||The Global Environment Facility (GEF), in its fifth replenishment cycle, builds on proposed reﬁnements to the GEF strategy’s objectives based on CBD COP-9 guidance, advances in conservation practice, and advice from the GEF’s Scientiﬁc and Technical Advisory Panel. The goal of the biodiversity focal area is the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the maintenance of ecosystem goods and services. To achieve this goal, the strategy encompasses ﬁve objectives:
- improve the sustainability of protected area systems;
- mainstream biodiversity conservation and sustainable use into production landscapes/seascapes and sectors;
- build capacity to implement the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety;
- build capacity on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing; and
- integrate CBD obligations into national planning processes through enabling activities.
||The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) is a global initiative focused on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity. Its objective is to highlight the growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. TEEB presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize, demonstrate and capture the values of ecosystems and biodiversity, including how to incorporate these values into decision-making. TEEB’s evolution has been marked by three main phases:
The TEEB study follows a tiered approach in analyzing and structuring valuation guided by three core principles:
- The TEEB Interim Report, which was launched at CBD COP 9 in 2008 laid a broad foundation where evidence and examples of valuation were collated, elements of a biodiversity/ecosystem valuation framework identified, and long standing issues such as ethics in making choices regarding future values were re-emphasized.
- Additional analyses, some launched at the CBD COP 10 in 2010 and other on-going including on fundamental concepts and state-of-the-art methodologies for economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services; analysis and guidance on how to value and internalize biodiversity and ecosystem values in national, regional and local level policy decisions; and specific studies relevant to the private sector, cities, water and wetlands, oceans and climate change.
- Capitalizing on the momentum created from the TEEB Study reports and network of partners, the initiative has now moved into a phase of implementation at the country level. This shift responds to numerous requests and interest by governments to build national, regional and local government capacity to produce tailored economic assessments of ecosystems and biodiversity, and support to mainstream this information into policy-making.
- Recognizing value in ecosystems, landscapes, species and other aspects of biodiversity is a feature of all human societies and communities and is sometimes sufficient to ensure conservation and sustainable use. For example the existence of sacred groves in some cultures has helped to protect natural areas and the biodiversity they contain.
- Demonstrating value in economic terms is often useful for policy makers and others such as business in reaching decisions that consider the full costs and benefits of an ecosystem rather than just those costs or values that enter the markets in the form of private goods. An example would include calculating the costs and benefits of conserving the ecosystem services provided by wetlands in controlling floods compared to building flood defences. The demonstration of an economic value even though it does not result in specific measures is an important aid in achieving efficient use of natural resources.
- Capturing value involves the introduction of mechanisms that incorporate the values of ecosystems into decision-making through incentives and price signals. This can include payments for ecosystem services, reforming environmentally harmful subsidies or introducing tax breaks for conservation.
||In October 2012, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the European Commission launched a new partnership project “Building Transformative Policy and Financing Frameworks to Increase Investment in Biodiversity Management” (BIOFIN) that seeks to build a sound business case for increased investment in the management of ecosystems and biodiversity at the national level, which has since evolved into the UNDP-managed Biodiversity Finance Initiative. The Initiative will have a multi-tiered approach by:
The Initiative will first develop new methodologies and tools needed to produce coherent and comprehensive frameworks for each of the above aspects. In a second step, these frameworks will be piloted, and inform the development of NBSAPs and further transformational measures in up to 20 countries. In a third step, the methodological frameworks will be refined, based on the results of the country piloting, and then disseminated for wider application.
Download the BIOFIN workplan and summary guide from the documents page.
- Mainstreaming biodiversity into national development and sectoral planning, to reduce the pressures exerted by the drivers of biodiversity loss and thereby reduce the investment needed to safeguard biodiversity, including through a significant strengthening of National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (NBSAPs);
- Determining the national-level biodiversity finance gap, by defining the current investment baseline across those sectors relevant for the achievement of the Aichi Targets, and by defining the true investment needed to address biodiversity loss, taking into account cost-effectiveness and the effects of an improved enabling environment;
- Rolling out appropriate national-level biodiversity financing strategies and mechanisms through which countries can identify, access, combine and sequence multiple sources of environmental and development finance, both national and international, for meeting their biodiversity management needs and achieving the Aichi Targets; and
- Conducting the first-ever Biodiversity Public and Private Expenditure and Institutional Reviews (BPPEIRs), in support of the above three components.
||The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)-led Green Economy Initiative, launched in late 2008, consists of several components whose collective overall objective is to provide the analysis and policy support for investing in green sectors and in greening environmental unfriendly sectors. Within UNEP, the Green Economy Initiative includes three sets of activities:
- Producing a Green Economy Report and related research materials, which will analyse the macroeconomic, sustainability, and poverty reduction implications of green investment in a range of sectors from renewable energy to sustainable agriculture and providing guidance on policies that can catalyze increased investment in these sectors.
- Providing advisory services on ways to move towards a green economy in specific countries.
- Engaging a wide range of research, non-governmental organizations, business and UN partners in implementing the Green Economy Initiative.
||Recognizing the need for significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources and the effective use of financing in order to give support developing countries in their efforts to promote sustainable development, the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing was established in June 2013 under the auspices of the General Assembly, with technical support from the United Nations system.
The process is carried out through open and broad consultation with relevant international and regional financial institutions and other relevant stakeholders to assess financing needs, consider the effectiveness, consistency and synergies of existing instruments and frameworks, and evaluate additional initiatives, with a view to preparing a report proposing options on an effective sustainable development financing strategy to facilitate the mobilization of resources and their effective use in achieving sustainable development objectives.
It is supported by the working group of the UN System Task Team (UNTT) on Financing for Sustainable Development, which was set up to inform the ongoing deliberations on the United Nations Development Agenda beyond 2015. The working group is to produce background material on financing for sustainable development, taking as much as possible an integrated perspective that addresses social, environmental, and economic dimensions. This work reflects the state of knowledge on specific areas, based on existing work of UN agencies.
||Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES) is a global partnership that aims to promote sustainable development by ensuring that natural resources are mainstreamed in development planning and national economic accounts. This global partnership brings together a broad coalition of UN agencies, governments, international institutes, nongovernment organisations and academics to implement environmental accounting where there are internationally agreed standards, and develop standard approaches for other ecosystem service accounts.
By working with central banks and ministries of finance and planning across the world to integrate natural resources into development planning through environmental accounting, it hopes to enable more informed decision making that can ensure genuine green growth and long-term advances in wealth and human well-being.
The objectives of the WAVES partnership are to:
- Establish environmental accounts in six to ten countries and incorporate these into national policy analysis and development planning
- Develop internationally-agreed guidelines for ecosystem accounting
- Spread environmental accounting through a global partnership