Goal 1.1 - Protected area network

Goal 1.1: To establish and strengthen national and regional systems of protected areas integrated into a global network as a contribution to globally agreed goals

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Target:

By 2010, terrestrially [68]/ and 2012 in the marine area, a global network of comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional protected area system is established as a contribution to (i) the goal of the Strategic Plan of the Convention and the World Summit on Sustainable Development of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010; (ii) the Millennium Development Goals - particularly goal 7 on ensuring environmental sustainability; and (iii) the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

Suggested activities of the Parties


  • 1.1.1 By 2006, establish suitable time-bound and measurable national and regional level protected area targets and indicators.

  • 1.1.2 As a matter of urgency, by 2006, take action to establish or expand protected areas in any large, intact or relatively unfragmented or highly irreplaceable natural areas, or areas under high threat, as well as areas securing the most threatened species in the context of national priorities [69]/, and taking into consideration the conservation needs of migratory species.

  • 1.1.3 As a matter of urgency, by 2006 terrestrially and by 2008 in the marine environment, take action to address the under-representation of marine and inland water ecosystems in existing national and regional systems of protected areas, taking into account marine ecosystems beyond areas of national jurisdiction in accordance with applicable international law, and transboundary inland water ecosystems.

  • 1.1.4 By 2006, conduct, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders, national-level reviews of existing and potential forms of conservation, and their suitability for achieving biodiversity conservation goals, including innovative types of governance for protected areas that need to be recognized and promoted through legal, policy, financial institutional and community mechanisms, such as protected areas run by Government agencies at various levels, co-managed protected areas, private protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas.

  • 1.1.5 By 2006 complete protected area system gap analyses at national and regional levels based on the requirements for representative systems of protected areas that adequately conserve terrestrial, marine and inland water biodiversity and ecosystems. National plans should also be developed to provide interim measures to protect highly threatened or highly valued areas wherever this is necessary. Gap analyses should take into account Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria such as irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimum effective size and viability requirements, species migration requirements, integrity, ecological processes and ecosystem services.

  • 1.1.6 By 2009, designate the protected areas as identified through the national or regional gap analysis (including precise maps) and complete by 2010 terrestrially and 2012 in the marine environments the establishment of comprehensive and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas.

  • 1.1.7 Encourage the establishment of protected areas that benefit indigenous and local communities, including by respecting, preserving, and maintaining their traditional knowledge in accordance with article 8(j) and related provisions.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

  • 1.1.8 Identify options for quantitative and qualitative protected areas targets and indicators that should be used at the global level that could contribute to the 2010 target and the Millennium Development Goals.

  • 1.1.9 Invite relevant international and regional organizations to offer their assistance to the Parties in conducting national-level gap analyses.

  • 1.1.10 Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other relevant media relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for system planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and adapting them to different ecological and social settings.


Notes:

[68]/ Terrestrial includes inland water ecosystems

[69]/ Parties may wish to use IUCN Red List of Threatened Species criteria, version 3.1

Key activities in Goal 1.1 include:

  • Establish measurable and time-bound targets and indicators
  • Protect large, intact areas and areas under high threat
  • Address the under-representation of marine and inland water ecosystems
  • Review existing and potential forms of conservation and promote innovative types of governance
  • Complete an ecological gap assessment
  • Designate protected areas to fill ecological gaps
  • Encourage protected areas that benefit indigenous and local communities

What are measurable, time-bound targets and indicators?

Targets and indicators are a set of milestones in protection that a country can achieve. For example, a country might set a target of achieving 20% of protection of its near-shore marine environment by 2020.

What are large, intact areas and what does it mean to be under high threat?

A large, intact area is a large, contiguous patch containing an ecosystem, or complex of ecosystems, within a broader landscape. A large patch is considered intact if it has relatively low levels of fragmentation and human disturbance. An area is under threat if it is likely to become fragmented, converted or degraded because of human activities, and if biodiversity is likely to decline as a result.

What does it mean to address the under-representation of marine and inland water ecosystems?

In many protected area systems, the percentage of marine and inland water ecosystems is very low compared to the percentage of terrestrial ecosystems. This activity focuses on taking action to increase the percentage of marine and inland water ecosystems that are protected across the country.

What are innovative types of governance?

Protected areas can be managed for a wide range of objectives, from strict protected areas to multiple use areas; and can be governed by a wide range of actors, including governments, private owners, communities, and partnerships. Innovative governance types may include, for example, indigenous reserves, private protected areas, community conserved areas, locally managed marine areas, and other forms of protected areas. Having a diverse portfolio of different categories and governance types is likely to strengthen the overall protected area system.

What is an assessment of ecological gaps?

An ecological gap assessment analyzes the extent to which key biodiversity features (species, natural communities and ecological systems and the ecological processes that sustain them), are sufficiently represented within a protected area network. The aim is to identify those key biodiversity features that are not well represented within a protected area network, such as inland waters, for example.

What steps are involved in assessing ecological gaps?

The steps typically involved in conducting an ecological gap assessment include:

  1. Assessing biodiversity status by identifying focal biodiversity features, including terrestrial, freshwater and marine systems, and irreplaceable and vulnerable species. This step also entails assessing the viability and threat status of these focal biodiversity features, and determining the optimal number, distribution, and design for each biodiversity feature to ensure long-term persistence.
  2. Assessing protection status by mapping the boundaries and designation of protected and other conserved areas, by mapping the results of management effectiveness assessments (by creating a gradient from well-managed to poorly-managed areas); and by mapping the governance type and category of each protected area.
  3. Analyzing results by identifying ecological gaps, including biodiversity features that are absent or underrepresented, or are of insufficient viability to ensure long-term persistence. This step also entails identifying management gaps, including protected areas that require improved management effectiveness or stronger legal designation.
  4. Developing a plan to fill gaps by prioritizing ecological gaps based on threat, urgency and irreplaceability, and then developing strategies and estimating costs to fill ecological gaps.

What are strategies for filling ecological gaps?

Examples of strategies to fill gaps include:

  • Revising protected area designations: The IUCN categorization system ranges from strict protection (Category I) through multiple use areas (Category VI). Changing protected area designation can be an efficient way of filling critical ecological gaps and increasing protection levels.
  • Exploring alternative governance: When creating new government protected areas is difficult because of financial or political constraints, governments may want to encourage community conserved areas, tribal and indigenous areas, co-managed areas and private protected areas.
  • Encouraging ‘other conserved areas:’ Areas that have long-term conservation status, but are not legally designated as protected areas (e.g., certified forestry operations, wetland reserve areas, organic farms), can help fill critical gaps within the protected area network.
  • Expanding existing protected areas: Even a small change to the design of a protected area, such as expanding the boundaries to include more elevational gradients, can make a major contribution to filling ecological gaps and meeting critical breeding, feeding and migration needs of species.
  • Creating ecological corridors: In many cases it may be necessary to create corridors that allow species movement and ecological processes to occur. Although the overall area of these corridors may be small, the benefits to the overall protected area system can be substantial.
  • Creating new protected areas: Governments should consider the most critical, irreplaceable, under-represented species and ecological systems – typically areas of high productivity that have already been largely transformed across the landscape – as priority candidates for new reserves.
  • Restoring degraded protected areas: The restoration and expansion of remnant patches of fragmented ecosystems, the rehabilitation of ecological structures and processes within a partly functioning system, and the reintroduction of extirpated species can help fill ecological gaps.

What does it mean to designate protected areas that benefit indigenous and local communities?

This activity promotes protected areas that provide a range of social and economic benefits to indigenous and local communities living within or near the protected areas. These benefits could include employment, drinking water, sustainable livelihoods, and subsistence materials, among many other benefits.



E-learning module

Module 18: Marine Protected Areas

This module shows how the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas applies in a marine environment, and enables protected area planners to increase marine protection, improve the marine protected area network, and reduce threats to the marine environment.

External forum

Protected areas and network design

For those interested in network design and ecological gap assessments.

E-learning module

Module 2: Protected area integration

This module covers aspects related to integrating protected areas into the wider landscape, seascape and strategies (PoWPA Goal 1.2), including the development of conservation corridors, and mainstreaming protected areas into other sectors.

E-learning module

Module 1: Protected area network design

This module covers aspects related to the design of a national protected area network (PoWPA Goal 1.1), including instructions on how to conduct an ecological gap assessment.

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E-learning module
This module shows how the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas applies in a marine environment, and enables protected area planners to increase marine protection, improve the marine protected area network, and reduce threats to the marine environment.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments,1.2 Protected area policy and landscape integration,3.4 Financial sustainability and business planning,1.3 Regional networks and transboundary areas,1.4 Management planning and climate change adaptation,1.5 Protected area threats and restoration,4.2 Management effectiveness assessments,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,3.1 Enabling policy and legal environment,PoWPA Implementation
Topics:Adaptive management,Benefits and values,Multi-sectoral commitees,Best practices,Connectivity,Partnerships and collaboration,Conservation planning,Policy integration,Ecological gaps,Financing,Protected area system master plan,Regional challenges,Governance,Resilience and adaptation planning,Sustainable use,Mainstreaming,Management effectiveness,Training and curricula,Management planning,Marine
6/10/2011
External forum
For those interested in network design and ecological gap assessments.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments,1.2 Protected area policy and landscape integration,1.3 Regional networks and transboundary areas
5/8/2010
E-learning module
This module covers aspects related to integrating protected areas into the wider landscape, seascape and strategies (PoWPA Goal 1.2), including the development of conservation corridors, and mainstreaming protected areas into other sectors.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments,1.2 Protected area policy and landscape integration
5/8/2010
E-learning module
This module covers aspects related to the design of a national protected area network (PoWPA Goal 1.1), including instructions on how to conduct an ecological gap assessment.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
5/8/2010
Report
Concept paper on governance. GTZ.
Themes:2.1 Equity and benefit sharing,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments,3.1 Enabling policy and legal environment
Topics:Governance
4/18/2010574 Kb
Assessment methodology
A handbook for evaluating governance of protected areas. Borrini-Feyerabend.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments,3.1 Enabling policy and legal environment,2.1 Equity and benefit sharing
Topics:Governance
4/18/2010925 Kb
Article
It's an article about the complex links between governance and biodiversity. (30 pages).
Themes:2.1 Equity and benefit sharing,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Governance
4/16/201075 Kb
Case study
A Case Study: Goal Setting in the High Allegheny Plateau—An Illustration of the Eastern Regional Approach to Setting Numeric and Distributional Goals.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/15/2010115 Kb
Case study
It's a report about Grenada National Protected Area System Gap Assessment. (32 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Ecological gaps
4/15/20101024 Kb
Report
It's a report about The Maputaland Conservation Planning System and Conservation Assessment. (49 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning,Landscape conservation
4/15/20102048 Kb
Comprehensive guide
This publication is about shared resources. (268 pages). IUCN.
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Governance
4/14/20102048 Kb
Short guide
This publication about Mapping High Conservation Values at large scales for effective site-level. (42 pages).
Themes:1.2 Protected area policy and landscape integration,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Landscape conservation,Conservation planning
4/14/20102048 Kb
Brochure
It's a report about Linking Geology and Biodiversity. (2 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/14/201085 Kb
Report
It's a report about Conservation in a Highly Fragmented Landscape:The Central Tallgrass Prairie Ecoregional Conservation Plan. (244 pages).
Themes:1.2 Protected area policy and landscape integration,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Connectivity,Conservation planning
4/14/20105120 Kb
Case study
It's an article about Jamaica Protected Area Gap Assessment: Freshwater. (12 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Freshwater,Ecological gaps
4/14/2010924 Kb
This publication is a list of wetlands of international importance. (35 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Freshwater
4/14/2010351 Kb
Report
It's a report about IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. (35 pages). IUCN
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/14/2010283 Kb
Report
It's a report about A Systems Plan for Protected Areas in Saint Lucia. (105 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Protected area system master plan
4/14/201053248 Kb
A Site Selection Manual for Europe, and a basis for developing guidelines for other regions of the world. (52 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/14/20101024 Kb
Article
It's an article about Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth. (6 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/14/20101024 Kb
Case study
It's a report about a Wildlife Conservation Assessment of the Madison Valley, Montana. (230 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/14/201018432 Kb
Report
It's a report about Linking Geology and Biodiversity. (91 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Ecological gaps
4/14/20102048 Kb
Report
It's a national list of critical species. (8 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/13/2010609 Kb
Comprehensive guide
A Practical Handbook for Population Viability Analysis. (51 pages). TNC
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Ecological gaps,Conservation planning
4/13/2010453 Kb
Article
It's an article about designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: Best Practice from South Africa. (12 pages).
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
Topics:Conservation planning
4/13/2010330 Kb
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