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SBSTTA Recommendation

. Indicator framework for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

XV/1.Indicator framework for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
1. Takes note of the updated provisional technical rationales for the Strategic Goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets contained in documents UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27/Add.1 and UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/3;
2. Welcomes the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/INF/6);
3. Also welcomes the contribution made by the Group on Earth Observation Biodiversity Observation Network, in collaboration with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre on the Adequacy of Biodiversity Observation Systems to Support the CBD 2020 Targets (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/INF/8);
4. Further welcomes the review of National Indicators, Monitoring and Reporting for Global Biodiversity Targets commissioned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom and carried out by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/INF/9);
5. Takes note of the indicative list of indicators identified by the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group organized according to the Goals of the Strategic Plan and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets as contained in annex I to the present recommendation which includes the following:
(a) A set of headline indicators to present policy relevant information on biodiversity to cover the ambitions set out in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets; and
(b) Three categories of operational indicators as follows: Category A indicators are ready for use at the global level. Category B indicators could be used at the global level but require further development to be ready for use. Category C indicators are for consideration for use at the national or other sub-global level. The set of (A) and (B) indicators are those which should be used to assess progress at the global level while the (C) indicators are illustrative of some of the additional indicators available to Parties to use at the national level according to their national priorities and circumstances.
(c) Initial baselines should be established for operational indicators to provide a reference point against which performance (trends) can be assessed.
(d) The Aichi Biodiversity Targets and proposed indicator framework provide a flexible framework for Parties which can be adapted, taking into account national priorities and circumstances. Parties are likely to use different metrics and methodologies for their indicators depending on national targets and available data and methods.
(e) Countries with limited capacities and resources for developing and applying indicators based on national data will require financial resources and technical support to develop and apply such indicators as well as to design and carry out priority monitoring activities required at the national level. Members of the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, among others, could have a role in providing technical assistance as appropriate.
6. Also takes note of the other conclusions of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group concerning the indicator framework for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 as contained in annex II to the present recommendation, which supports communication of biodiversity information around the following overarching policy questions: How is the status of biodiversity changing? (State of biodiversity); Why are we losing biodiversity? (Pressures on biodiversity and their underlying causes); What are the implications? (Benefits from biodiversity); and What do we do about it? (Responses to address biodiversity loss at all levels);
7. Welcomes the development of the online database of indicators for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity containing the outcomes of the work of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group and requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership and other relevant partners to further develop, maintain, and periodically update it with a view to maximizing its usefulness to Parties and other stakeholders;
8. Further takes note of recommendation 7/7 of the seventh meeting of the Ad Hoc Open ended Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions on the development of indicators relevant for traditional knowledge and customary sustainable use (UNEP/CBD/COP/11/7,annex I);
9. Requests the Executive Secretary, subject to the availability of resources, to initiate work on the tasks listed in paragraphs 10 (g) and 10 (h) below;
10. Reommends that the Conference of the Parties at its eleventh meeting adopts a decision along the following lines:
The Conference of the Parties
(a) Expresses its gratitude to the European Union for its financial support to the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and to the Government of Canada, the European Environment Agency, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom for their support to the International Expert Workshop held from 20 to 22 June 2011 in High Wycombe, United Kingdom, in support of the AHTEG on Indicators for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
(b) Takes note of the indicative list of indicators available to assess progress towards the goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets as contained in Annex I to this recommendation, the indicator framework developed by the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group 1 as well as the work of the Ad hoc Open-ended Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions on the development of indicators relevant for traditional knowledge and customary sustainable use and recognizes that these provide a starting point to assess progress in the achievement of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 at various scales;
(c) Recognizes that the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and proposed indicator framework provide a flexible basis for Parties which can be adapted, taking into account different national circumstances and capabilities and urges Parties to prioritize the application at the national level of those indicators that are ready for use at the global level where feasible and appropriate, and also urges Parties to consider using the flexible framework and the indicative list of indicators, inter alia in their updated national biodiversity strategies and action plans and in reporting, including through the fifth national report as far as possible, and subsequent national reports;
(d) Encourages Parties and other Governments to contribute to, update, verify and maintain relevant national data in regional and global data sets as a contribution to optimize and coordinate the production of indicators for monitoring and reporting at various scales and to promote the public availability of the data;
(e) Decides that the indicator framework for the Strategic Plan should be kept under review with a view to enabling the future incorporation of relevant indicators developed by Parties and other Conventions and processes that are relevant for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
(f) Recognizes the need to strengthen technical and institutional capacities and to mobilize adequate financial resources for the development and application of indicators, especially for developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States as well as countries with economies in transition;
(g) Requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, regional centres of excellence and other relevant organizations, as appropriate and subject to the availability of resources, to:
(i) Compile technical guidance materials for capacity building and provide support to Parties for the further development of indicators and monitoring and reporting systems, including the information contained in the annexes to document UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/INF/6, and to make it accessible in the form of a toolkit, building on the material already available on the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership web pages;
(ii) Assist Parties, especially those with limited resources and capacities and/or not yet using systematically produced indicators in their official reports and at their request, to initially establish and apply a few simple, cost-effective and easily applicable indicators for priority issues; and
(iii) Include capacity-building on the indicators framework in regional workshops, as appropriate, to support implementation of the indicators framework by allowing Parties to update on progress, the sharing of information and lessons learned as well as areas of synergy and collaboration;
(iv) Support review of the use of the indicator framework in order to identify gaps and priorities in national and regional institutions for future capacity-building, technical support and financial support by donors and partner organizations;
(h) Requests the Executive Secretary, in collaboration with the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, the Group on Earth Observation Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO-BON), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and other partners including the Indicators Working Group of the International Indigenous Forum for Biodiversity, as appropriate and subject to the availability of resources, to:
(i) Develop practical information on the indicators, including the rationale behind the indicators, their development status, the scale at which they are applied and information on data sources and methodologies, to assist in the application of each of the indicators;
(ii) Further develop global indicators identified in annex I below with a view to ensuring that each Aichi Biodiversity Target can be monitored by at least one global indicator by 2014, taking into account indicators that are already in use by, or relevant to, other conventions, regional agreements and processes;
(iii) Propose a limited number of simple, easily applicable and cost-effective indicators that can potentially be implemented by all Parties;
(iv) Explore options for the further harmonization of global indicators and their use between the Convention on Biological Diversity and other conventions, regional agreements and processes, and promote further collaboration including through the Liaison Group of Biodiversity-related Conventions and the Joint Liaison Group of the Rio Conventions;
(v) Promote the further collaboration on biodiversity monitoring and indicators with the forestry, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors on the global, regional and national levels;
(vi) Further develop and maintain the online database on indicators for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020; and
(vii) Develop an explanatory practical toolkit on each of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including possible steps for measuring progress towards these targets;
and to report to a meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice prior to the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;
(i) Invites GEO-BON to continue its work on the identification of essential biodiversity variables and the development of associated data sets as presented in document CBD/SBSTTA/15/INF/8 and report to a meeting of SBSTTA prior to the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties;
(j) Invites relevant organizations, including funding bodies, to encourage and support further development of indicators and reporting progress in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
11. Requests the Executive Secretary to provide regular progress reports on the development and use of indicators to a meeting of SBSTTA prior to each meeting of the Conference of the Parties until 2020. This should include the mid-term evaluation of the Strategic Plan, as well as the experience in using the indicators in the fifth national reports and in the fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook. This will provide opportunities to review progress in developing and using indicators and to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the indicator framework for monitoring progress, at national and global levels, towards the achievement of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.

Annex I

INDICATIVE LIST OF INDICATORS PROPOSED BY THE AD HOC TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUP ON INDICATORS FOR THE STRATEGIC PLAN FOR BIODIVERSITY 2011-2020

The Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 2020 identified three categories of operational indicators. Indicators which are ready for use at the global level are denoted by the letter (A). Indicators which could be used at the global level but which require further development to be ready for use are denoted by the letter (B). Additional indicators for consideration for use at the national or other sub-global level are denoted by the letter (C) and formatted in italics. The set of (A) and (B) indicators are those which should be used to assess progress at the global level while the (C) indicators are illustrative of some of the additional indicators available to Parties to use at the national level according to their national priorities and circumstances.
Aichi Target Headline indicators (in bold) and most relevant operational indicators
Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
Target 1 - By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. Trends in awareness, attitudes and public engagement in support of biological diversity and ecosystem services
  • Trends in awareness and attitudes to biodiversity (C)
  • Trends in public engagement with biodiversity (C)
  • Trends in communication programmes and actions promoting social corporate responsibility (C)
Target 2 - By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems. Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in number of countries incorporating natural resource, biodiversity, and ecosystem service values into national accounting systems (B)
  • Trends in number of countries that have assessed values of biodiversity, in accordance with the Convention (C)
  • Trends in guidelines and applications of economic appraisal tools (C)
  • Trends in integration of biodiversity and ecosystem service values into sectoral and development policies (C)
  • Trends in policies considering biodiversity and ecosystem service in environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment (C)
Target 3 - By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions. Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in the number and value of incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, removed, reformed or phased out (B)
  • Trends in identification, assessment and establishment and strengthening of incentives that reward positive contribution to biodiversity and ecosystem services penalize adverse impacts (C)
Target 4 - By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits. Trends in pressures from unsustainable agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture
  • Trends in Ecological Footprint and/or related concepts (A) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in population and extinction risk of utilized species, including species in trade (A) (also used by CITES)
  • Ecological limits assessed in terms of sustainable production and consumption (C)
Trends in pressures from habitat conversion, pollution, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation and underlying drivers
Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in extent to which biodiversity and ecosystem service values are incorporated into organizational accounting and reporting (B)
Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
Target 5 - By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Trends in extent, condition and vulnerability of ecosystems, biomes and habitats
  • Extinction risk trends of habitat dependent species in each major habitat type (A)
  • Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems and habitats (A) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in proportion of degraded/threatened habitats (B)
  • Trends in fragmentation of natural habitats (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in condition and vulnerability of ecosystems (C)
  • Trends in the proportion of natural habitats converted (C)
Trends in pressures from unsustainable agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture
  • Trends in primary productivity (C)
  • Trends in proportion of land affected by desertification (C) (also used by UNCCD)
Trends in pressures from habitat conversion, pollution, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation and underlying drivers
  • Population trends of habitat dependent species in each major habitat type (A)
Target 6 - By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits. Trends in pressures from unsustainable agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture
  • Trends in extinction risk of target and bycatch aquatic species (A)
  • Trends in population of target and bycatch aquatic species (A)
  • Trends in proportion of utilized stocks outside safe biological limits (A) (MDG indicator 7.4)
  • Trends in catch per unit effort (C)
  • Trends in fishing effort capacity (C)
  • Trends in area, frequency, and/or intensity of destructive fishing practices (C)
Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in proportion of depleted target and bycatch species with recovery plans (B)
Target 7 - By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. Trends in pressures from unsustainable agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture
  • Trends in population of forest and agriculture dependent species in production systems (B)
  • Trends in production per input (B)
  • Trends in proportion of products derived from sustainable sources (C) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in area of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
Target 8 - By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity Trends in pressures from habitat conversion, pollution, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation and underlying drivers
  • Trends in incidence of hypoxic zones and algal blooms (A)
  • Trends in water quality in aquatic ecosystems (A) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Impact of pollution on extinction risk trends (B)
  • Trends in pollution deposition rate (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in sediment transfer rates (B)
  • Trend in emission to the environment of pollutants relevant for biodiversity (C)
  • Trend in levels of contaminants in wildlife (C)
  • Trends in nitrogen footprint of consumption activities (C)
  • Trends in ozone levels in natural ecosystems (C)
  • Trends in proportion of wastewater discharged after treatment (C)
  • Trends in UV-radiation levels (C)
Target 9 - By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. Trends in pressures from habitat conversion, pollution, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation and underlying drivers
  • Trends in the impact of invasive alien species on extinction risk trends (A)
  • Trends in the economic impacts of selected invasive alien species (B)
  • Trends in number of invasive alien species (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in incidence of wildlife diseases caused by invasive alien species (C)
Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in policy responses, legislation and management plans to control and prevent spread of invasive alien species (B)
  • Trends in invasive alien species pathways management (C)
Target 10 - By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning. Trends in pressures from habitat conversion, pollution, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation and underlying drivers
  • Extinction risk trends of coral and reef fish (A)
  • Trends in climate change impacts on extinction risk (B)
  • Trends in coral reef condition (B)
  • Trends in extent, and rate of shifts of boundaries, of vulnerable ecosystems (B)
  • Trends in climatic impacts on community composition (C)
  • Trends in climatic impacts on population trends (C)
Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
Target 11 - By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes. Trends in coverage, condition, representativeness and effectiveness of protected areas and other area-based approaches
  • Trends in extent of marine protected areas, coverage of key biodiversity areas and management effectiveness (A)
  • Trends in protected area condition and/or management effectiveness including more equitable management (A) (decision X/31)
  • Trends in representative coverage of protected areas and other area based approaches, including sites of particular importance for biodiversity, and of terrestrial, marine and inland water systems (A) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in the connectivity of protected areas and other area based approaches integrated into landscapes and seascapes (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in the delivery of ecosystem services and equitable benefits from protected areas (C)
Target 12 - By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained. Trends in abundance, distribution and extinction risk of species
  • Trends in abundance of selected species (A) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15) (UNCCD indicator)
  • Trends in extinction risk of species (A) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15) (MDG indicator 7.7) (also used by CMS)
  • Trends in distribution of selected species (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15) (also used by UNCCD)
Target 13 - By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity Trends in genetic diversity of species
  • Trends in genetic diversity of cultivated plants, and farmed and domesticated animals and their wild relatives (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in genetic diversity of selected species (C)
Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in number of effective policy mechanisms implemented to reduce genetic erosion and safeguard genetic diversity related to plant and animal genetic resources (B)
Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
Target 14 - By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable. Trends in distribution, condition and sustainability of ecosystem services for equitable human well-being
  • Trends in proportion of total freshwater resources used (A) (MDG indicator 7.5)
  • Trends in proportion of the population using improved water services (A) (MDG indicator 7.8 and 7.9)
  • Trends in benefits that humans derive from selected ecosystem services (A)
  • Population trends and extinction risk trends of species that provide ecosystem services (A)
  • Trends in delivery of multiple ecosystem services (B)
  • Trends in economic and non-economic values of selected ecosystem services (B)
  • Trends in health and wellbeing of communities who depend directly on local ecosystem goods and services (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in human and economic losses due to water or natural resource related disasters (B)
  • Trends in nutritional contribution of biodiversity: Food composition (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in incidence of emerging zoonotic diseases (C)
  • Trends in inclusive wealth (C)
  • Trends in nutritional contribution of biodiversity: Food consumption (C) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
  • Trends in prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age (C) (MDG indicator 1.8)
  • Trends in natural resource conflicts (C)
  • Trends in the condition of selected ecosystem services (C)
  • Trends in biocapacity (C)
Trends in coverage, condition, representativeness and effectiveness of protected areas and other area-based approaches
  • Trends in area of degraded ecosystems restored or being restored (B)
Target 15 - By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification. Trends in distribution, condition and sustainability of ecosystem services for equitable human well-being
  • Status and trends in extent and condition of habitats that provide carbon storage (A)
Trends in coverage, condition, representativeness and effectiveness of protected areas and other area-based approaches
  • Population trends of forest-dependent species in forests under restoration (C)
Target 16 - By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation. Trends in access and equity of benefit-sharing of genetic resources
  • ABS indicator to be specified through the ABS process (B)
Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building
Target 17 - By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan. Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefit sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans, including development, comprehensiveness, adoption and implementation (B)
Target 18 - By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels. Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefit sharing into planning, policy formulation and implementation and incentives
  • Trends in land-use change and land tenure in the traditional territories of indigenous and local communities (B) (decision X/43)
  • Trends in the practice of traditional occupations (B) (decision X/43)
Trends in accessibility of scientific/technical/traditional knowledge and its application
  • Trends in which traditional knowledge and practices are respected through their full integration, safeguards and the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities in the national implementation of the Strategic Plan (B)
Trends in accessibility of scientific/technical/traditional knowledge and its application
  • Trends of linguistic diversity and numbers of speakers of indigenous languages (B) (decisions VII/30 and VIII/15)
Target 19 - By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied. Trends in accessibility of scientific/technical/traditional knowledge and its application
  • Trends in coverage of comprehensive policy-relevant sub-global assessments including related capacity building and knowledge transfer, plus trends in uptake into policy (B)
  • Number of maintained species inventories being used to implement the Convention (C)
Target 20 - By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties. Trends in mobilization of financial resources

Annex 2

CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR COMMUNICATING THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDICATORS FOR ASSESSING PROGRESS TOWARDS THE STRATEGIC PLAN FOR BIODIVERSITY 2011-2020

Annex 2 Graphic