Decision XI/16 paragraph 3


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Ecosystem restoration

The Conference of the Parties,

Noting the key messages contained in section IV of the note by the Executive Secretary on ways and means to support ecosystem restoration, prepared for the fifteenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/15/4), in particular that ecosystem restoration is not a substitute for conservation, nor is it a conduit for allowing intentional destruction or unsustainable use,

Further noting that ecosystem restoration will play a critical role in achieving the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, including the conservation of habitats and species,

Noting the opportunities for the involvement of relevant stakeholders and for job creation through public works in restoring, regenerating and conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services,

Recognizing that ecosystem restoration can contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation, socio-economic development and food security,

Further recognizing that, particularly under climate change, fully restoring an ecosystem to its original state is increasingly challenging and may not always be achievable,

Emphasizing that the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets provide the overall framework for the Convention until 2020 and should guide the future work of all the Convention’s cross-cutting issues and thematic areas,

operational active parties other governments organizations

paragraph 1

1.Urges Parties and encourages other Governments and relevant organizations to make concerted efforts to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Targets 14 and 15 and targets 4 and 8 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, and to contribute to the achievement of all the other Aichi Biodiversity Targets through ecosystem restoration through a range of activities depending on national circumstances, including:

paragraph 1 item (a)

(a)Effectively implementing the ecosystem restoration-related provisions in previous decisions of the Conference of the Parties and relevant thematic and cross cutting programmes of work;

paragraph 1 item (b)

(b)Identifying, analysing and addressing both underlying and direct causes of ecosystem degradation or fragmentation and using the knowledge gained to prevent or reduce activities which cause further degradation, deterioration or destruction;

paragraph 1 item (c)

(c)Identifying degraded ecosystems that have the potential for ecosystem restoration bearing in mind that such areas may be occupied or used by indigenous and local communities;

paragraph 1 item (d)

(d)Promoting best practices and appropriate technologies that can be productively applied to ecosystem restoration;

paragraph 1 item (e)

(e)Consider performing a social impact assessment when degraded ecosystems are identified for potential restoration to ensure that projects do not have negative effects for indigenous and local communities that make use of the land;

paragraph 1 item (f)

(f)Improving the resilience of ecosystems;

paragraph 1 item (g)

(g)Promoting the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and the use of relevant traditional knowledge and practices in appropriate ecosystem restoration activities, in accordance with Articles 8(j), 10(c) and 10(d) of the Convention;

paragraph 1 item (h)

(h)Identifying opportunities to link poverty eradication and ecosystem restoration, inter alia through the rehabilitation or restoration of ecosystems that provide services upon which women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable are directly dependent, and the development of restoration projects that provide employment and skills improvement;

paragraph 1 item (i)

(i)Taking into consideration strategic goal D of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 2020 (“Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services”) when making decisions regarding the allocation of resources to ecosystem restoration, giving due attention to the rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems in order to restore critical ecosystem functions and the delivery of benefits to people;

operational active parties other governments others

paragraph 2

2.Invites Parties, other Governments, relevant intergovernmental organizations, the Society for Ecological Restoration, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the World Resources Institute, the Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration, the International Tropical Timber Organization and other relevant organizations and initiatives such as the Sub-Global Assessment Network, as appropriate, to support countries in implementing ecosystem restoration by:

paragraph 2 item (a)

(a)Making available tools such as e learning programmes;

paragraph 2 item (b)

(b)Compiling and disseminating case studies, best practices, lessons learned, and information on socio-economic aspects, and methods for assessing the success of restoration projects;

paragraph 2 item (c)

(c)Facilitating the sharing of knowledge and publicly available information and supporting existing networks, subject to the national legislation of Parties;

paragraph 2 item (d)

(d)Supporting and/or coordinating capacity building development initiatives, including workshops and formal training;

paragraph 2 item (e)

(e)Convening regional/subregional technical training activities on key themes;

paragraph 2 item (f)

(f)Enhancing partnerships and exchange programmes among agencies and restoration practitioners for their mutual benefit;

paragraph 2 item (g)

(g)Developing and implementing communication programmes highlighting the economic, ecological and social benefits of ecosystem restoration, including awareness-raising among the general public, policymakers and environmental and other managers, not only on the crucial role that ecosystems play in providing ecosystem services, but also on the costs associated with ecosystem degradation, lost incomes, compensation and increased expenses in production; and the cost savings, benefits and potential solutions that restoration can contribute to common political challenges;

paragraph 2 item (h)

(h)Supporting the development and implementation of regional, subregional or national plans, programmes or projects for restoring ecosystems, taking into account the ecosystem approach and the integration of ecosystem restoration into broader planning processes, such as spatial and landscape planning;

paragraph 2 item (i)

(i)Supporting the large scale replication of successful projects and programmes that implement the recommendations of research on ecosystem restoration, including their monitoring;


paragraph 3

3.Recognizing that developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, including countries that are centres of origin or diversity of genetic resources, require financial and technical resources in order to implement ecosystem restoration programmes and achieve the related Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including Targets 14 and 15, and that such resources should be provided by financial mechanisms under Article 20 of the Convention on Biological Diversity and mobilized according to Article 20 and the strategy for resource mobilization in line with decisions IX/11, X/3 and XI/4;

operational active parties other governments others

paragraph 4

4.Urges Parties, and invites other Governments, organizations and donors in a position to do so:

paragraph 4 item (a)

(a)To provide adequate financial, technical and other support to the Executive Secretary for facilitating capacity development and implementation initiatives; and

paragraph 4 item (b)

(b)Taking note of extreme weather events, to support the implementation of ecosystem restoration for the mitigation and management of the impact of extreme weather events and for ecosystem based adaptation to climate change;

paragraph 5

5.Requests the Executive Secretary, subject to the availability of funds, and making use of the intersessional work described in paragraph 2 of recommendation XV/2 of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, technical and Technological Advice and reported on in document UNEP/CBD/COP/11/21, to:

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (a)

(a)Convene regional and subregional capacity-building and training workshops and expert meetings, including with the participation of indigenous and local communities;

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (b)

(b)Facilitate the further development, based on information provided in documents UNEP/CBD/COP/11/INF/17 and 18, of a range of implementation tools and practical guidance for ecosystem restoration aimed at different audiences and translated into all United Nations languages, and make it available through the clearing house mechanism;

operational implemented es

paragraph 5 item (c)

(c)Facilitate, in collaboration with relevant partners, the development of a user-friendly, comprehensive web portal on ecosystem restoration, as part of the clearing house mechanism, to facilitate access to and dissemination of documents, case studies and tools for capacity–building;

operational implemented es

paragraph 5 item (d)

(d)Compile all decisions of the Conference of the Parties and information on associated actions related to ecosystem restoration for wider dissemination to Parties;

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (e)

(e)Facilitate the development and maintenance, in collaboration with partners, of an issue-based module on ecosystem restoration, such as TEMATEA;

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (f)

(f)Identify, and where appropriate and feasible, pursue opportunities for collaboration among the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and other multilateral environmental agreements in order to enhance and harmonize efforts in ecosystem restoration and avoid duplication;

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (g)

(g)In collaboration with partners, facilitate the development of a tool for collating and presenting baseline information on the condition and extent of ecosystems, in order to facilitate the evaluation of Aichi Biodiversity Target 15 so as to assist Parties in identifying ecosystems whose restoration would contribute most significantly to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets;

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (h)

(h)Based on information documents UNEP/CBD/COP/11/INF/17, 18 and 19, identify gaps in practical guidance and implementation tools for ecosystem restoration and suggest ways to fill those gaps;

operational active es

paragraph 5 item (i)

(i) Develop clear terms and definitions of ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration and clarify the desired outcomes of implementation of restoration activities, taking into account the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and other relevant targets;

operational implemented es

paragraph 5 item (j)

(j)Report to a meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice prior to the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties on progress in these matters.

Conference of the Parties (COP)

Eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity
8 - 19 October, 2012
Hyderabad, India


Related decisions
Review of implementation of Articles 20 and 21
Strategy for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the Convention’s three objectives
Review of implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization, including the establishment of targets
Ecosystem conservation and restoration
Ecosystem restoration: short-term action plan