PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: DIRECT ACTIONS FOR CONSERVATION, SUSTAINABLE USE AND BENEFIT SHARING
Goal 1.1: To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to mountain biological diversity
1.1.1. Reduce the impacts of adverse land-use practices and changes in urban, forest, inland waters and agricultural areas in mountain ecosystems, including the buffer zones of protected areas using, as appropriate, planning or management mechanisms, such as ecological/economic/ecoregional planning/bioregional/hazardous-areas zoning, so as to ensure the maintenance of biodiversity, in particular ecosystem integrity.
1.1.2. Develop mechanisms and implement measures to reduce human-induced slope instability, adverse effects of natural geological hazards, and to maintain and/or enhance soil stability and ecosystem integrity by way of a diverse and natural vegetation cover that will also promote soil `biodiversity function.
1.1.3. Prevent or mitigate the negative impacts of economic development, infrastructure projects and other human-induced disturbances on mountain biological diversity at all levels, where applicable, taking into consideration the results of environmental and social impact assessment, paying particular attention to cumulative impacts.
1.1.4. Develop strategies specific to mountains ecosystems to prevent the introduction of invasive alien species and, when they have been introduced, control and eradicate their negative impacts on mountain biological diversity.
1.1.5. Monitor and exchange information on the impacts of global climate change on mountain biological diversity, and identify and implement ways and means to reduce the negative impacts.
1.1.6. Implement measures to reduce and prevent key pressures in mountain ecosystems such as deforestation, fragmentation, unsustainable harvesting, inappropriate reforestation or afforestation, human-induced forest fires, overgrazing, inappropriate mining practices and urban expansion resulting in land degradation, degradation of inland water ecosystems, disruption of water flow, and consequent losses of biological diversity (see also decision VI/22).
1.1.7. Identify factors responsible for and possible measures to prevent the retreat of glaciers in some mountain systems and implement measures to minimize the impact of this process on biodiversity.
1.1.8. Identify local and long-range pollution (air, water and soil), which threaten mountain biodiversity at all levels and take appropriate measures to prevent and mitigate the impacts.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
1.1.9. Compile, in collaboration with relevant bodies and organizations, and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other means:
- Information on degraded mountain ecosystems as well as key threats to mountain biodiversity and their ecological and socio-economic impacts;
- Case-studies, lessons learned and best-practice guidance on ways to prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to mountain biodiversity.
- Information on impact of climate change and desertification on the carrying capacity of mountain ecosystems and traditional uses.
Goal 1.2: To protect, recover, and restore mountain biological diversity
1.2.1. Develop and implement programmes to restore degraded mountain ecosystems and protect natural dynamic processes and maintain biological diversity in order to enhance the capacity of mountain ecosystems to resist and adapt to climate change, or recover from its negative impacts including, inter alia, by establishing corridors and taking appropriate measures to maintain ecological functions of natural corridors, where appropriate, to enable vertical migration of species, ensuring minimal viable population sizes to enable genetic adaptation to changing environmental conditions. These programmes should include socio-economic considerations, especially in relation to indigenous and local communities.
1.2.2. Initiate specific activities to facilitate maintenance, protection and conservation of existing levels of endemic species, with a focus on narrowly-distributed taxa.
1.2.3. Identify and protect unique, fragile mountain ecosystems, other biological diversity hotspots and their associated species, especially threatened species, giving priority consideration to measures aimed at strict in situ protection and/or developing ex situ mechanisms whenever feasible.
1.2.4. Develop strategies for land-use and water-resource planning at landscape level using the ecosystem approach, taking into account elements of ecological connectivity and traditional uses of indigenous and local communities, and to prevent and mitigate losses of mountain biological diversity due to fragmentation and land-use conversion.
1.2.5. Establish and strengthen adequate, effective national, regional and international networks of mountain-protected areas, in accordance with decisions of the Conference of the Parties on protected areas, while respecting the rights and full participation of indigenous and local communities.
1.2.6. Promote, as appropriate, the role of sustainable agriculture and pastoralism, using sustainable traditional practices that can maintain biological diversity in mountain ecosystems.
1.2.7. Identify suitable practices for enhancing ecosystem sustainability with particular emphasis on degraded slopes.
1.2.8. Address issues related to conflict between humans and other species, especially with regard to coexistence with predators.
1.2.9. Review protected area systems within mountain regions and , as appropriate, take measures to ensure that these are developed and maintained to be comprehensive, adequate and representative, in line with decision VII/28 of the Conference of Parties on programme of work on protected areas.
1.2.10. Develop and implement measures to rehabilitate freshwater networks for migratory species, taking into account the physical barriers.
1.2.11. Establish restoration areas where mountain biological diversity has been degraded significantly and where restoration is needed to complement and buffer the protected-area network.
Supporting action of the Executive Secretary
1.2.12. Collaborate with relevant organizations and bodies to compile and disseminate information on:
- Components of biodiversity important for conservation, in particular, on mountain endemic species, hotspots and their associated species and threatened species;
- Best practices for their conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing.
1.2.13. Compile and disseminate case-studies on methods and economic aspects of restoration of degraded mountain ecosystems and recovery of mountain endangered species.
Goal 1.3: To promote the sustainable use of mountain biological resources
1.3.1. Promote sustainable land-use and water resource management practices in relation to human livelihood needs (agriculture, pastoralism, animal husbandry, forestry, aquaculture, inland water fisheries, etc.) in mountain ecosystems, taking into account the Convention principles for sustainable use and the ecosystem approach.
1.3.2. Promote sustainable land-use practices, techniques and technologies, including those of indigenous and local communities and community-based management systems, for the conservation and sustainable use (including pastoralism, hunting and fishing) of wild flora and fauna and agro-biodiversity in mountain ecosystems, including biological pest control.
1.3.3. Support activities of indigenous and local communities involved in the use of traditional mountain-related knowledge, in particular concerning sustainable management of biodiversity, soil, water resources and slope.
1.3.4. Promote partnerships between all stakeholders, including indigenous and local communities, involved in the sustainable use of mountain biological resources. (see also goal 2.3)
1.3.5. Develop criteria in the framework of the Convention Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development in accordance with the ecological conditions of mountains ecosystems and promote the use of these guidelines.
1.3.6. Through appropriate environmental planning, reduce the negative impacts of tourism and outdoor activities on mountain ecosystems, as well as the development of associated human settlements and facilities.
1.3.7. Strengthen local capacity for sustainable tourism management, in order to ensure that benefits derived from tourism activities are shared by indigenous and local communities, while preserving natural and cultural heritage values.
1.3.8. Promote the sustainable use of economically valuable wild plants and animals, as an income-generating activity for the local inhabitants.
1.3.9. Promote integrated watershed management practices at all levels for maintaining ecosystem integrity, soil stability on slopes, upstream-downstream inter-connections and protection against natural hazards. Goal 1.4: To promote access to, and sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources related to mountain biological diversity in accordance with national legislation where it exists
1.4.1. Strengthen the capacity of indigenous and local communities to engage in equitable benefit-sharing arrangements, taking into account the Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization, bearing in mind their voluntary character and that they do not purport to replace national legislation.
1.4.2. Develop methods to assess and conserve genetic resources of high economic value for promoting fair and equitable sharing of benefits, respecting national legislation on access to genetic resources.
1.4.3. Promote actions that are beneficial for conservation through generating employment and/or income particularly for marginal communities.
Goal 1.5: To maintain genetic diversity in mountain ecosystems in particular through the preservation and maintenance of traditional knowledge and practices
1.5.1. Assess and develop strategies aimed at minimizing the threat of genetic erosion on domesticated biodiversity (crops, animals) and wild relatives, paying particular attention to the centres of origin of the genetic resources.
1.5.2. Implement provisions contained in Article 8(j) on traditional knowledge and related provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, taking into consideration the needs of developing countries.
1.5.3. Develop, validate and implement sustainable use practices for plants, animals and microorganisms at the genetic, species, population, community and ecosystem levels.
1.5.4. Respect, preserve and maintain indigenous knowledge, practices, processes and technologies to ensure conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity and sharing of benefits.