Annex 1: Biodiversity information by country
Annex 2: Membership of Multilateral Environmental Agreements
Annex 3: GEF biodiversity projects
Annex 4: Information sources and further reading
Annex 5: Terminology, acronyms and abbreviations

Annex 4: Information Sources And Further Reading

The Handbook of the Convention on Biological Diversity, a companion volume to this Outlook, provides a comprehensive reference guide to COP decisions and continuing activities:

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2001. Handbook of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Earthscan Publications, London.

The website of the Convention on Biological Diversity ( is the key resource for documentation of COP decisions, SBSTTA recommendations, national reports, programmes and issues, and a wide range of ancillary material. Further background information on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and the Convention on Biological Diversity can be found in the following sources:
  • Glowka, L. et al. 1994. A Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • McConnell, F. 1996. The Biodiversity Convention; A Negotiating History. Kluwer Law International, London and The Hague.
  • United Nations. 1992. Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio. New York
  • World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.
Other publications of relevance include:

  • Loh, J. et al. 2000. WWF Living Planet Report 2000. WWF International, Gland, Switzerland.
  • Reaka-Kudla, M.L. et al. 1997. Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. National Academy Press. Washington DC, USA.
  • UNEP. 1995. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • UNEP. 1999. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. Intermediate Technology Publications, London, UK.
  • UNEP. 1999. Global Environmental Outlook 2000: UNEP's Millennium Report on the Environment. Earthscan Publications, London, UK.
  • UNEP, NASA and The World Bank. 1998. Protecting Our Planet - Securing Our Future. Washington, DC, USA
  • WCMC. 1992. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
  • WCMC. 2000. Global Biodiversity: Earth's living resources in the 21st Century. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Wilson, E. O. (editor), Frances M. Peter (associate editor).1989. Biodiversity. National Academy Press. Washington DC, USA.
  • World Resources Institute. 2000. World Resources 2000-200: People and Ecosystems: The Fraying Web of Life. UNDP, UNEP, World Bank, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA.
  • World Resources Institute. 2000. Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems (PAGE). Washington, DC, USA. (A series of five technical reports - Agroecosystems, Coastal Ecosystems, Forest Ecosystems, Freshwater Ecosytems, and Grassland Ecosystems - also available on-line at

The information summarised in Chapter 1 of this report is derived mainly from WCMC (2000) and Loh (2000) above. UNEP (1995) provides a broad technical overview of biodiversity. Parts of Chapters 2 and 5 are drawn from an information package on the Convention on Biological Diversity for Pacific Island Countries (2000) produced by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), the Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD) and the World Wide Fund for Nature-South Pacific Program (WWF-SPP) as part of a UK Darwin Initiative project. The other sources listed below are concerned with the status of species and genetic resources, and area-based assessments.

  • BirdLife International. 2000. Threatened birds of the world. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain &BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
  • FAO. 1998. The state of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  • Hilton-Taylor, C. (compiler). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  • International Pollinators Initiative. 1999. The São Paulo Declaration on Pollinators. Government of Brazil, Ministry of the Environment (MMA), Brasília, Brazil.
  • Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B. and Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
  • Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Scherf , B D. 1995. World Watch List for domestic animal diversity. 2nd edition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  • Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J. and Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World - Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
  • WWF and IUCN. 1994-1997. Centres of Plant Diversity. A Guide and Strategy for their Conservation.

For an introduction to biodiversity and its importance, the following are highly recommended:

  • Baskin, Y. 1998. The Work of Nature: How the Diversity of Life Sustains Us. Island Press, San Francisco CA, USA.
  • Wilson, E.O. 1999. The Diversity of Life.

Information on the other biodiversity-related conventions and of other organizations referred to in the Global Biodiversity Outlook can be found on their websites, which are listed in Annex 5: Terminology, acronyms and abbreviations

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme