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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Value assessment

Target: "By 2015, 30 per cent of those Parties have assessed and/or evaluated the intrinsic, ecological, genetic, socioeconomic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of biological diversity and its components"...Decision XI/4, paragraph 7(d)

Basis for action: "To assess economic costs of the loss of biodiversity and its associated ecosystem services, of the failure to take measures to fulfill the three objectives of the Convention, and benefits of early action to reduce loss of biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 1.2

Indicators:
Number of countries that have assessed values of biodiversity, in accordance with the Convention
Number of countries that have been provided with the necessary funding and capacity building to undertake the valuation and planning activities

Eastern Africa
Comoros (2014) Biodiversity provides 40% to 50% of food needs and nearly 40% of animal protein in the country, contributes to 41% of the GDP, i.e., US$209 million and about 90% of export revenues.
(2001) Economic assessments of reefs

Djibouti (1998) Djibouti Biodiversity: Economic Assessment

Eritrea Values
(1998) Eritrea Biodiversity: Economic Assessment

Ethiopia (2014)Values of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
(2009)The Value of the Ethiopian Protected Area System: Message to Policy Makers, by Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority (EWCA)
(2011)The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm: Economic analysis of Ethiopian farmers’ preferences for crop variety attributes: A choice experiment approach; Farmers’ perceptions on replacement and loss of traditional crop varieties: Examples from Ethiopia and implications

Kenya (2014) Green Economy Assessment: economic benefits estimated USD 45 billion by 2030 as well as greater food security, a cleaner environment and higher productivity of natural resources
(1996) The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
1. opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation; Country Study
2. Economic Constraints to the Management of Marine Protected Areas: the Case of Kisite Marine National
3. Valuing the Subsistence Use of Forest Products in Oldonyo Orok Forest, Kenya

Madagascar (2014) Valeurs économiques (commerce international, industrie et artisanat, tourisme, commerce intérieur), valeurs sociales (nourriture, matériaux de construction et produits ménagers, combustibles domestiques, médecine traditionnelle, emplois), valeurs culturelles, valeurs scientifiques, valeurs des services écologiques
1. Economic analysis of protected area network
2. Valuing Tropical Forests: Methodology and Case Study of Madagascar
3. Biodiversity and human well-being, valuation

Malawi Economic loss
(2011) Economic Study

Mozambique Economic Analysis of Natural Resources; National accounting

Rwanda (2014) Total economic valuation of ecosystem services in Nyungwe watershed and Mukura forest reserve
1. Economic Analysis of Natural Resource Management
2. State of the Environment

Seychelles Economic assessment
(1997) Seychelles Biodiversity: Economic Assessment

Uganda (2014) Annual contribution of ecosystem services decreased from US$5,097 million in 2005 to US$4,405 million in 2010, economic value of forest resources, bequest and existence value of ecosystems, valuation of Murchison Falls Conservation Area and Budongo Central Forest Reserve.
(2014) Economic valuation of protected areas, Contribution of the Forest Sub-sector to National Economy
(1999) Uganda Biodiversity: Economic Assessment
Valuation of biodiversity
Nakivubo Swamp, Uganda: managing natural wetlands for their ecosystem services
Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve

United Republic of Tanzania (2014) The value of land resources in Tabora Region. Continued biodiversity loss, unsustainable utilization and associated degradation of a wide range of ecosystem services amounts to at least five percent (5%) of the national GDP and affects most severely the poor communities who depend most directly on their immediate environment for survival. Unreliable power supply due to drought resulting in decreased water levels in dams used for hydropower was estimated to cost about US$ 330 million annually (about 2% of the national GDP) in 2006. Conflict between humans and wildlife due to human encroachment in wildlife habitat is an increasing problem with records (by the end of 2009) showing that elephants kill approximately 40-50 people and injuring 30-40 people each year across the country.
1. Economic Valuation of Ihefu Wetland, *Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin
2. Environmental flow assessment taking into account the value of ecosystem services, Pangani River Basin
3. Catchment Ecosystems and Downstream Water: The Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin
(2002) Towards Natural Resource Accounting in Tanzania: a study on the contribution of national forests to income, by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa

Zambia 1. Economic value of Barotse Floodplain
2. Barotse Floodplain, Zambia: local economic dependence on wetland resources
(2011) The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm: Consumers’ attribute preferences and traders’ challenges affecting the use of local maize and groundnut varieties in Lusaka, Zambia: Implications for crop diversity policy

Zimbabwe (1996) The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
2. Values of biodiversity
(1993) Sustainable National Income and Natural Resource Degradation. Initial Results for Zimbabwe, by CSERGE
(1998) Incorporating Fuelwood Production and Consumption into the National Accounts. A case study for Zimbabwe, by FAO
(2002) Accounting for Forest Resources in Zimbabwe, by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa

Southern Africa
Botswana 1. Economic Valuation
2. Ecosystem valuation in Kgalagadi
3. Economic Valuation of Communal Rangelands in Botswana: a Case Study
4. The Real Jewels of the Kalahari: Drylands Ecosystem Goods and Services in Kgalagadi South District, Botswana
5. Alternative Measures of the Value of Resource Rent and Natural Capital in Constant Prices (2006), by The Earth Institute at Columbia University
6. Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
7. Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy

Namibia Value of Devil’s Claw, Hoodia, Kalahari Melon Seed, Marula, Ximenia, Commiphora (2010-2020)
Economic Analysis of the Game Meat Value Chain completed in 2012
1. Tourism valuation
2. The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (1996)
3. Park pricing and economic efficiency in Namibia (2002)
4. Wildlife Use for Economic Gain the potential for wildlife to contribute to development in Namibia (1996)
5. Tourists' willingness to pay for wildlife viewing and wildlife conservation in Namibia (1997)
6. Economics without markets: Policy inferences from nature-based tourism studies in Namibia (2002)
7. Alternative Measures of the Value of Resource Rent and Natural Capital in Constant Prices (2006), by The Earth Institute at Columbia University
8. Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
9. Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy
10. An Approach to Sustainable Water Management Using Natural Resource Accounts: the Use of Water, the Economic Value of Water, and Implications for Policy (1997), by Ministry of Environment and Tourism
11. The Contribution of Resource Rents from Minerals and Fisheries to Sustainable Economic Development in Namibia (1997), by Ministry of Environment and Tourism
12. Fisheries Accounting in Namibia (2000), by National Statistical Coordination Board
13. The Value of Namibia's Commercial Fisheries (2003), by Ministry of Environment and Tourism
14. Technical Summary of Water Accounts (2006), by Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry
15. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
16. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union

South Africa 1. Values of Biodiversity
2. Baseline Valuation Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
3. Valuation of Biodiversity Conservation by the South African Khomani San “bushmen” community
4. Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Strategic Catchment Planning at uMhlathuze municipality (South Africa, 2006)
5. environmental economic accounts, green economy initiative, Estimate of economic values
6. The existence value of biodiversity in South Africa: how interest, experience, knowledge, income and perceived level of threat influence local willingness to pay
7. Economic Impacts of Transfrontier Conservation Areas: Baseline of Tourism in the Kavango–Zambezi TFCA
8. Water quality amelioration value of Fynbos Biome wetlands
9. Value of the San Rock Art in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg World Heritage Site
10. Environmental Economic Accounts: Water Management Areas in South Africa (2010), by Statistics South Africa
11. Fishery Accounts for South Africa 1990-2010 (2012), by Statistics South Africa
12. Environmental Accounting in Action: Case Studies from Southern Africa (2003), by Edward Elgar Publishing
13. Using Environmental Accounts to Promote Sustainable Development: Experience in Southern Africa (2003), by Blackwell Synergy
14. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark

Swaziland 1. Natural Resource Accounting
2. Natural Resource Accounts for the state and economic contribution of forests and woodland resources in Swaziland (2002), by Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa

Western Africa
Benin En somme, le Ministère en charge des finances, dans l’élaboration des SCRP, prend en compte les dimensions du développement durable. Cette prise en compte des piliers du développement durable dans les documents stratégiques élaborés par le Ministère des Finances facilite l’intégration des préoccupations et le financement des activités orientées vers le développement durable et développées par les différents ministères sectoriels. Au Bénin, la notion d’économie verte n’est pas encore suffisamment intégrée dans les politiques de développement durable, malgré le fait qu’il est de plus en plus confirmé que l’environnement est l’une des composantes clés de la croissance économique en faveur des pauvres. Les ressources écologiques doivent être considérées comme un capital naturel productif. Leur transformation doit se baser sur des options d’investissements visant à pérenniser ce capital naturel et son utilisation à d’autres fins. En réalité, les décideurs politiques n’ont pas encore convenu jusque-là de l’organisation d’un forum sur ce concept émergent, même s’il a été abordé la notion du verdissement dans la SCRP III. D’ailleurs, aucune étude n’a encore été réalisée sur les facteurs de succès, les défis et les risques associés à l’économie verte sur le plan national. Toutefois, la mise en oeuvre des composantes relatives à la reforme et à l’aménagement des écosystèmes forestiers et la Stratégie nationale de mise en place de marchés ruraux de boisénergie au Bénin adoptée en 2009 a constitué une des principales nouveautés dans l’approche de gestion participative des massifs forestiers et la création de revenus au niveau local pour la réduction de la pauvreté au Bénin qui justifie déjà des prémices de l’économie verte.

Burkina Faso 1. Economic Benefits
2. Costs of Environmental Degradation
3. Economic Valuation of Natural Resources
4. Wetland valuation changes development policy perspectives in Burkina Faso
5. Wetland valuation changes policy perspectives, Burkina Faso

Ghana 1. Economic Analysis
2. The Economics of Wildlife: Case Studies from Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe (1996)

Guinea Economic Values

Mali Costs of Damages and Remediation

Mauritania Costs and Benefits of Natural Resources Management; *Costs of Degradation

Niger Valeurs de la biodiversité et des services écosystémiques

Nigeria 1. Natural Resource Valuation
2. Economic Importance of Wild Resources in the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands

Senegal The Economic Value of Wild Resources in Senegal: A preliminary evaluation of non-timber forest products, game and freshwater fisheries

Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda Direct and Indirect Values
Bahamas Environmental Accounting
Barbados Economic Valuation
Cuba Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Dominican Republic 1. Coastal Capital
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Grenada Economic Valuation of Parks and Protected Areas
Jamaica Marine System Valuation: An Application to Coral Reef Systems in the Developing Tropics
Trinidad and Tobago Value of Biodiversity

North and Central Americas
Canada 1. Concepts, Sources and Methods of the Canadian System of Environmental and Resource Accounts
2. Counting canada’s natural capital: assessing the real value of canada’s boreal ecosystems
3. Natural Values: Linking the Environment to the Economy
4. The Value of Natural Capital in Settled Areas of Canada
5. Human Activity and the Environment: Measuring ecosystem goods and services in Canada 2013
6. How Canadians Value Nature: A Strategic and Conceptual Review of Literature and Research
7. Valuation of Ecological Goods and Services in Canada’s Natural Resources Sectors
8. The Marine Economy & the Regional District of Mt. Waddington in BC
9. Revealing the Economic Value of Biodiversity: A New Incentive Measure to Conserve and Protect It
10. Value of Ecosystem Services in Canada
11. Application of Environmental Damage Assessment and Resource Valuation Processes In Atlantic Canada
12. Natural Capital Valuation in the Credit River Watershed, Ontario
13. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
14. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
15. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
16.Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
17. Concepts, sources and methods of the Canadian system of Environmental and Resource Accounts (2006), by Statistics Canada

Costa Rica 1. Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica (Costa Rica, 1997)
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
3. Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996) by World Bank

El Salvador Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Guatemala 1. National account; *Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
3. Cuenta Integrada de Recursos Pesqueros y Acuícolas: Bases teóricas, conceptuales y metodológicas (2009), by Banco de Guatemala y Universidad Rafael Landívar
4. Cuenta Integrada de Residuos: Bases teóricas, conceptuales y metodológicas (2009), by Banco de Guatemala y Universidad Rafael Landívar
5. Cuenta Integrada del Bosque: Bases teóricas, conceptuales y metodológicas (2009), by Banco de Guatemala y Universidad Rafael Landívar

Honduras Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Mexico 1. Economic and Ecological Accounts, El valor de los bienes y servicios que las áreas naturales protegidas proveen a los mexicanos
2. Economic and environmental accounting, economic valuation of biodiversity and forests, biodiversity and tourism
3. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
4. Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996) by World Bank
5. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting - A case Study for Mexico (1991), by World Bank
6. Towards estimating Total Economic Value for forests in Mexico (1994), by Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment
7. Sistema de Cuentas Económicas y Ecológicas de México: Metodología (2005), by Instituto Nacional De Estadística Y Geographía (INEGI)
8. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark

Nicaragua Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Panama 1. Economic Valuation of Protected Areas
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

United States of America
(2001) Economic Benefits to Local Communities from National Park Visitation, 2011
(2012) $14.5 billion worth of civil works on a massive network of levees and flood walls, not including upkeep and future replacement
Made in America: Investing in National Parks for Our Heritage and Our Economy
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Compensation payments after Exxon Valdes oil spill (Alaska, U.S.A., 1991)
(2005)protecting visibility in natural areas (Clean Air Act), visibility and ecosystem damage in natural areas, nature as a pathway to health, economic benefits and costs related to nature
The Economic Value of Ecosystem Services in Four Counties in Northeastern Florida
The Natural Capital Project, Kamehameha Schools, and InVEST: Integrating Ecosystem Services into Land-Use Planning in Hawai`i
Economic Impacts of Live Wild Animal Imports in the United States
Restoring Ecosystem Services to Prevent Flood Damage In Napa River Basin
Assigning Priority to Environmental Policy Interventions in a Heterogeneous World
Economic valuation of the coral reefs of Hawai‘i
Marine Protected Areas: Economic and Social Implications
Use of Non-Market Valuation Studies in Water Resource Management Assessments
The value of wolves for local communities in the Greater Yellowstone Area
The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital
Biodiversity and Disease Risk: The Case of Lyme Disease
The Social Value of Using Biodiversity in New Pharmaceutical Product Research
Markets and Biodiversity
(1998) Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice, by Kluwer Academic
(2000) Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting, by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
(1997) National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group, by Statistics Canada
(1993) Readings in International Environment Statistics, by UNECE
(2000) The Weight of Nations, by World Resources Institute
(1994) Integrated Economic and Environmental Satellite Accounts, by Bureau of Economic Analysis
(1994) The United Nations Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting System: an Environmental Economic Perspective, by Environmental Protection Agency
(2000) Accounting for Renewable and Environmental resources, by Bureau of Economic Analysis
(2000) Assessing BEA’s Prototype Integrated Economic and Environmental Satellite Accounts, by Bureau of Economic Analysis
(2001) The Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery in the USA and Canada: A Natural Experiment in Fisheries Management Regimes, by Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
(2006) Blueprint for Expanded and Integrated U.S. Accounts: Review, Assessment, and Next Steps, by National Bureau for Economic Research

South America
Argentina 1. Measuring Productivity in Unstable and Natural Resources Dependent Economies: Argentina
2. Alternative methods for estimating resource rent and depletion cost: the case of Argentina’s YPF
3. Conservation could save commercial fishery in Argentina
4. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Bolivia Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Brazil 1. Ecosystem Services and Cost-Benefit Analysis: the case of BR-319 Road in Brazilian Amazon
2. Estimation of the Economic Value of the Pest Control Service Provided by the Brazilian Free-tailed Bat in the Winter Garden Region of South-Central Texas
3. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon (1998), by FAO
4. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Chile 1. The Value of Chilean Biodiversity: Economic, Environmental and Legal Considerations
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
3. Cuentas Ambientales del Recurso Agua en Chile (1999), by Comision Nacional Del Medio Ambiente

Colombia La Cuenta Experimental de Ecosistemas como aporte a la Política Pública Ambiental Colombiana; Inclusión de los servicios ecosistémicos en las cuentas nacionales. Cuentas Ambientales
1. Economic Analysis and Valuation
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Ecuador Generar un Sistema de Contabilidad Ambiental oficial que sirva a los decidores de política en base al cálculo de las cuentas físicas y monetarias para los recursos naturales más relevantes del país; Actualización de la valoración económica del SNAP, desde un enfoque de sectores productivos; Valoración económica de la biodiversidad en los sistemas de producción de cacao fino de aroma
1. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
2. Accounting for National Resources in Ecuador: Contrasting Methodologies, Conflicting Results (1996), by World Bank

Guyana Using an income accounting framework to value non-timber forest products (2002) by FAO

Paraguay 1. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Peru 1. Values of Diversity
2. Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Uruguay Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Venezuela Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Central Asia
Kazakhstan The biodiversity, as a value of ecosystem services in Kazakhstan, has not been evaluated from the economic perspective at the legislative level. The first pilot assessment was conducted in 2013 in the Karkarala SSPA, in order to determine the economic value of SSPA based on the assessment of some of its ecosystem services in monetary terms for the subsequent replication of this practice in the system of protected areas in Kazakhstan. The total annual value of ecosystem services in SSPA, as per these estimates, made up 86 million 371 thousand dollars.
Kazakhstan has adopted the Concept of transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to a "green economy”, approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 577 on May 30, 2013 with the aim to harmonize relations between people and the nature. The conceptual framework of the strategy includes the following documents: the Strategy of Development of Kazakhstan until 2030; the Strategic development plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan untill 2020; the Sectoral Programme "Zhasyl damy" for 2010-2014, the Strategy of Industrial and Innovation Development for 2003-2015 and other programs and documents. The "green economy" is an important tool for the sustainable development. Transition to a "green economy" will allow Kazakhstan to achieve, by 2050, its goal of becoming one of the 30 most developed countries in the world. Overall, the level of investments needed for transition to a "green economy" will make up about 1% of GDP annually, equivalent to 3-4 billion U.S. dollars per year. The main priorities for the transition to a "green economy" are as follows: 1) more efficient use of resources (water, land, biological etc.) and their effective management; 2) modernization of the existed infrastructure and construction of new infrastructure; 3) improved welfare of the population and the quality of the environment through cost-effective ways for mitigation of pressure on the environment; 4) enhancing of the national security, including water security. One of the priority areas, specified in the concept, is the "Conservation and efficient management of ecosystems".

Tajikistan The Economic Cost of Agricultural Land Degradation in Tajikistan

Turkmenistan Values of biodiversity

Uzbekistan 1. Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Aral Sea wetland restoration project (Uzbekistan, 1996)
2. Wetland restoration incorporates ecosystem service value, Aral Sea, Central Asia

Eastern Asia
China Estimated values of ecosystem services provided by forests in China in 2000, such as goods provided, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, water regulation, soil conservation, environment purification, nutrient cycling, recreation and biodiversity conservation (about 1.4 trillion yuan RMB/a, equivalent to 14.2% of China's GDP). Total values of grassland ecosystems (1.2403 trillion yuan RMB, equivalent to 149.79 billion USD, about 3,100 yuan RMB per hectare of grassland which far exceeds the value production on grasslands creates). Economic value of pollination for fruit and vegetable growth in 2008 (52.17 billion USD, accounting for 25.5% of the gross output value of 44 varieties of fruits and vegetables). In Hainan Island, the regulation function of its ecosystems valued eight times more than the value of goods produced. Value of ecosystem services provided in Xishuangbanna 11 times more than the total value of GDP of the region. total annual cost of invasive alien species to the environment and economy of China (around 119.9 billion yuan). China has issued technical guidelines for assessing the economic values of genetic resources, and is developing technical guidelines for assessing ecosystem services and functions. In 1998 China completed the national assessment of the economic values of biodiversity. In 2010 China completed a national assessment of service of forest ecosystems. China has also undertaken assessments of biodiversity values in some typical regions in different periods of time. All these assessments have provided a basis for developing theories and methods for economic evaluation of biodiversity. The Eighteenth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party held in November 2012 laid out a vision for building an ecological civilization and Beautiful China. The meeting required that national policy of protecting the environment and improving resource use efficiency would continue to be followed, and proposed that priorities would be given to energy conservation, protection and natural recovery of the environment. Future efforts will focus on promoting green, cycling and low carbon development so as to form the industrial structure, production and consumption patterns and spatial layouts favorable to the environment and conservation of natural resources. China is developing a system of goals, assessment methods and reward/penalty mechanisms that meet requirements of an ecological civilization. The biodiversity values will be incorporated into such system of goals and assessment methods.
1. Natural resource accounting in China
2. Economic values of biodiversity in China (1998): direct use values, indirect values, option values, existence values, economic loss of biodiversity destruction, and baseline values of endangered species, as well as national accounting of green GDP
3. China's “Green GDP” Experiment and the Struggle for Ecological Modernisation
4. Green GDP Accounting Study Report 2004
5. Costs and Benefits of Biodiversity Conservation in China
6. Mapping Ecosystem Function Conservation Areas to integrate ecosystem services into land use plans in Baoxing County
7. Economic Values of Biodiversity in China
8. International experiences with "green GDP" (2006), by Statistics Norway
9. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
10. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
11. A Study Report on China Environmental and Economic Accounting in 2004 (2004), by National Bureau of Statistics of China
12. Study on Forest Accounting Greened GDP on Hainan Island in China (2004), by Graduate Institute of Environmental Education - National Taiwan Normal University
13. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting in China: Proposed Framework and Preliminary Findings (2006), by National Bureau of Statistics of China

Japan economic evaluations of the publicly beneficial functions of forests in 1972, 1991, and 2000, Evaluation of Multiple Functions of Agriculture and Forests in relation to the Global Environment and Human Livelihood (2001), economic value of ecosystem services in Kabukurinuma
Estimations of the monetary value of the multiple functions of forests, value of biodiversity which can be conserved by designating the Amami Islands as National Parks and value of biodiversity which can be conserved by implementing measures to control feeding damage by sika deer (Cervus nippon) on natural vegetation nationwide
1. The Case of Oze Area: Case Study on the Japanese Experience Concerning Economic Aspects of Conserving Biodiversity
2. Economic Valuation of Oku-Aizu Forest Ecosystem Reserve in Japan
3. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
4. Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996), by World Bank
5. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
6. The Weight of Nations (2000), by World Resources Institute
7. The Development of Environmental Accounting Frameworks and Indicators for Measuring Sustainability in Japan (2003), by OECD
8. New System of Integrated Environment and Economic Accounting (Trial Calculation on Hybrid Accounting System integrating Environmental Pressures and Economic Activities) (2004), by Cabinet Office

Mongolia Tuul River Watershed Services, Mongolia; The Economic Value of the Upper Tuul Ecosystem, December 2009

Republic of Korea 1. Korean Integrated System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (KORSEEA)
2. Comparison of environmental economic performance in South Korea and Germany (2003), by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
3. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
4. Environmental accounting in Korea (2000), by UNESCAP
5. Pilot Compilation of Environmental-Economic Accounts - Republic of Korea (1998), by United Nations

South Eastern Asia
Cambodia 1. Veun Sean Village, Stung Treng Ramsar Site, Cambodia: Rapid, participatory assessment for wetland valuation
2. Ream National Park, Cambodia: balancing the local opportunity costs of wetland protection

Indonesia 1. Environmental Accounting for Sustainable Growth and Development with Special Reference to a System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA): The Indonesian Experience
2. The Biodiversity Benefits of Coral Reef Ecosystems: Values and Markets
3. Economic benefits of biological diversity
4. Integrating Ecosystem Services into Spatial Planning in Sumatra
5. Economic Analysis for Taka Bone Rate Marine Protected Area, Costs and Benefits of Coral Mining in Lombok
6. Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996), by World Bank
7. Indonesian Forest Resource Accounting With Special Reference on Rainforest Timber in Kalimantan Island (2000), by National Statistical Coordination Board

Lao 1. Balancing the Returns to Catchment Management: The Economic Value of Conserving Natural Forests in Sekong, Lao PDR
2. Participatory valuation of forests in subsistence economy in Sekong, Lao PDR
3. Sekong Province, Lao PDR: economic returns from conserving natural forests
4. Wetlands reduce damages to infrastructure

Malaysia 1. Economic Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services in Malaysia
2. Net Accumulation of Timber Resources (1999), by Center for Environmental Economic and Policy in Africa

Philippines 1. Preservation or Conversion? Valuation and Evaluation of a Mangrove Forest in the Philippines
2. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
3. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
4. Green accounting for a sustainable economy. Policy use and analysis of environmental accounts in the Philippines (1994), by Science Direct
5. Institutionalization of the Philippine Economic-Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting (PEENRA) system (2000), by UNESCAP
6. Accounting For Environmental Services: Contrasting the SEEA and the ENRAP Approaches (2001), by International Association for Research in Income and Wealth

Thailand Studies and Reports on the Economic value of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity; Sea Grass Ecosystem (year of completed: 2012)
Economic Valuation of Mangroves and the Roles of Local Communities in the Conservation of Natural Resources: Case Study of Surat Thani, South of Thailand

Southern Asia
 
Bhutan Estimating the Value of Ecosystem Services in Bhutan

India Green National Accounts in India-A Framework' (www.pib.nic.in)
Green Accounting for Indian States and Union Territories (GAISP) 2004
1. Green Accounting Methodology for India and its States
2. The value of biodiversity in India’s forests
3. Estimating the value of agricultural cropland and pastureland in India
4. The value of timber, carbon, fuelwood, and non-timber forest products in India’s forests
5. Estimating the value of educational capital formation in India
6. Accounting for the ecological services of India’s forests: soil conservation, water augmentation, and flood prevention
7. Accounting for freshwater quality in India
8. Economic valuation in India
9. Integrating Forest Resources into the System of National Accounts in Maharashtra, India (2000), by Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press
10. Use of the Green Accounting Approach to Assess the Contribution of Watershed Values of the Forestry Sector to the Gross Domestic Product of Himachal Pradesh (2003), by FAO
11. The value of timber, carbon, fuelwood, and non-timber forest products in India’s forests (2005), by The Energy and Resources Institute
12. Accounting for India (2006), by Ecological Economics, Elsevier
13. The Value of Biodiversity in India's Forests (2006), by Green Accounting for Indian States Project
14. Natural Resource Accounting for Indian States: Illustrating the Case of Forest Resources (2007), by Ecological Economics, Elsevier

Maldives The Economic Value of Marine and Coastal Biodiversity to the Maldives Economy

Nepal The Economics of Managing Crop Diversity On-farm (2011): Valuation of rice diversity in Nepal: A trait-based approach; Commercialization and market linkages for promoting the use of local rice varieties: A Nepalese case study

Pakistan Indus Delta, Pakistan: economic costs of reduction in freshwater flows

Sri Lanka The Kala Oya River Basin, Sri Lanka: where small irrigation tanks are not really small; Valuation of management options for irrigation tanks in Kala Oya, Sri Lanka

Eastern Europe
Bulgaria Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Danube Islands, Land-use options on the Danube islands

Czech Republic (2014) Integrated assessment of ecosystem services: The resulting average value of ecosystem services in the Czech Republic represents 1.5 the current gross national product

Hungary 1. Assessment of the value of biodiversity
2. Loss of Value of the Szigetközwetland due to the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Barrage System Development: Application of Benefit Transfer in Hungary

Poland (2014) valuation of economic benefits from the use of forests, Evaluation of Non-Productive Forest Functions, Assessment of the Recreational Value of the White Stork in Stork Villages, Valuation of Public Greenery on the Example of Tree Stands in the City of Lodz, development and implementation of valuation mechanisms for biodiversity resources and ecosystem services in such a way that they become a permanent element of prosperity assessment and national statistics and serve as considerable premises in current economic decisions, on the level of shaping sector policies, economic decisions made by entrepreneurs, or individual consumption patterns.
Valuation of street trees in Lodz city center

Republic of Moldova (2014) Value of ecosystem services in tourism, forestry, agriculture, fishing, water supply, climate change and natural disaster mitigation in Moldovais estimated at just under $21,986 million (in 2011). The quantified value of ecosystem services (taking only few sectors into consideration) equated to some 41% of GDP. In 2011, both, the public and the private sector benefited from the values of ecosystem services. For example, for eco-tourism sector, 13 % of the value was earned by the national budget, while 78 % (4.6 million USD) was earned by private enterprises. In agriculture sector, only 11% of the benefits were earned by the budget (425 million USD) while the private sector earned 86%.
(2004) Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, by Statistics Denmark

Romania (2004) Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis, by FAO

Russian Federation Impacts of economic transition, priorities, economic valuation and its importance, national green accounting, macroeconomic measures, specific economic measures and capacity building

Northern Europe
Denmark Value of specific ecosystem services in forestry, agriculture and fisheries, value of insect pollination of arable crops (DKK 421-690 million a year), total value of ecosystem services DKK 5,000-8,000 per hectare on agricultural land at Vollerup Skov on West Zealand, socio-economic benefits of restoring Skjern River - DKK 200 million. Development of green national accounting (Danish National Statistics Institute, 2013)
1. Assessing recreational values of Danish forests to guide national plans for afforestation
2. Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Assessing recreational values of Danish forests to guide national plans for afforestation
3. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
4. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
5. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
6. The Danish Environmental Accounts with Examples of its Use (2003), by OECD
7. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Tradeable Carbon Dioxide Emission Permits (2005), by Statistics Denmark 8. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Water and Waste Water Denmark 1999-2003 (2005), by European Commission
9. Regional Environmental Accounts Denmark 2003 (2005), by European Commission
10. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (2007), by United Nations Statistics Division and Statistics Denmark

Estonia The demand for protected forest by working age population of Estonia (2011); public benefits from different agricultural production types (2012); overview of ecosystem services and their economic value (2012); assessing the economic value of bogs, on the example of Kuresoo bog) (2012); assessing the economic value of forest, on the example of Järvselja nature conservation area (2013); study about changes in the land use, how it affects ecosystems services provided by nature and how to take it into account than planning land use (2015); socio-economic analysis of The Baltic sea - project in work; mapping and assessing of water related ecosystem services (sea, rivers, lakes) (starts 2014)
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia

Finland TEEB Finland (2013–2014); The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity Finland (2013–2014) - project aims to systematically incorporate the value of ecosystem services into all levels of decision-making. The project’s goal is to identify Finland's most important (key) ecosystem services and propose methods to assess their current status and future trends. It will also aim to provide some preliminary estimates on the economic importance of some key services, especially the ones that so far remain under-recognized. Consequently, the project pays special attention to the regulating and cultural services that thus far have received limited attention. Building on the insights above, TEEB Finland will also analyze the opportunities for improving the governance of ecosystem services, including exploring how ecosystem services can be linked to supporting the development of sustainable green economy in Finland. The project will produce recommendations for effective integration of ecosystem services into decisionmaking processes, and for governing natural capital and ecosystem services. The project will also identify major knowledge gaps.
1. Biodiversity as an economic issue
2. Estimating economic benefits of protected areas in Finland – making a case for continued public investment
3. Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Benefits of green infrastructure – socio-economic importance of constructed urban wetlands (Nummela, Finland); Estimating economic benefits of protected areas in Finland – making a case for continued public investment
4. Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
5. An Environmental Accountant’s Dilemma: Are Stumpage Prices Reliable Indicators of Resource Scarcity? (2003), by National Institute of Economic Research
6. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
7. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
8. Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
9. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
10. The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications (1999), by European Commission

Iceland 1. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
2. Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
3. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Commercial Exploitation of Wild Fish Stocks (2000), by International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET)

Ireland 1. Benefits and costs of biodiversity
2. Economic value of biodiversity
3. The Economic and Social Aspects of Biodiversity: Benefits and Costs of Biodiversity in Ireland
4. Environmental Accounts for Ireland 1996-2003 (2005), by Central Statistics Office

Norway (2013) Natural benefits – on the values of ecosystem services: Report from an expert commission appointed by the Norwegian Government to the Ministry of the Environment on 29 August 2013, Official Norwegian Report NOU 2013: 10 Summary.
1. Economic benefits provided by biodiversity and ecosystem services
2. Valuation of Benefits Connected to Conservation or Improvement of Environmental Quality in Local Watercourses in Norway
3. The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources - A National Co-Ordinated Plan for Non-Developed Hydropower Sources: Application of a multicriteria approach
4. Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Marine Ecosystem Services in the Barents Sea and Lofoten Islands, a scoping assessment
(2005) Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
(2006) International experiences with "green GDP" (2006), by Statistics Norway
(2000) Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
(1997) National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
(1996) Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
(1987) Natural Resource Accounting and Analysis: The Norwegian Experience 1978-1986 (1987), by Statistics Norway
(1994) Natural Resource Accounting: The Norwegian Approach (1994), by Statistics Norway
(2001) Norwegian Economic and Environment Accounts (NOREEA) Phase 2 (2001), by Statistics Norway
(2001) Norwegian Economic and Environment Accounts (NOREEA) Project Report – 2001 (2001), by Statistics Norway
(2002) Norwegian Economic and Environment Accounts (NOREEA) Project Report 2002 (2002), by Statistics Norway
(2004) Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NOREEA) Project 2003 - Final Report to Eurostat (2004), by European Commission
(2006) From natural resources and environmental accounting to construction of indicators for sustainable development (2006), by Statistics Norway
(2006) Natural resources and the environment 2005 (2006), by Statistics Norway
(2006) Pilot studies for the development of Environmental Accounting: Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NOREEA) Project (2006), by European Commission

Sweden 1. How much are we prepared to pay for a woodpecker
2. integration of economic objectives into environmental policy
3. The Value of Nature and the Nature of Value
4. Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
5. An Environmental Accountant’s Dilemma: Are Stumpage Prices Reliable Indicators of Resource Scarcity? (2003), by National Institute of Economic Research
6. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
7. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
8. Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis (2004), by FAO
9. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
10. Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
11. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
12. Readings in International Environment Statistics (1993), by UNECE
13. The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications (1999), by European Commission
14. Forest Environmental and Economic Accounting (1997), by Statistics Sweden
15. SWEEA—Swedish environmental and economic accounts (1998), by Elsevier
16. Extended time series in the Swedish Environmental Accounts (1999), by Statistics Sweden
17. Constructing a partially environmentally adjusted net domestic product for Sweden 1993 and 1997 (2001), by National Institute of Economic Research
18. Environmental Accounts for Forests. Test of a proposed framework for Non--ESA-SNA Functions (2001), by Statistics Sweden
19. Uses of environmental accounts in Sweden (2001), by European Commission/Statistics Sweden
20. Swedish Environmental Accounts Integration (2002), by Statistics Sweden
21. Monetary green accounting and ecosystem services (2003), by National Institute of Economic Research
22. Recent development in Swedish Forest Accounts (2003), by Statistics Sweden
23. Structural decomposition of environmental accounts data - the Swedish case (2003), by European Commission

United Kingdom 1. Value of potential marine protected areas in the UK to divers and sea anglers (2013)
2. Economic Values from Ecosystems
3. Health Values from Ecosystems
4. Shared Values for the Contributions Ecosystem Services Make to Human Well-being
5. UK Dependence on Non-UK Ecosystem Services
6. Valuing Changes in Ecosystem Services: Scenario Analyses
7. Economic analysis of cultural services(Appendix A)(Appendix B)
8. Valuing regulating services (climate regulation) from UK terrestrial ecosystems
9. Economic assessment of freshwater, wetland and floodplain
11. Economic assessment of the recreational value of ecosystems in GB
12. Evaluating provisioning ecosystem service values: a scenario analysis for the UK
13. The amenity value of the climate
14. Valuation of ecosystem services provided by UK woodlands
15. An introductory guide to valuing ecosystem services (2007)
16. Practical Guidelines for the Use of Value Transfer in Policy and Project AppraisalAnnex 1 – Protocol for Primary Valuation StudiesAnnex 2 – Assessing the Quality of Primary Valuation StudiesAnnex 3 – Glossary of Econometric TerminologyTechnical Report
17. Collating and evaluating research on the value of the environmentannexes
18. Valuing Improvements in Facilities at a Forest Recreation Site
19. Valuing Benefits of Changes in Upland Land Use Management
20. Valuing Environmental Benefits of a Flood Risk Management Scheme
21. Valuing Improvements in River Water Quality
22. Benefits of Designation of Marine Conservation Sites
23. Estimating Value for Money of National Park Expenditure
24. Using GIS in Valuing Ecosystem Impacts
25. Economic Valuation of the Benefits of Ecosystem Services delivered by the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (2011)
26. Towards a sustainable environment - UK natural capital and ecosystem economic accounting
27. Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Wareham Managed Realignment, Climate policies and the “Stern” report (U.K., 2007)
28. An Economic Assessment of the Costs and Benefits of Natura 2000 Sites in Scotland (2004)
29. Case studies on valuation
30. Integrated Estates Management in the UK - Valuation of Conservation and Recreation Benefits
31. Revealing the Value of the Natural Environment in England (2004)
32. Valuing Management for Biodiversity in British Forests at the Forestry Commission
33. Valuing the Benefits of Biodiversity in Forests (2002)
34. The Economic, Social and Ecological Value of Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review
35. Valuing the Environment in the UK Overseas Territories: Training Workshop Proceedings
36. Developing measures for valuing changes in biodiversity (2004)
37. The Economic Value of Forest Ecosystems
38. Nature's role in sustaining economic development
39. Valuing the Environment in Small Islands: An Environmental Economics Toolkit
40. Ecological and Economic Importance of Bats
41. Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature
42. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
43. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
44. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
45. Readings in International Environment Statistics (1993), by UNECE
46. Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach (2000), by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
47. Scottish Forestry: an Input-Output Analysis (1999), by Forestry Commission Great Britain
48. Framework for Environmental Accounts for Agriculture (2004), by Department for Food and Rural Affairs
49. The impact of UK households on the environment through direct and indirect generation of greenhouse gases (2004), by European Commission
50. Environmental Accounts, 2011 (2011), by Office for National Statistics
51. Reflections on the National Debate on Measuring National Well-being (2011), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics
52. UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011), by UNEP-WCMC
53. Measuring UK Woodland Area and Timber Resources (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
54. Measuring UK Woodland Ecosystem Assets and Ecosystem Services (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
55. Monetary Valuation of UK Timber Resources (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
56. Towards Wealth Accounting - Natural Capital within Comprehensive Wealth (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Southern Europe
Croatia (2014) Freshwater ecosystem valuation study in the Danube basin, survey on willingness to pay
(2010) Valuation of Tourism Benefits for Croatia’s Protected Areas
(2011) Valuation of the Contribution of the Ecosystems of NorthernVelebit National Park and Velebit Nature Park to Economic Growth and Human Wellbeing: Croatia

Greece (2001) Natural Resources Accounts and Environmental Input-Output Tables for Greece 1988 – 1998, by European Commission

Italy (1997) National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group, by Statistics Canada
(2004) Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, by Statistics Denmark
(2000) Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach, by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
(2000) Integrating Fishing Accounting into the Italian System of National Accounts, by University of York, UK
(2005) Development policies and the environment: using environmental accounts for better decision making, by Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze

Slovenia (2014) The use of methods for economic evaluation of ecosystem services in protected areas

Spain (2014) el proyecto para la Valoración de los Activos Naturales en España (VANE) http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/conservacion-de-la-biodiversidad/valoracion-y-aspectoseconomicos-de-la-biodiversidad/cb_vae_valoracion_activos_naturales.aspx, la “Evaluación de Ecosistemas del Milenio de España”, http://www.ecomilenio.es/
(2014) Proyecto de Evaluación de Ecosistemas del Milenio en España, realizado por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid con el apoyo de la Fundación Biodiversidad del Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Resultados: www.ecomilenio.es
Cost-Benefit Analysis of the EBRO Water Transfer, wwf version
(2006) Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - National Hydrological Plan / Ebro water transfer works
(2005) Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests, by Statistical Office of Estonia

Western Europe
Austria 1. Biodiversity, Landscapes and Ecosystem Services of Agriculture And Forestry in the Austrian Alpine Region - An Approach to Economic (E)Valuation
2. Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
3. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
4. The Weight of Nations (2000), by World Resources Institute

Belgium Nature value explorer (http://www.natuurwaardeverkenner.be)
BEES (Belgium Ecosystem Services) (http://www.beescommunity.be), monetary value of the forest ecosystem services in the Walloon Region, value of the Natura 2000-network in Flanders, benefits of green in the city, value of the Heverleebos-Meerdaalwoud in 2000, ECOsystem services of FRESHwater systems, VOTES (Valuation Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Services in a multifunctional peri-urban space
1. Socio-economic benefits of biodiversity
2. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia

European Union (2014) Insect pollination, which is being heavily degraded in Europe, has an estimated economic value of EUR 15 billion a year in the EU. A first broad assessment of the overall economic value of the Natura 2000 benefits puts the figure in the region of EUR 200-300 billion a year for the whole network.
(2013) A synthesis of approaches to assess and value ecosystem services in the EU in the context of TEEB
1. European Strategy for Environmental Accounting
2. Improving Measurement to Manage through the 7th EAP: the Role of Indicators and Accounting (IEEP, 2013)
3. Regulation (EU) No 691/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2011 on European environmental economic accounts; 2013 report
4. An experimental framework for ecosystem capital accounting in Europe
5. Economic Studies
6. Economic benefits of the Natura 2000 Network

France 1. Valuing Forest Biodiversity from a National Survey
2. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Biodiversity Conservation Programmes in the Garonne Valley
3. An economic approach to biodiversity and ecosystems services: Contribution to public decision-making (2009)
4. Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress
5. Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
6. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
7. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
8. Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis (2004), by FAO
9. Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis (2004), by FAO
10. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
11. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
12. The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications (1999), by European Commission
13. Les Comptes du Patrimoine Naturel (1986), by INSEE
14. Écologie et statistique : les comptes du patrimoine naturel (1987), by Journal De La Société Statistique De Paris
15. The carbon footprint of French consumption: evolution between 1990 and 2007 (2012), by Commissariat général au développement durable
16. The hidden face of materials mobilised by the French economy (2013), by Ministère De L’écologie, Du Développement Durable

Germany (2014)German TEEB study
(2012)Valuing the benefits of implementing a national strategy on biological diversity—The case of Germany
(2010)Economic reasons for preserving biological diversity
(2004)Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Biodiversity Conservation: An Integrated Hydrological and Economic Model to Value the Enhanced Nitrogen Retention in Renaturated Streams
(1997) National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group, by Statistics Canada
(1998) Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice, by Kluwer Academic
(1999) The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications, by European Commission
(2000) Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting, by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
(2000) The Weight of Nations, by World Resources Institute
(2000) Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach, by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
(2000) MFA in the framework of environmental accounting in Germany, by European Commission
(2002) Environmental Accounts for Water and Waste Water for Germany 1991-1998, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2002) Environmental-Economic Accounting: Fourth and final opinion on the implementation concepts of the Federal Statistical Office, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2002) Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests, by European Commission
(2003) Comparison of environmental economic performance in South Korea and Germany, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2004) Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis, by FAO
(2004) Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, by Statistics Denmark
(2005) Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests, by Statistical Office of Estonia
(2006) National experiences: Use of indicators from the Environmental-Economic Accounting on material flows for the German National Strategy for Sustainable Development, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2006) On monetary valuation of environmental degradation in the framework of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, by Statistics Germany
(2006) Policy use of Environmental-Economic Accounting in Germany, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2006) Sustainable Development Indicators and Environmental-Economic Accounting, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2008) Economy and the use of environmental resources: explanation of the tables on Environmental-Economic Accounting 2007, by Destatis
(2010) Economy and Use of Environmental Resources: Tables on Environmental-Economic Accounting, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2013) Economy and Use of Environmental Resources, by DESTATIS

Netherlands The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (http://www.biodiversiteit.nl/teeb), Digital Agenda Natural Capital (DANK)
The Dutch Government commissioned the TEEB studies (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) in 2011. These studies aim to support the decision-making process for policy-making and large investment projects of government, business and civil society. The results of the TEEB-study ‘Green, healthy and productive’ among others indicate that investing in green spaces, particularly in urban areas, reduces health care costs and absenteeism at work, which may represent an economic value of hundreds of millions of euro’s. The TEEBstudy ‘Green pays off with TEEB city’ (Groen loont met TEEB stad) indicated that integration of green-blue developments within spatial plans provides large net social returns, such as savings on health care costs, increased value of real estate, savings on energy costs and savings in disposal and purification costs of rainwater. The benefits are about 1.5 to 2 times higher than the costs for investment and maintenance. ‘Natural Capital Agenda 2013’ The Agenda aims at: (I) Sustainable production and consumption: sustainable trade chains; (II) Sustainable fisheries and protection of marine biodiversity; (III) Sustainable agriculture and protection of biodiversity; (IV) Natural capital accounting.
1. Green space and health
2. Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Extraction of natural gas from the Wadden Sea, Self-financing of marine protected areas in the Netherlands Antilles (Netherlands, 2006)
3. Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units
4. The Empirics of Wetland Valuation: A Comprehensive Summary and a Meta-Analysis of the Literature
5. Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
6. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
7. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
8. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
9. Readings in International Environment Statistics (1993), by UNECE
10. The Weight of Nations (2000), by World Resources Institute
11. Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach (2000), by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
12. Taking the Environment into Account: the NAMEA Approach (1996), by Review of Income and Wealth
13. Measurement and Valuation of Natural Gas and Oil Reserves in the Netherlands (1998), by Statistics Netherlands
14. Water Companies and the Protection of the Environment and Nature, 1990-1997 (2000), by European Commission
15. Integrated River Basin Accounting in the Netherlands and the European Water Framework Directive (2005), by IOS Press
16. Environmental accounts of the Netherlands 2009 (2010), by Statistics Netherlands

Switzerland The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Economic value of the pollinating service provided by bees in Switzerland

Oceania
Australia Value of fungi for biodiversity, Economic value of the GBR World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), Values of the Murray-Darling Basin
Australian environmental accounting. In 2012, the ABS produced a publication "Completing the Picture - Environmental Accounting in Practice" to inform government decision-makers, policy analysts, scientists, industry and other groups on how environmental accounts, including biodiversity accounts, could be used and further developed in Australia. The ABS aims to produce Australian Environmental-Economic Accounts (AEEA) on a more regular basis. The AEEA are based on the international standard System of Environmental-Economic Accounts (SEEA) framework.
1. Environmental accounts landscape
2. An Australian environmental accounting platform
3. Guide to environmental accounting in Australia; About the Guide to environmental accounting in Australia
4. Environmental account framing workbook
5. Cost of invasive species
6. Economic impact of weeds
7. Economic contribution of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
8. A Calculation of Genuine Savings for Queensland
9. economic value of biodiversity, economic values of national parks, economic value of threatened species
10. Making economic valuation work for biodiversity conservation
11. Valuing Environmental Flows for Wetland Rehabilitation: An Application of Choice Modelling in the Macquarie Valley - Case Study: Australia
12. Australian National Accounts. National Balance Sheet (1996), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
13. Accounting for the environment in the national accounts (2003), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
14. Ecosystem Services: Key Concepts and Applications (2010), by Australian Government: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
15. Completing the Picture: Environmental Accounting in Practice (2012), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
16. Towards the Australian Environmental-Economic Accounts (2013), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
17. Victorian Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (2013), by Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria, Australia
18. National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
19. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark

Fiji Benefits of Conservation

Kiribati Monetary value of biodiversity

Marshall Islands Evidences of biodiversity values

Micronesia (Federated States of) Impact of biodiversity loss

New Zealand New Zealand’s natural heritage provides a wide and valuable range of ecosystem services. While work on calculating the value of these services is ongoing, a preliminary study has estimated that New Zealand’s land-based ecosystem services contributed $57 billion to human welfare in 2012. This study assessed that the main categories of these ecosystem services and values were supporting services ($22b), regulating services ($15b), provisioning services ($28b), cultural services ($1b), and passive values ($12b). Another angle of important social research has been the value of specific conservation activities, such as volunteering. An example of such work is a survey of 362 Department of Conservation community partners. This survey identified the types and benefits of partnership arrangements, and estimated the value of the resources they contribute to conservation activities. The study looked at 6,232 volunteers who gave 174,812 hours of labour over a year. This equated to around 233 full-time equivalent volunteers. The volunteers carried out a wide range of activities, with 58.3% involved in ecological restoration, 57.8% in conservation awareness and publicity, and 55.3% in pest control. Their total annual income was found to be around $12 million. For every $1 of government funding received by groups, they also received on average $1.34 of income from nongovernment sources. The total financial value contributed by the groups over 12 months was estimated at $15.8 million. The direct output losses caused by pest impacts on primary production have been estimated at $1.15 billion per year.
The New Zealand Treasury has produced the Living Standards Framework (www.treasury.govt.nz/abouttreasury/higherlivingstandards), which goes beyond GDP to incorporate a range of material and non-material factors that impact on wellbeing (including natural capital) in its definition of Living Standards. This Framework is centred on four main capital stocks— financial/physical, human, social, and natural. It describes the interrelationships among the stocks and flows, and highlights the need for responsible management in order to improve the living standards of both current and future New Zealanders. It identifies biodiversity, as well as the atmosphere, freshwater, soil, and fish stocks, as being of particular importance to living standards in New Zealand.
1. Valuing biodiversity
2. The value of conservation: What does conservation contribute to the economy? (2006)
3. Valuing Biodiversity Enhancement
4. Economic Value of Biodiversity in New Zealand: Results from a Household Survey
5. value of ecosystem services
6. Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
7. Physical Flow Account for Forestry Resources in New Zealand 1995-2000 (2002), by Statistics New Zealand
8. Monetary Flow Account for Forestry Resources in New Zealand 1996-1999 (2003), by Statistics New Zealand
9. Physical Flow Account for Fish Resources in New Zealand 1998-2001 (2003), by Statistics New Zealand
10. Fish Monetary Stock Account: 1996–2009 (2010), by Statistics New Zealand

Niue Benefits of biodiversity

Palau Importance of biodiversity

Papua New Guinea 1. An Application of Green Accounting to Papua New Guinea
2. 1995 Economic Study on Biodiversity
3. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting - A Case Study for Papua New Guinea (1992), by World Bank

Samoa 1. Valuation plan, economic benefits, valuing Marine and Terrestrial Resources
2. Valuing marine and terrestrial resources
3. An Economic Valuation of the Terrestrial and Marine Resources of Samoa (2001)

Solomon Islands Provisional services (goods), not all ecosystem services, fully reflected in the Central Bank reporting system
Benefits of biodiversity

Tonga Research shows that economic activities of snorkel-with-whales tourism in Vava’u generate important economic and other benefits and these benefits grew from a relatively modest USD500,000 per year in 1999 to USD5 million per year by 2009. Whales have become the predominant attraction for visitors, and provide benefits to the local people and to the country.
Valuation plan

Tuvalu Economic significance of species

General
CBD 1. Notes on Economic Values of Biodiversity
2. The Value of Forest Ecosystems

Defenders of Wildlife 1. Nature’s Benefits: The Importance of Addressing Biodiversity in Ecosystem Service Programs
2. Principles to Guide Assessments of Ecosystem Service Values

IIED The Economics of Non-Timber Forest Benefits: An Overview

IISD Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Potential Tool for Multilateral Environmental Agreements

IUCN 1. Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting: Findings from Nine Case Studies
2. The Nature of Benefits and the Benefits of Nature: Why Wildlife Conservation Has Not Economically Benefitted Communities in Africa
3. Economic Aspects of Community Involvement in Sustainable Forest Management in Eastern and Southern Africa 4. The Economic Value of Biodiversity IUCN
5. The Underlying Causes of Biodiversity Decline: An Economic Analysis
6. Dryland Opportunities: A new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development
7. Training Manual: Economic Valuation and Environmental Assessment
(2007) Economic Valuation of Large Marine Ecosystems: Report from the IUCN workshop, July 29-30, 2007

Nordic Council of Ministers (2012) /financial/values/nordic-watershedsvaluation.pdf Valuation of Ecosystem Services from Nordic Watersheds: From awareness raising to policy support? (VALUESHED)
(2012) /financial/values/nordic-teeb.pdf Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Synthesis in the context of The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)

OECD 1. Background Paper on Valuing Environmental Benefits and Damages in the NIS: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Concerns into Policy and Investment Decisions
2. Handbook of Market Creation for Biodiversity: Issues in Implementation

Oxford Review of Economic Policy Volume 28, Number 1, 2012: Recent advances in the valuation of ecosystem services and biodiversity; The economic analysis of biodiversity: an assessment; Banking on extinction: endangered species and speculation; Protecting forests, biodiversity, and the climate: predicting policy impact to improve policy choice; Are investments to promote biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services aligned?; Regulating global biodiversity: what is the problem?; How should we incentivize private landowners to ‘produce’ more biodiversity?; Evaluation of biodiversity policy instruments: what works and what doesn’t?; Biodiversity, poverty, and development.

Ramsar Economic Valuation of Wetlands: A Guide for Policy Makers and Planners

TNC Tools and Strategies for Financial Sustainability: How Managers Are Building Secure Futures for Their MPAs

UNDP 1. Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning
2. Fisheries sector

UNEP 1. Biodiversity decline can increase the spread of infectious diseases
2. The economic value of world’s wetlands
3. The Valuation of Biological Diversity for National Biodiversity Action Plans and Strategies: A Guide for Trainers
4. An introduction to ecosystem accounting
5. Strengthening indicators and accounting systems for natural capital
6. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands
7. Why Value the Oceans (2012)
8. Recognising the value of protected areas

UNFAO BIOFUELS: prospects, risks and opportunities

UNFF Economic aspects of forests

World Bank 1. Biodiversity and National Accounting
2. Natural Capital, Ecological Scarcity and Rural Poverty (2012)
3. Ecosystem Services and Green Growth (2012)
4. WAVES program annual report 2013
5. Environmental Accounting for Sustainable Development 1989
6. The Domestic Benefits of Tropical Forests: A Critical Review
7. The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform
8. Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation
9. How Much an Ecosystem Worth? Assessing Economic Values of Conservation
10. Capitalizing on the Bio-Economic Value of Multi-Purpose Medicinal Plants for the Rehabilitation of Drylands in Sub-Saharan Africa

WWF 1. Economic Valuation of Coral Reef Decline
2. Economic Values of the World’s Wetlands

Status and trend

According to the Global Monitoring Report 2012, only a quarter of countries have undertaken valuation exercise, and the drivers for valuation include promotion of biodiversity-based goods and services (green markets/biotrade, agriculture, fisheries, forest products, medicinal plants, tourism, wildlife), use of labels/ certificates, application of market mechanisms such as transferable rights or quota, liability and insurance, polluter-pays-principle, environmental impact assessment procedures. Lack of human and technical capacity in conducting such valuation studies was identified as a constraint.
The rough order-of-magnitude estimates of values of biodiversity and ecosystem services are available at the global level, and several countries have started to implement the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity at the national level. Most existing valuation exercises have been done at project level and incomprehensive in nature, and national-level aggregations of biodiversity values in general are not available. In the late 1980s, Costa Rica and Mexico implemented national environmental accounting through pilot projects, and subsequently Chile, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Panama, Guatemala all have experimented with environmental accounts, though not including data on ecosystem services outside of land use and land cover.
The following information digests have been compiled using the information from national reports, and will be updated appropriately for purposes of monitoring:

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme