Economics, Trade and Incentive Measures
Biodiversity and Incentive Measures

Reference manuals, toolkits and other general policy guidance

CBD Proposals for the Design and Implementation of Incentive Measures

During its sixth meeting, in the Hague in April 2002, the Conference of the Parties endorsed a set of practical principles and guidelines for the design and implementation of incentive measures (see Annex I to Decision VI/15). The proposals identify and explain the key elements that need to be taken into consideration when using incentive measures, and also provide guidelines for selecting appropriate and complementary measures. They were developed by an international expert workshop and further reviewed by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its seventh meeting.

Recommendation of the OECD Council on the Use of Economic Instruments in Promoting the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity

This recommendation was endorsed by Environment Ministers of OECD member countries on 20 April 2004 and adopted by the OECD Council on 21 April 2004. The document inter alia recommends: to make greater and more consistent use of domestic economic instruments (to be understood in a broad sense to include all instruments that change the incentives individuals face for undertaking particular actions), to integrate market and non-market instruments into an effective and efficient mix of instruments, and to integrate biodiversity policy objectives into sectoral policies in order to avoid undue adverse effects on biodiversity and its related resources. The annex of the recommendation identifies key elements of a framework for the use of economic instruments, discusses incentive-based instruments in biodiversity management, including the reform or removal of perverse incentives, as well as the valuation of biodiversity and market creation in biodiversity management

Handbook on Incentive Measures for Biodiversity. Design and Implementation. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris 1999

This handbook was produced under the guidance of the OECD Working Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity. It is designed to assist policy makers in the design and implementation of appropriate incentive measures for the effective management of biodiversity. It builds on previous OECD work in this field, notably synthesizing results form the 22 OECD case-studies on incentive measures.

Economic Instruments in Biodiversity-related Multilateral Environmental Agreements, United Nations Environment Programme 2004

This publication analyses the main provisions relating to economic instruments in the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Ramsar Convention and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. It investigates the current and future role, as well as limitations, of economic instruments to implement these Conventions in areas such as in-situ conservation, sustainable or wise use, and ecosystem services. In doing so, the study explores existing and potential synergies between the three conventions and identifies cross-cutting thematic areas where the use of economic instruments can be explored in further detail. It also discusses some of the conditions for successful implementation of such instruments, including integration of local communities, capacity building and valuation of environmental resources and services.

Specific Information

More specific information is available on the following pages:

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme