The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice,
Noting the great importance of the effects of certain alien species on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, as well as the relevance of this issue to most of the themes and other cross-cutting issues under the Convention,
Noting that the terminology surrounding the issue of impacts arising from alien species is interpreted differently by different Parties, and that additional terminology problems arise in the translation,
Noting the desirability of a three-tier hierarchical approach to the prevention, eradication and control of alien species or their impacts,
Noting the importance of continuing its work on the development of draft guiding principles for the prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts of alien species, with the assistance of the Secretariat,
Recalling decision IV/1 C, adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its fourth meeting, in which the Conference requested the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice to identify the priority work pertinent to the issue of alien species in geographically and evolutionarily isolated ecosystems,
1. Requests the Executive Secretary to develop, in cooperation with the Global Invasive Species Programme, principles for the prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts of alien species, taking into account the proposed principles presented for debate at the fourth meeting of the Subsidiary Body (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/4/Inf.8) and the IUCN draft Guidelines on the Prevention of Biological Diversity Loss Due to Biological Invasions, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its fifth meeting;
2. Requests the Executive Secretary to develop an outline for case studies on alien species that is designed to ensure a consistent format for the case studies. In doing this work, the Executive Secretary should consider the proposals from two Parties, as set out in annexes I and II to the present recommendation;
3. Requests the Executive Secretary to invite Parties, other Governments and relevant bodies to urgently submit available case-studies on alien species to the Executive Secretary, to contribute to the Secretariat's work of preparing advice for the fifth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice;
4. Recommends that the Conference of the Parties:
(a) Request the Executive Secretary to develop an inventory of initiatives and a roster of experts, and use the clearing-house mechanism to make this information available to Parties, other Governments and the international community at large;
(b)Request the Executive Secretary to formally liaise with the Global Invasive Species Programme and other relevant organizations through the establishment of memoranda of cooperation, containing, as an annex, a detailed plan for joint actions;
(c) Request the Executive Secretary to further integrate the issue of alien species in the implementation of the thematic work programmes and to report thereon to the Conference of the Parties at its sixth meeting;
(d) Invite the Global Invasive Species Programme to undertake a comprehensive review on the efficiency and efficacy of existing measures for prevention, early detection, eradication and control of alien species and their impacts, giving priority to measures pertinent to the issue of alien species in geographically and evolutionarily isolated ecosystems and to report thereon to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its sixth meeting;
(e) Request the Global Invasive Species Programme, in developing a global strategy to deal with alien species, to ensure consistency with the provisions on alien species in Article 8(h) of the Convention and relevant provisions within other articles, including Article 14, taking into full account considerations on alien species within relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties on, for example, the conservation and sustainable use of inland water, marine and coastal, and forest biological diversity;
(f) Invite the Global Invasive Species Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Maritime Organization, the World Health Organization and other relevant organizations to assist the Parties to the Convention in:
(i) Developing a standardized terminology on alien species;
(ii) Developing criteria for assessing risks from introductions;
(iii) Assessing the positive and negative socio-economic implications of alien species for sectoral human activities (e.g. agriculture, fisheries, forestry, tourism, horticulture, aquaculture, etc.) and the role of these and other sectors, with respect to the introduction of alien species, and also the implications for indigenous people and traditional communities;
(iv) Furthering research on the impact of alien species on biological diversity;
(v) Developing means to enhance the capacity of ecosystems to resist or recover from alien-species invasions;
(vi) Developing a system for reporting new invasions of alien species and the spread of alien species into new areas;
(vii) Assessing priority for taxonomic work;
and to inform the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its sixth meeting on progress made;
(g) Invite the Global Invasive Species Programme, inter alia, to make all relevant information which it holds or acquires, including databases of alien species invasions, available through the clearing-house mechanism;
(h) Encourage Parties to develop effective education, training and public awareness measures, as well as to involve further the public, with a view to informing it about the different aspects of the issue, including the risks posed by certain alien species;
(i) Strongly encourage Parties to develop mechanisms for transboundary cooperation, regional and multilateral cooperation in order to deal with the issue, including the exchange of best practices;
(j) Urge Parties, other Governments and relevant bodies, and the Secretariat, in their work on alien species, to give priority to the implementation of the strategy of the Global Invasive Species Programme in relation to geographically and evolutionarily isolated ecosystems and to use the precautionary and ecosystem approaches as guiding framework principles.
To the extent possible, case-studies should be short, succinct summaries of experiences on alien species at the country and the regional levels. A case-study should focus on the prevention of the introduction, control or eradication of alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. If possible, case-studies should be provided in hard copy and an electronic version (by floppy disk or via electronic mail). Case-studies should follow, to the extent possible, the proposed structure outlined below.
-Groups of organisms studied (e.g. plants, insects)
Relationships with relevant articles of the Convention, decisions of the Conference of the Parties and/or the recommendations of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
2. Description of the problem
Ecological context (status of the affected ecosystem, species diversity and genetic diversity)
Monitoring and assessment activities conducted and methods applied
History, origin and pathway of introductions
Description and assessment of the impact on conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, covering both economic and ecological aspects
Uncertainties due to missing taxonomic knowledge
3. Current measures to address the problem
-Control and containment measures
-Legal provisions and implementation of measures, including assessment of effectiveness
-Further measures needed, including transboundary, regional and multilateral cooperation
-Replicability for other regions, ecosystems or groups of organisms
-Information compilation and dissemination needed
Case-studies should include the following sections. A summary of the information may be provided under each heading, and a more detailed paper may be attached. If the information is not available, this should be indicated in the appropriate section.
1. Location of the case-study.
2. Identification of alien species (the scientific name of species should be indicated if possible).
3. Biology of the alien species.
4. Vector of invasion (e.g. deliberate importation, contamination of imported goods, ballast water, hull fouling, spread from adjacent area. It should be noted, if there is a difference between the initial entry into the country and later spread.) It should be specified (if known) whether entry was deliberate and legal, deliberate and illegal, accidental, or natural.
5. How and when the alien species was first detected.
6. Ecosystem invaded or threatened (specify in general terms, e.g. tropical rain forest, temperate estuary, and also give detailed description if relevant).
7. Potential or actual impacts, including on biological diversity and on stakeholder interests in that biological diversity.
8. What time period between initial entry of the alien species and the development of impacts.
9. Options considered for response to the threat or impacts, and reasons for selecting the actions taken.
10. Institutions responsible for decisions and actions.
11. Details of decision-making process, including stakeholders affected, consultation processes used, etc.
12. Actions and related measures taken. First, categorize the action as prevention, early detection, eradication, localized eradication or control, or restoration of habitats or natural communities affected by alien species. Then provide details of the particular actions or measures, including the detailed methods used. Include any research, monitoring, public education and regulatory measures. Specify the time involved, including dates.
13. Costs of action and benefits achieved. Specify whether the action was fully successful, partially successful or unsuccessful. In specifying costs, include any adverse effects of the actions taken on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
14. Any lessons learned from the operation.