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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Regional, subregional and inter-regional cooperation and coordination

Basis for action:
"To strengthen cooperation and coordination among funding partners at the regional and subregional levels, taking into account the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 5.4

Latin America and the Caribbean
Organization of American States (OAS) (1889/1951)
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) (1948)
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) (1959)
Forum of Ministers of the Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean
Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (ILAC)
Regional Action Plan (RAP)
Inter-Agency Technical Committee (ITC)

Central America
Central American Integration System (SICA) 1. Central American Convention for the Conservation of Biodiversity and the Protection of Priority Wetlands (1992)
2. Central American Convention on Climate Change
3. Mexico-Central America Declaration on Sustainable Development
4. Central American Policy on the Conservation and Wise Use of Wetlands
5. Plan of Action for the Integrated Development of Water Resources in Central America (PACADIRH)
Central American Commission for Environment and Development 1. Council of Ministers of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD)
2. Environmental Plan for the Central American Region (PARCA)
3. Regional Strategy for the Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biodiversity in Mesoamerica (ERB)
Central American Council on Forests and Protected Areas (CCAB-AP) Central America Forestry Strategy (EFCA)
Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) 1. Environment chapter (Chapter 17 of the agreement)
2. Environmental Cooperation and Capacity Building Mechanism

South America
Andean Community 1. Regional Biodiversity Strategy of the Andean Community
2. Andean Committee of Environmental Authorities (CAAM)
3. Andean Environmental Agenda
Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization 1. Regional Amazon Strategy on Biodiversity
2. Strategic plan 2004-2012
Mercosur (Southern Cone Common Market) 1. Working group on the environment (SGT6)
2. Florianopolis Framework Agreement on the Environment
3. Specialized Meeting of Environment Ministers

Caribbean
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)
Forum of Caribbean States (CARIFORUM)
Association of Caribbean States (ACS)
Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention)
Regional Activity Centres (RACs) and Regional Activity Networks (RANs)
Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region
Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) in the Wider Caribbean Region
Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities

Asia and the Pacific
Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific (MCED), organized by UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) 1. Regional Strategy for Sound and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific
2. Regional Action Programme for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development 1995-2000
3. Regional Action Programme for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development 2001-2005 and Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment
4. Regional Implementation Plan for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific 2006-2010
5. Seoul Initiative on Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth (Green Growth)

West Asia
Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment (CAMRE), organized by League of Arab States The Arab Initiative on Sustainable Development (AISD)
Islamic Development Bank (IDB) Priorities within its technical cooperation programme include agricultural research and extension, crop protection, soil conservation, livestock breeding and husbandry, water management, and environmental sustainability
Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) 1. Action Plan for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Areas
2. Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution
3. Protocol concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency
Regional Organisation for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA) 1. Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah Convention)
2. Action Plan for the Conservation of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Convention on the Conservation of Wildlife and their Natural Habitats in the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council

Central Asia
Caspian Environment Programme (CEP) 1. Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea
2. Strategic Action Programme (SAP)
3. National Caspian Action Plans
International Fund for the Aral Sea Rehabilitation (IFAS), Intergovernmental Sustainable Development Commission (ISDC), Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (ICWC) 1. Agreement on Joint Actions for the Solution of Problems of the Aral Sea and the Aral Sea Region in 1993
2. Agreement on the Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection and Rational Resource Use in March 1998
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and Ministerial Meeting on Environment Work Plan on Biodiversity in the ECO Region for the years 2007-2015

South Asia
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)
South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 1. SAARC Summits
2. Meetings of SAARC Environment Ministers
3. SAARC Environment Action Plan
4. SAARC Coastal Zone Management Center (SCZMC)
5. SAARC Forestry Center (SFC)
6. South Asia Environment Outlook (SAEO) 2009
7. SAARC Convention on Cooperation on Environment in April 2010

East Asia
NOWPAP Intergovernmental Meeting (IGM) Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northwest Pacific Region (NOWPAP)
Meeting of Senior Officials on Environmental Cooperation in North-East Asia 1. North-East Asian Subregional Programme for Environmental Cooperation (NEASPEC)
2. Core Fund based on voluntary contribution of member countries of NEASPEC
3. NEASPEC subregional conservation strategy for target species
Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting (TEMM) 1. The Northeast Asian Conference on Environmental Cooperation (NEAC)
2. Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting (TEMM)

Southeast Asia
Mekong River Commission (MRC) 1. Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin
2. The Mekong Programme - Regional Cooperation Programme for the Sustainable Development of Water and Related Resources in the Mekong Basin
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Environment (AMME) 1. ASEAN Sub-regional Environmental Programmes (ASEP I, II, and III)
2. Strategic Plan of Action on the Environment, 1999-2004 (SPAE)
3. ASEAN Vision 2020 and the Vientiane Action Programme 2004-2010 (VAP)
4. ASEAN Center for Biodiversity
Coordinating Body on the Seas of East Asia (COBSEA) Action Plan for the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Areas of the East Asian Region
Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA) 1. Haikou Partnership Agreement in December 2006
2. East Asian Seas (EAS) Congress, held every three years
3. East Asian Seas (EAS) Partnership Council
4. PEMSEA Resource Facility
5. Regional Partnership Fund

Pacific
Pacific Islands Forum; Council of Regional Organizations of the Pacific (CROP) 1. Annual meetings of Forum Heads of State and Government
2. Pacific Plan
3. Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change
4. Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Policy, Pacific Islands Action Strategy for nature Conservation, Regional Strategy for Solid Waste, Pacific Regional Action Plan on sustainable Water Management (RAP), Pacific Wastewater Policy and Framework for Action
Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) 1. 1986 Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the Pacific
2. 1976 Convention on the Conservation of Nature in the Pacific (Apia Convention)
3. Action Plan

Africa
African Union (AU) 1. African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) (UNEP, UNECA) (every two years)
2. Environment Initiative for the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)
3. African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Algiers Convention)
4. Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region (Nairobi Convention) 5. Convention for Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention)
6. Lusaka Agreement on Co-operative Enforcement Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora
Community of Sahel- Saharan States (CEN-SAD)

North Africa
Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA)
League of Arab States
Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah Convention)
Protocol concerning Regional Cooperation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency

Central Africa
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) CEMAC Environmental Action Plan
Conference of Ministers for the Forests of Central Africa (COMIFAC) 1. Summit of Head of States of Central Africa on the Conservation and Sustainable Management of the Forest Ecosystems
2. Congo Basin Forests Partnership
3. COMIFAC Convergence Plan
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 1. Implementation of NEPAD Environmental Initiative
2. General policy on environment and natural resource management

East Africa
East African Community (EAC)
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)
Nairobi Convention on the Protection and Management of the Coastal and Marine Environment of the Eastern African Region
Protocol concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region
Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Marine Pollution in Cases of Emergency in the Eastern African Region

West Africa
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
Common Policy to Improve the Environment (WAEMU)
Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region (Abidjan Convention)

Southern Africa
Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) 1. SADC Regional Biodiversity Action Plan
2. The Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement (1999)

Eastern Europe
HELCOM 1. Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention)
2. HELCOM Ministerial Meeting
Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Black Sea Commission or BSC) 1. Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution (Bucharest Convention)
2. Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol to the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution
European Union Environmental Action Programme (EAP); EU bird directive; EU habitat directive
Council of the Pan European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy 1. Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (PEBLDS)
2. ‘Biodiversity in Europe’ conference series
3. Ministerial conference ‘Environment for Europe’
4. Pan European 2010 Biodiversity Implementation Plan
Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) REC Strategy 2006-2010

Estonia During the period of 2014–2020 the amount of support from the EU funds to support biodiversity conversation will increase. The preservation of biodiversity is funded via different EU structural funds. Preservation of biodiversity is also funded through other funds, such as LIFE, LIFE+, INTERREG, EMP etc.. The European Regional Fund (ERF) funded biodiversity and landscape preservation in the sum of 1.5 million euros during the period 2004–2006. During the period 2007–2013, 22 million euros are planned for the preservation of biodiversity, drawing up of management and action plans, development of infrastructures and making investments in protected areas, including habitat restoration, habitat preservation required for maintenance of equipment and livestock acquisition, investments for Ex-situ species protection, control of alien species, restoring and reconstruction of protected parks and reconstruction of infrastructures for visitors. During the period 2007–2013 improvement of watercourses, including inventory of barriers on waterways, removal of barriers, construction and reconstruction of fish passes, with the purpose of ensuring the free movement of fish in watercourses was in total of 23.6 million euros from the Cohesion Fund (CF). The measure of environmental monitoring and data acquisition was funded from ERF (2007–2013) in the amount of 1.5 million euros. The purpose of the measure is to develop tools for management, using and publicising of monitoring data including monitoring data of wildlife. The development of environmental education is also funded from the EU 2007–2013 funds. Infrastructure development of environmental education was funded in the sum of 23.9 million euros from the ERF, regional environmental education centres were built with the help of this subsidy. The development of environmental education was funded in the amount of 3 million euros from the European Social Fund (ESF). The European Fisheries Fund (EFF) for the period 2007–2013 is funding activities supporting biodiversity, such as restoration, maintenance, extension and improvement of spawning grounds and establishment of artificial spawning grounds and fish introduction. In the framework of the environmental protection and technology, and research and development program, (KESTA) (ERF) two biodiversity projects with a total budget of 1.1 million euros were funded: applied research of nature conservation and in the context of nature conservation of dynamics of living systems. Research is also funded under the Seventh Framework Programme. As of 01/01/2014, 6 conservation project have been funded from the LIFE+ fund during the period 2017–2013, and 3 million euros have been allocated to the Estonian partners by the Life+ programme. In the framework of the projects Emajõe old rivers, spring fens, habitats of Leucorrhinia pectoralis and Pelobates fuscus have been restored or are under restoration; infrastructure for the sustainable management of Pärnu coastal meadow is under construction. INTERREG has funded nature conservation projects in the period 2007–2013 for more than one million euros. In addition to this, nature conservation activities are funded from the Swiss Cooperation Programme and the financial mechanisms of the Norwegian and European Economic Area.

Global Monitoring Report 2012: The existing regional and subregional political establishments (UN regional commissions, and regional and subregional community organizations) have been active in becoming partners at the regional and subregional levels, but their involvement has been rather limited in terms of number of projects. The majority of regional and subregional biodiversity projects are initiated and executed by international development organizations and financial institutions, non-governmental organizations as well as governments and key stakeholders of donor and recipient countries. Regional and subregional projects have grown considerably over the past decade, passing the mark of US$ 2 billion in 2010, roughly corresponding to the level of co-financing for GEF regional, subregional and interregional biodiversity projects amounted to US$1.89 billion in the same year.
The growing trend of regional, subregional and inter-regional cooperation is expected to continue, and by 2020, regional (subregional and interregional) projects can surpass US$3 billion. Regional and subregional environmental cooperation arrangements will play a catalytic role in mobilizing within-region partnerships, such as the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) (organized by UNEP and UN Economic Commission for Africa every two years), the Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific (MCED) (organized by UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific every five years), the Forum of Ministers of the Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean (supported by the Inter-Agency Technical Committee (ITC)). The Joint Annual Meetings of the AU Conference of Ministers of Economy and Finance and ECA Conference of Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic Development offers a promising occasions for developing linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services and finance, planning and economic development.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme