Table of Contents

List of tables, maps and figures

Message from the Executive Director of the United Nations Environmental Programme

Acknowledgements

Introduction

Chapter 1 Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity
  • Introduction
    • The Convention's approach to biodiversity
    • The extent and occurrence of global biodiversity
  • Trends in genetic diversity
    • Declining genetic diversity
    • Manipulating genetic diversity
  • Trends in species diversity
    • Extinction
    • Threatened species
  • Trends in ecosystem diversity
    • Biodiversity of marine and coastal ecosystems
      • The major zones of the oceans
      • Major marine communities
      • Major values and uses of marine and coastal ecosystems
      • Major impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems
      • Status and trends of species in marine and coastal ecosystems
    • Biodiversity of inland water ecosystems
      • Major inland water systems
      • Diversity in inland water ecosystems
      • Major values and uses of inland water ecosystems
      • Major impacts on inland water ecosystems
      • Status and trends of species in inland waters
    • Biodiversity of forest ecosystems
      • Where are forests?
      • Major forest types
      • Changes in forest cover
      • Major values and uses of forests
      • Major impacts on forests
      • Status and trends of species in forests
    • Biodiversity of dry and sub-humid land ecosystems
      • Major types of dry and sub-humid lands
      • Major values and uses of drylands
      • Major impacts on drylands
      • Status and trends in species in dry and sub-humid lands
    • Biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems
      • What is agricultural biodiversity?
      • Where does agricultural biodiversity occur?
      • The status of living agricultural resources
  • Impacts of global environmental problems on biological diversity
    • Climate change
  • Monitoring trends in biodiversity
Chapter 2 The Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Introduction
    • International environmental agreements
    • Making the connections
    • Financial resources for global environmental protection
    • The negotiation of the Convention on Biological Diversity
  • The objectives and approach of the convention
  • Institutional structure of the convention
    • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
  • The decision-making process
  • Obligations on Parties to the Convention
    • Article 6: National strategies and plans
    • Article 7: Identification and monitoring of biodiversity
    • Article 8: Conservation of biodiversity in-situ
    • Article 9: Conservation of biodiversity ex-situ
    • Article 10: Sustainable use
    • Articles 11-14: Measures to promote conservation and sustainable use
    • Articles 15-21: Benefits
  • Assessing implementation of the Convention
  • Cooperation
Chapter 3 The Operations of the Convention
  • Meetings of the Conference of the Parties and SBSTTA to date
    • The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA)
      • The form and content of decisions
      • The ecosystem approach
  • The major thematic areas covered by COP decisions
    • Marine and coastal biological diversity - the Jakarta Mandate
    • Forest biological diversity
    • Agricultural biological diversity
    • Biological diversity of inland waters
    • Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands
    • Mountain biological diversity
  • Cross-cutting issues covered by COP decisions
    • Identification, monitoring and assessment, and indicators including the Global Taxonomy Initiative
    • Knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities
    • Alien Species
    • Tourism
    • Biodiversity and climate change
    • Migratory species
    • Incentive measures and economic valuation of biological diversity
    • Public education and awareness
    • Impact assessment, liability and redress
    • Access to genetic resources
    • Clearing-House mechanism
    • National Reporting
  • Adoption of protocols
    • Biosafety
    • Biosafety Clearing House
    • The relationship between the Protocol and the WTO
  • Financial arrangements and the financial mechanism
    • The financing of the Convention
    • Financial resources
    • The Global Environment Facility
    • Additional financial resources
  • Annex to chapter 3
    • The conduct of meetings
    • Voting
    • Regional coordination and representation
    • The Group of 77
    • Small Island Developing States
Chapter 4 Review of Implementation of the Convention at the National Level
  • Introduction
    • Information on implementation
    • First National Reports
    • Reporting on the status of biological diversity and its conservation
  • Status of national biodiversity strategy and action planning
    • Action to integrate conservation and sustainable use into other sectors
    • Action to identify and monitor biological diversity and impacts upon it
    • Article 8(j) and related provisions
    • Protected areas
    • Sustainable use
    • Incentive measures
    • Environmental impact assessment
    • Access and benefit sharing
    • Financial and human resources
    • Mechanisms for sharing national experience
    • Implementation of policies and actions across international borders
  • An in-depth case: agricultural biological diversity
    • Identification, monitoring and assessment
    • Research, best practices and technologies
    • Strategies, programmes and action plans
    • Policies and legislation
  • Conclusion
Chapter 5 Global Implementation of the Convention and Cooperation with other Conventions and Processes
  • Introduction Relevant international and regional agreements
    • Institutional mechanisms for cooperation
    • The potential for harmonisation among biodiversity-related conventions
  • Relevant regional and global processes under the major articles of the
    • Convention
    • Cooperation
    • General measures for conservation and sustainable use
    • Identification and monitoring
    • In-situ conservation
      • Site-based approach
      • Species approach
      • Restoration of degraded ecosystems
    • Alien species
    • Traditional knowledge
    • Ex-situ conservation
    • Sustainable use of components of biological diversity
    • Tourism
    • Incentive measures
    • Research and training
    • Public education and awareness
    • Impact assessment and minimising adverse impacts
    • Access to genetic resources
    • Access to and transfer of technology
    • Exchange of information and technical and scientific cooperation
    • Biosafety Clearing-House
    • Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits
    • Financial resources
    • National reporting
  • Thematic work programmes
    • Marine and coastal biological diversity
    • Inland water biological diversity
    • Forest biological diversity
    • Agricultural biological diversity
    • Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands
  • Conclusion
  • Annex to chapter 5
Chapter 6 Outlook
  • National action
    • Investing in public education and awareness
    • Increasing stakeholder involvement in decision-making
    • Completing and implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans
    • Improving sectoral and cross-sectoral integration
    • Strengthening protected area networks
    • Improving EIA legislation and procedures
    • Strengthening the role of the national focal point
    • Achieving policy coherence in national positions under different international instruments and processes
    • Increasing information, training and capacity development
    • Effective national reporting
    • National level indicators of biodiversity
    • Universal membership
  • Support for national action
    • Improving scientific assessment procedures
    • Reforming multilateral and bilateral aid mechanisms
  • Operations of the Convention
    • Improving institutional mechanisms
    • Strategic planning
    • Measuring and improving compliance
  • Cooperation and governance
    • The World Summit on Sustainable Development
Annex 1 Biodiversity information by country

Annex 2 Membership of Multilateral Environmental Agreements

Annex 3 GEF biodiversity projects

Annex 4 Information sources and further reading

Annex 5 Terminology, acronyms and abbreviations

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme