central government has been subsidizing those households that have returned their cultivated land to forests according to the actual areas returned and verified. These households also have the ownership of forests that grow on returned land, with contract period for owning and using returned land being as long as 70 years, while enjoying preferential tax incentives for benefits from use of returned land. In 2007, the State Council issued a notice on improving the policy of returning cultivated land to forests, with a view to increase the subsidies to related households. According to this notice, households living in the Yangtse River Basin and South China can be subsidized in cash by 1,575 yuan RMB per hectare of land annually, while households living in the Yellow River Basin and North China can get a cash subsidy of 1,050 yuan RMB per hectare of land. Farmers that return land to forests with ecological functions can be compensated for eight years, while those that return land to forests with economic functions can be compensated for five years. From 2008 to 2011, the central government provided specialized grants totaling 46.2 billion yuan RMB. By the end of 2012, the central government has invested cumulatively 324.7 billion yuan RMB, and 124 million farmers in 2,279 counties directly benefited from this investment, with per household being subsidized 7,000 yuan RMB on the average.
Subsidizing the projects on natural forest protection. Natural forest protection project: 118.6 billion yuan RMB in the first phase, and 244 billion yuan RMB in the second phase from 2011 to 2020. Natural forest resources protection projects were initiated in 17 provinces in 2000. The central government subsidized forest management and conservation as well as seedling cultivation and reforestation. The central government also provided subsidies by covering pension insurances for forest enterprise employees and social expenditures of forest enterprises, and providing basic life guarantees for laid-off forest workers. The total investment for the first phase of this project went up to 118.6 billion yuan RMB. At the end of 2010, the State Council decided to implement a second phase of this project from 2011 to 2020, with 11 more counties (cities, districts) to be included in the project. The subsidy provided for reforestation will be 4,500 yuan per hectare, and those for enclosing mountains for forest conservation and aerial seeding will be 1,050 yuan RMB per hectare and 1,800 yuan RMB per hectare respectively. Education subsidy is 30,000 yuan RMB per person per year. Sanitation subsidy for forest areas in the upper reaches of the Yangtse River, the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River and Inner Mongolia is 15,000 yuan RMB per year and 10,000 yuan RMB per year respectively. For state-owned forests, the central government provides 75 yuan per hectare annually as forest conservation fee. For those collectively-owned forests that also belong to national-level pubic benefits forests, during 2011-2012, the central government provided 150 yuan RMB per hectare annually as part of the funds for ecological compensation. Since 2013, this rate has been increased to 225 yuan RMB per year. For local benefits forests the compensation funds are provided mainly from local government budgets, while the central government also provides 45 yuan RMB per hectare per year as forest conservation fee. The total investment of the second phase of this project will be around 224 billion yuan RMB.
Subsidizing projects of returning grazing land to grasslands. Subsidies to those herdsmen who have returned their grazing land to grassland to cover part of costs for grassland enclosures and forages (17.57 billion yuan RMB between 2003-2012 benefiting more than 4.5 million herdsmen). Since 2003 such projects have been implemented in eight provinces such as Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The central government has been subsidizing the construction of fences and the provision of forages. In 2011 the central government raised the subsidy standards and percentages. 300 yuan RMB per hectare is provided to fence building in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau while 240 yuan RMB per hectare to other regions. A subsidy of 300 yuan RMB per hectare is provided to reseeding grass; 2,400 yuan RMB per hectare to artificial forage farming and 3,000 yuan RMB per household for building feeding stables and rings. The central government invested cumulatively a total of 17.57 billion yuan RMB in this project during the period 2003-2012, with projects having benefited 174 counties, more than 900,000 farm households and more than 4.5 million farmers and herdsmen.
Establishing subsidies and incentives for ecological conservation of grasslands. Mechanism to subsidize and reward grassland ecology conservation established in 2011 (28.6 billion yuan RMB cumulatively, respectively to areas (820,000 km2) where grazing bans are implemented and areas (1.737 million km2) where balancing grass supply with herds is required. Since 2011 eight provinces or autonomous regions with most of the grasslands in China have established incentive measures for grassland ecology conservation, with a subsidy of 90 yuan RMB per hectare annually for grasslands where grazing is banned; 22.5 yuan RMB per hectare annually for grasslands where balance of herds and grass supply is implemented. Subsidies are also provided to herdsmen for their production, with 150 yuan RMB per hectare annually for grass seed and 500 yuan RMB per household annually for production materials. Herdsmen are also trained to promote their shift to new jobs. The subsidies for grassland ecology conservation increased from 13.6 billion yuan RMB in 2011 to 15 billion yuan RMB in 2012, with cumulative total investment reaching 28.3 billion yuan RMB. By the end of 2012, the areas covered by subsidies for grassland grazing bans have reached 820,000 km2, and the areas where rewards are given for keeping the herd-and-grass balance have reached 1,737,000 km2.
Subsidizing wetland conservation. In 2010 the Ministry of Finance together with the State Forestry Administration initiated subsidies for wetland conservation, which covered 27 wetlands of international importance, 43 natural wetland nature reserves and 86 national wetland parks. Some local governments also increased support to wetland conservation from government budgets, and gradually included important wetlands as part of ecological compensation. Restore mangroves and tidal flats and other important wetlands (nearly 3.875 billion yuan RMB since 2010).
Establishing funds for compensating forest ecological benefits. In 2004 China established national funds for compensation of forest ecological benefits, which subsidize plantation, nurturing, conservation and management of national-level public benefits forests, with funding allocated from the central government budgets (annual payment reaching 3 billion yuan RMB). Among them, a subsidy of 75 yuan per hectare is provided annually for state-owned national-level public benefits forests, and 225 yuan per hectare annually for national-level public benefits forests owned collectively and privately. In 2007, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued guidance for undertaking pilot work in ecological compensation, which required acceleration of the establishment of ecological compensation mechanisms for PAs. Some regions have established ecological compensation mechanisms on a pilot basis. For example, Jining City has issued rules for ecological compensation for wetland loss in Nansi Lake, Shandong Province. Currently the areas that have received such subsidies have reached 924,000 km2. In 2013 the central government provided a total of 14.9 billion yuan RMB for compensation for ecological benefits of forests. Local governments also compensated for local public benefits forests.
Establishing national mechanisms of ecological compensation for national key ecological function zones. Since the central government budget established in 2008 an item of fiscal transfers for national key ecological function zones, the scope of transfers has been constantly expanding. In 2012, funds were transferred to 466 counties (cities, districts), with the total funds reaching 37.1 billion yuan RMB. The funds played an important role in supporting development of PAs. In 2013 funds were transferred to 492 counties and 1,367 land zones prohibited for development, with the total of funds transferred reaching 42.3 billion yuan RMB. In 2013, scenic spots in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Xinjiang were included in the pilot work on ecological compensation.
Rural environment improvement (specialized fund of 19.5 billion yuan RMB since 2008)
Pilot Ecological Compensation in Xin'anjiang River Basin (Funds of 300 million yuan RMB were allocated in 2011 for compensation and specially used for water pollution control and water quality improvement in the upper reaches of Xin’an River. Among them 200 million yuan was allocated from the central government budget and 100 million yuan provided by Zhejiang Province.)
Promoting establishment of mechanisms for ecological compensation. In 2010 NDRC together with relevant ministries and commissions drafted a regulation on ecological compensation. This draft regulation provides principles, areas, targets, approaches and criteria for ecological compensation. Currently NDRC is studying and drafting a set of “recommendations for establishing and improving mechanisms for ecological compensation”.
1. PRC-GEF Partnership: Mainstreaming Biodiversity Protection within the Production Landscapes and Protected Areas of the Lake Aibi Basin (GEF 2008)
2. Grain for Green; Four Wastelands Auction Policy
3. natural forest protection programme, sloping land conversion programme, forest ecosystem compensation programme
4. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Pippa Horticulture Company Ltd – access rights, Shares in National Scenic Reserves/ Forest Parks, Protected wetland for endangered cranes; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Jade Peak Gorge - private park & access permits; Case studies for bundled environmental services: National Ecological Benefits Compensation Fund - payments for environmental services; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Watershed protection contracts, Miyun Reservoir restoration and maintenance scheme, Xingguo County - watershed protection contracts, Mini-watershed restoration schemes, Yao County watershed protection contracts
5. Workshop on Payment Schemes for Environmental Services: Development of China's Ecological Compensation Scheme, Local Experience with the Ecological Compensation Scheme in Guangdong Province, Local Experience with the Ecological Compensation Scheme in Anhui Province, Reflections on China's Forest Ecological Compensation Fund, Description of Cropland Conversion Program (2002)
6. Policy of non-gratuitous use of scenic spots resources, fund for compensation of forest ecological benefits, Regulation on Restoration of Forests from Farmlands, tax preferences for the operating income gained from the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
7. Converting water-intensive paddy to dryland crops, China (2012)
8. Promoting Market-oriented Ecological Compensation Mechanisms: Payment for Ecosystem Services in China (2007)
9. Eco-Compensation for Watershed Services in the People’s Republic of China (2011)
10. A Pilot Study on Payment for Ecological and Environmental Services in Lashihai Nature Reserve, China
11. Compensation payments for maintaining – saving Beijing's Miyun Reservoir’s Water Quality (2012)
12. Planting orange orchards to curb soil erosion, China – the Ningu county's Meijiang Watershed (2012)
13. Chinese Practices of Ecological Compensation and Payments for Ecological and Environmental Services and its Policies in River Basins (2006)
14. Regional payments for ecosystem services (PES) scheme funded through monthly salary contributions in Xinjiang, Uyghur Autonomous Region, China (2012)
15. China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program: Institutional Innovation or Business as Usual?
16. National-level Soil Erosion Control Policies in China (2010)
17. Payment for Ecosystem Services and Alternative Livelihoods in Rural China (2012)
18. Industries share sales revenue for watershed protection – Xingguo County, China (2012)

Japan direct payment for environmentally friendly farming (amounted to JPY 31 million in 2012) if farmers will reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers or pesticides by 50 %
1. Conserving water through upstream-downstream relationships: Yahagigawa River water source forest profit-sharing afforestation project; river basin tariffs for trans-border water source management in Fukuoka City; conserving water by recharging groundwater in Kumamoto; afforestation activities by fishermen of the sea
2. payments for environmentally friendly farming, paying for ecosystem services: the Yodo river
3. Japanese Approach on Positive incentive in Biodiversity (e.g. PES) (2009)
4. Kabukuri Weltands Win-Win Solutions for Conservation and Development, Osaki City, Miyagi, Japan (2013)
5. Payments for forest and agriculture land management
6. Restoring Rice Paddy Field Habitats to Reintroduce the Oriental White Stork in Toyooka City (2010)
7. Tap water fee for forest management, Japan (2010)

Republic of Korea ‘Biodiversity Management Contract’ was developed by local governments and residents. Under this contract, farmers left some crops for migratory birds and then local governments compensated them for the loss (6.66 billion and 3 billion KRW in 2011 and 2012, respectively).
Compensation payments in river basin management, agri-environmental payments based on area planted, payments based on input constraints

Regional 1. PES in Asia: Trends, Lessons Learned, Best Practices, and Knowledge Gaps (2007)
2. Payment for Environmental Services (2006)
3. Asia Regional Workshop on Compensation for Ecosystem Services (2007)

South-Eastern Asia
Cambodia Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Paying local people to protect crane nests and Paying not to convert wetlands into flooded rice paddies

Indonesia 1. Local Watershed Payments, WWF version
2. Promoting Sustainable Production Forest Management to Secure Globally Important Biodiversity (GEF 2009)
3. SFM Strengthening Community Based Forest and Watershed Management (SCBFWM) (GEF 2007)
4. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Wasur Project – protected areas; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Sumber Jaya Lampung - land management contracts, Payments for improved water quality; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Tourism licences/concessions in protected areas, Gunung Halimun National Park (Java) - ecotourism package; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Reduced Impact Logging in East Kalimantan (USIJI)
5. Integrated Marine Management Concessions – A New Approach to an Old Problem
6. A Role for Effective, Efficient, and Equitable Conservation Concessions in Conserving Natural Resources in Indonesia (2003)
7. Payments for Environmental Services as an Alternative to Logging under Weak Property Rights: The Case of Indonesia
8. Review of the Development Environmental Services Market in Indonesia (2005)
9. Institutional Constraints and Opportunities in Developing Environmental Service Markets: Lessons from Institutional Studies on RUPES in Indonesia (2005)
10. Outcome based payments for improved water quality, RUPES, Indonesia (2013)
11. Getting Started Before You Begin: Experiences from Environmental Service Benefit Transfer Schemes in Indonesia (2005)
12. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme implemented in the Cidanau Watershed, Indonesia (2010)
13. Designing Payments for Environmental Services in the Context of Weak Property Rights and Commercial Interests

Lao Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Incentive payments for Eld’s deer conservation in Savannakhet Province

Malaysia 1. Improving Connectivity in the Central Forest Spine (CFS) Landscape - IC-CFS (GEF 2012)
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Infapro - a FACE project, Reduced impact logging in Sabah
Philippines 1. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Foundation for the Philippine Environment - debt-for-nature swap, World Land Trust – land acquisition; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Makiling Forest Reserve - protected area contracts, National Power Corporation Watershed rehabilitation fee; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Protected areas access rights, Makiling ForestReserve - access rights; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Integrated Protected Areas Fund - payments for environmental services
2. Developing pro-poor markets for environmental services in the Philippines (2003)
3. Environmental Service “Payments”: Experiences, Constraints and Potential in the Philippines (2003)
4. In Bakun, indigenous people use modern mechanisms for selling environmental services to preserve a traditional way of life without its poverty traps
5. Rewards for Environmental Services in the Philippines Uplands: Constraints and Opportunities for Institutional Reform
6. Payment for Ecosystem Services, Sibuyan Island, Philippines (2010)

Thailand 1. SFM: Integrated Community-based Forest and Catchment Management through an Ecosystem Service Approach (CBFCM) (GEF 2010)
2. Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Kanchanaburi Ecotourism Cooperative Company - ecotourism services
Vietnam 1. SFM Promotion of Sustainable Forest and Land Management in the Vietnam Uplands (GEF 2009)
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Plantations in central and southern Vietnam – AIJ; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Government watershed management contracts; Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: International Cooperative Biodiversity Group- biodiversity access rights
3. Payments for Environmental Services in Vietnam: Assessing an Economic Approach to Sustainable Forest Management (2006)
4. The Pilot Payment for Forest Environmental Services in Lam Dong Province (2009)
5. Rewarding Upland Farmers for Environmental Services: Experience, Constraints and Potential in Vietnam (2004)
6. for Environmental Services: a Trial in Vietnam (2006)

Regional SFM Rehabilitation and Sustainable Use of Peatland Forests in South-East Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam plus Brunei and Singapore (GEF 2007)

Southern Asia
Bhutan Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation - protected areas

India Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREG) Act in 2005 (total financial outlay of MGNREGS for 2012-2013 is USD 5.5 billion)
1. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Paying for ethno-biological knowledge and access rights in Kerala, Harda (MadhyaPradesh) – protected areas; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Ecotourism Sikkim - access rights, Paying for landscape beauty in Sikkim - management agreements; Case studies for watershed protection markets: MYRADA - land management contracts, Inter-state watershed protection contract, Water harvesting in the Arvari catchment - reduce siltation and water table regulation, Tradable water rights system and user fees
2. Alternatives to PES for Securing Delivery of Environmental Services
3. Fair deals for watershed services in India (2007)
4. Hiware Bazaar- A village of millionaires, Maharashtra, India (2010)
5. Bhoj Wetland watershed services, India (2007)

Nepal Conservation based on PES principle conducted by the Rupa Lake Rehabilitation Fisheries Cooperative Ltd. in Kaski district, and some other sites
Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Annapurna Conservation Area – access rights & management agreements, Ghalekharka-Sikles area, southern Annapurna - package of ecotourism services, Royal Chitwan National Park - buffer zone ecotourism services, Lodge tax in Langtang National Park - management projects, Muir's Tours-natural resource management projects, National Park payments for landscape beauty - access rights

Pakistan Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Northern Pakistan – protected areas; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Mangla Dam - watershed protection contracts

Sri Lanka Review of Developments of Environmental Services Markets in Sri Lanka (2004)

Western Asia
Israel Agri-environmental schemes

Turkey agri-environmental policies

Eastern Europe
Belarus Ecobank, international ecological rent

Bulgaria (2014) The Rural Development Program – mainly Axis 2 – Improvement of the environment and nature, includes the agroecological payments and payments related to Natura 2000 sites and the Water Framework Directive. Implementing Measure 214 “Agro-ecological payments” for the period 2008–2012, approved 8084 projects with the total sum of 50 926 457.14 euro.
(2010) Rural Development Programme

Czech Republic 1. agri-environmental subsidies
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Krkonose (Giant Mountains) National Park – a FACE project, Sumava National Park – a FACE project

Hungary The National Rural Development Strategy 2012-2020 sets a target to maintain financial schemes that support agricultural biodiversity and to revise harmful subsidies.
1. National Agri-Environmental Programme (NAEP)
2. national agri-environmental programme, payments for Natura 2000

Poland Agro-Environmental Programme
1. Rural Development Programme
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Wroclaw – a FACE project; Case studies for bundled environmental services: National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management

Romania Case studies for watershed protection markets: Paying for improved water quality

Russian Federation 1. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Talan - payments by an ecotourism company for biodiversity protection; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: RUSAFOR Saratov Afforestation Project – USIJI, Vologda reforestation project – USIJI, Energy Carbon Fund
2. Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Linking community development and biodiversity conservation in the Russian Far East

Slovak Republic agri-environment payments, financial compensation for restriction on land use imposed by the Nature Act and for damage to livestock caused by protected species

Regional Promoting Payments for Environmental Services (PES) and Related Sustainable Financing Schemes in the Danube Basin Bulgaria, Romania (GEF 2009)

Northern Europe
Denmark Afforestation initiatives, agri-environmental measures
1. Agri-environment Schemes applied; 2012 submission; agri-environmental measures
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Emissions trading scheme for electricity plants

Estonia The subsidy for the management of semi-natural communities paid for semi-natural communities located on Natura 2000 areas. This is an agro-environmental subsidy. Subsidy for the management of wooded meadows is 238 EUR/ha per year; for other semi-natural communities it is 186 EUR/ha per year. In case of subsidy for the management of semi-natural habitats for one site, other Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) area-based payments cannot be taken. In 2012, management support for 25,000 ha was paid in total of 4.4 million euros. The total budget for 2007–2013 is 26.8 million euros. Natura 2000 subsidy for private forestland is paid to compensate for nature conservation restrictions of forest management for lost revenue. Subsidy rate is 110 EUR/ha per year, or 60 EUR/ha per year, depending on the extent of the restrictions. In 2012, subsidies were paid for 55,000 ha in total of 3.7 million euros. The total budget for 2007–2013 is 25.5 million euros. Woodland key habitats on private land are also funded from the state budget. A landowner can enter into a 20-year notarial agreement, under which the compensation is paid to the landowner for loss of earnings. As of 01.01.2014, the area of woodland key habitats on commercial forest area was 8,900 ha, about 5% of key habitats on private land were covered with key habitat protection agreements and payments were made for 148,000 euros (in 2007: 54,000 euros). The protection of woodland key habitats on private land is funded from the state budget. In 2013. the amount of payment per hectare increased by 21%. Natura 2000 subsidies for agricultural land are paid to compensate for nature conservation restrictions. Subsidy rate is 32 EUR/ha per year. In 2012 subsidies paid for 23,000 ha in 0.8 million euros. The total budget for 2007–2013 is 8.7 million euros, and it is paid in addition to other area-based CAP subsidies. For endangered breeds of livestock a total of 0.4 million euros were paid for the period 2004–2006, for the period of 2007–2013, the total budget for endangered breeds of livestock and the cultivation of local varieties of plants was 4.4 million euros. Environmental subsidies were paid in the sum of 80 million euros from the RDP budget during the period of 2004–2006. During the period of 2007–2013, the preservation of environment and locality was funded in the sum of 328 million euros (or 35%) from the RDP budget. Since 2008 Natura payments have increased 6.7 times (payments for private forest land were added). Payments for semi-natural habitats management have increased 1.6 times since 2008 due to the increase of the managed area. During the period 2008–2013 different environmental subsidies amounted to 35% of financing under the RDP. Compared to 2008 the environmental subsidies payable under the MAK have increased 1.3 times.

Finland The Finnish METSO-programme
1. Payment for Ecosystem Services - Forest Diversity Programme METSO
2. Agri-environmental support

Ireland Rural Environment Protection Scheme (REPS); Rural Environment Protection Scheme –agri-environmental measures

Latvia Compensation for economic loss

Lithuania Agri-environment payments

Norway 1. Compensation payments for voluntary forest conservation
2. payments to farmers

Sweden Rural Development Programme (2007-2013 and 2014-2020)
1. Blue mussel farming to improve water quality in Lysekil Municipality, agri-environmental programme – production of biodiversity by grazing
2. Swedish Environmental and Rural Development Programme

United Kingdom A PES Action Plan and a Best Practice Guide for PES schemes
Defra published the PES Action Plan and Best Practice Guide in May 2013. The Action Plan promotes practical and innovative development of PES schemes and considers the actions that can be taken to enable them. It considers capacity-building actions for Government, the key policy areas of opportunity for PES and the monitoring and evaluation needs of PES schemes. The Best Practice Guide collates a number of instructive domestic and international case studies demonstrating the various challenges and solutions associated with a PES approach. Defra is also supporting a number of PES pilot research projects to demonstrate the approach exploring the potential for PES in the domestic context.
1. Environmental Stewardship Scheme
2. Agri-environment scheme - evolution of Agri-Environment Schemes in England; Entry Level Stewardship (ELS); Organic Entry Level Stewardship (OELS); Uplands Entry Level Stewardship (Uplands ELS); Higher Level Stewardship (HLS)
3. Study on Payment for Ecosystem Services
4. Payments for Ecosystem Services: A Best Practice Guide
5. Barriers and Opportunities to the Use of Payments for Ecosystem Services (2011)
6. Feasibility of a Nitrogen PES Scheme in the Poole Harbour Catchment (2013)
7. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Pilot on Flood Regulation in Hull
8. Developing place-based approaches for Payments for Ecosystem Services
9. Towards the development of a UK Peatland Code
10. Entry Level Stewardship - Environmental Stewardship Handbook, Fourth Edition, January 2013
11. Organic Entry Level Stewardship - Environmental Stewardship Handbook, Fourth Edition, January 2013
12. Higher Level Stewardship - Environmental Stewardship Handbook, Fourth Edition, January 2013
13. agri-environmental programmes, Country-side Stewardship
14. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Emission Trading Group, North Sea gas flare emission "consent" trading, Greenergy – carbon certified electricity, Climate Care Warranties; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Environmentally sensitive area agreements
15. Case Study of Payments for Environmental Services: the United Kingdom (2005)
16. Direct payments for conservation in the UK: an example from the North York Moors
17. Willingness to pay for the conservation and management of wild geese in Scotland (2001)

Western Europe
Austria 1. BIOSA network of land owners for nature conservation - mission, targets, contract conservation, Styrian Natural Forest Cells - Contract Conservation in Styria, pilot and research projects
2. studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Lower Austria Landscape Fund - biodiversity management contracts
3. BIOSA network of land owners for nature conservation in Austria

Belgium Agri-environment schemes
1. agri-environmental measures, forest plantation payments
2. The agri-environmental measures

European Union 1. Counting PES financing
2. Reform of the Common Agriculture Policy, Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP)
3. Reform of the Common Agriculture Policy, Agri-Environment Measures (AEM), Support to low-intensive agricultural systems and less favoured areas (LFAs), Rural Development Programmes
4. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures (2005)

France Dispositifs de paiement pour services environnementaux (PSE)
1. Vittel (Nestlé Waters) case, Biodiversity Conservation Bank in France, Vittel, The Vittel payments for ecosystem services: a “perfect” PES case? (2006), Investing in protection of ecosystem services: a business opportunity for Vittel (Nestlé Waters), France (2005)
2. agri-environmental support, Evaluation des Mesures Agro-Environnementales (2005)
3. The ‘Make or Buy’ Decision in Private Environmental Transactions (2006)
4. Payments for improved watershed management practices

Germany Agro-environmental measures (1994-2010)
1. Grassland Conservation Pilot Tender, Auction trial with outcome-based payment scheme
2. Payments for Environmental Services in German Financial Cooperation
3. “Marketing” Environmental Services: Lessons Learned in German Development Co-operation (2005)

Luxembourg 1. agri-environmental contracts
2. agricultural land under contracts “biodiversity”

Netherlands 1. agri-environmental measures
2. Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Emission Reduction Units (EMUs) Permit Trading (ERUPT); Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity offsets
3. Payment for biodiversity
4. Ecological Effectiverness of Agri-Environment Schemes in Difference Agricultural Landscapes in the Netherlands (2004)
5. Green Investment Funds: PIM Project

Switzerland 1. ecological payments
2. Switzerland Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Ecological compensation programme – biodiversity management contracts
3. Swiss Agricultural Policy: Objectives, tools, prospects
4. Ecological Direct Payments as Agri-Environmental Incentives & Activities of the Foundation for the Conservation of Cultural Landscapes (1998)
5. Direct Payments for Biodiversity Provided by Swiss Farmers: An Economic Interpretation of Direct Democratic Decision (2002)
6. Ecological Compensation Areas (ECAs)

Oceania
Australia The Environmental Stewardship Program was initiated in 2007 and used a market-based approach to contract private land managers to manage matters of National Environmental Significance listed under the EPBC Act for up to 15 years. Funding is allocated through a competitive reverse auction where applicants bid to provide a range of agreed land management actions for the high public value environmental asset (represented by matters of National Environmental Significance) on their land. The programme was designed to reduce critical threats to biodiversity by enhancing the condition and resilience of habitats and landscapes through land management techniques, developed in consultation with science researchers and land managers. Since 2008, over 58,000 hectares of listed matters of National Environmental Significance have been managed for protection.
The Victorian Government’s BushTender program is an auction approach to protecting and improving native vegetation on private land. Landholders competitively tender for agreements to better manage their native vegetation. Successful bids are those that offer the best value for money. Successful landholders receive payments for environmental services (PES) for their management actions under agreements signed with the Victorian Government. Since 2001, around 35,251 hectares of native vegetation in Victoria has been managed and protected through the BushTender program. Payment for environmental services (PES) through BushTender is currently committed at AU$17.5million.
1. Environmental Stewardship Program, Conservation Auctions in New South Wales, wwf version
2. Bush Tender Program
3. Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity credits, Shares in Earth Sanctuaries Ltd., Tasmania Private Reserve Programme - conservation covenants & land acquisition, Access rights to Smokebush; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: National credit scheme, Bush for Greenhouse Programme, Australian Plantation Timber sale of carbon credits, Sales of CO2 tradable rights by New South Wales State Forests, North American purchasing consortium, Landcare forestry investment & Bush for Greenhouse, Australian Afforestation Pty. Ltd. - afforestation for timber and carbon, Western Australia EcoCarbon Initiative; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Photographic permits in Queensland; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Macquarie River Basin - transpiration credits, Salinity credit trading, Salinity-friendly products; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Environmental service trading NSW: salinity credits, biodiversity credits and carbon offsets, Hancock New Forests Australia - carbon, biodiversity, and salinity credits
4. Markets for ecosystem services: Applying the concepts (2003)
5. Auctions for Conservation Contracts: an Empirical Examination of Victoria’s BushTender Trial (2002)
6. Bush Tender Programme
7. Biodiversity Stewardship in the Eastern Mount Lofty Ranges
8. Markets For Ecosystem Services -Direct payments for Biodiversity in Australia
9. Creating Markets for Biodiversity: A Case Study of Earth Sanctuaries ltd. (2001)
10. Enabling the Market: Incentives for Biodiversity in the Rangelands (2007)
11. Creating Markets for Ecosystem Services (2002)
12. Developing new income streams for farmers: NSW Environmental Services Scheme (2003)
13. Market for Ecosystem Services in Australia: practical design and case studies, Slides
14. Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme: Working together to protect river quality and sustain economic development
15. Biodiversity stewardship payments

Fiji Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Strathclyde Institute -access rights, Trust Fund for biodiversity conservation; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Koyoyanitu ecotourism initiative - package holiday

New Zealand Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Ecotourism concessions

Papua New Guinea PAS Community-Based Forest and Coastal Conservation and Resource Management in PNG (GEF 2009)

Solomon Islands the proposal on sustainable finance and Payment of ecosystem services (PES): Royalty are paid towards the water sources owner especially water catchment that supplies water to urban area. The link between protecting the water catchment from ecosystem services perspective is still poor. It is arguable that PES for water is much more appropriate than the concept of royalty where payment is made in the form of rent for ownership.

General
Global Expanding FSC Certification at Landscape-level through Incorporating Additional Eco-system Services. Chile, Indonesia, Nepal, Vietnam (GEF 2010), Institutionalizing Payments for Ecosystem Services (GEF 2006), Project for Ecosystem Services (ProEcoServ) Chile, Lesotho, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnam, South Africa (GEF 2009), Global Science and Innovation Networks for Coral Reef Resilience ScINet CR2 Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Philippines, Tanzania (GEF), Multiplying Environmental and Carbon Benefits in High Andean Ecosystems Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Philippines, Tanzania (GEF 2012)

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme