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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Domestic biodiversity expenditures

Target: "Endeavour for 100 per cent, but at least 75 per cent, of Parties provided with adequate financial resources to have reported domestic biodiversity expenditures, as well as funding needs, gaps and priorities, by 2015, in order to improve the robustness of the baseline and to refine the preliminary targets, as appropriate." ...Decision XI/4, paragraph 7(c)

Basis for action:
"Improve information base on funding needs, gaps and priorities"...Strategy for resource mobilization, goal 1
"To strengthen institutional capacities for effective resource mobilization and utilization, including strengthening capacities of relevant ministries and agencies to make the case for including biodiversity and its associated ecosystem services in discussions with donors and relevant financial institutions"... Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 2.1
"To improve the existing financial information base through enhancing accuracy, consistency and delivery of existing data and improved reporting on funding needs and shortfalls for the Convention's three objectives"... Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 1.1
"To improve priority-setting for guiding resource allocation to biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services"... Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 1.3

”Recalling decision X/3, paragraph 11, which recognizes that many developing countries have undertaken analyses of the values of their biodiversity and are working to close the financial gap to effectively conserve their biological resources, invites Parties to share experiences and lessons learned and calls upon developed countries to respond to needs identified and to create enabling conditions for those countries yet to undertake such analyses to identify their respective needs”… Decision XI/4, paragraph 13

Indicators:
Number of countries that have identified and reported funding needs, gaps and priorities
Amount of domestic financial support, per annum, in respect of those domestic activities which are intended to achieve the objectives of this Convention
Aggregated financial flows, in the amount and where relevant percentage, of biodiversity-related funding, per annum, for achieving the Convention’s three objectives, in domestic budgets at all levels

Middle Africa
Cameroon 1997, 2002, 2005, 2009
Central African Republic 2000, 2010
Chad 2006, 2009
Congo 2001
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2005
Equatorial Guinea 1998
Sao Tome and Principe 2009

Northern Africa
Algeria 1997, 2005, 2009
Morocco 2005, 2009

Western Africa
Benin 2002
Burkina Faso 1997, 1999
Cape Verde 2007, 2009
Cote d'Ivoire 2009
Gambia 1998, 2003, 2006
Ghana 2005
Guinea 2002
Guinea Bissau 2008
Mali 1. Report 2005
2. Budget Support, Aid Instruments and the Environment: Mali Country Case Study (2008)
Mauritania 1999, 2005, 2009
Niger 2003, 2005, 2009
Senegal 2010
Sierra Leone 2006
Togo 2005

Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda 2007, 2010
Bahamas 1999, 2005, 2011
Cuba 2005, 2009
Dominican Republic 2006
Grenada 2008, 2009
Saint Lucia 2006, 2009
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2004, 2006, 2010
Trinidad and Tobago 2010

South-Eastern Asia
Cambodia 2006, 2010
Indonesia 1993, 2007
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2010
Malaysia 2005, 2007
Philippines 1998, 2002, 2009
Singapore 1997
Thailand 1997
Viet Nam 2001, 2006, 2008

Northern Europe
Denmark 1. Survey of the possibilities of collecting questionnaire-based data on environmental protection expenditure for the manufacturing industry
2. Pilot Survey of Environmental Protection Investments and Current Expenditure in the Manufacturing Industry
3. Danish Environmental Expenditure Accounts 2008
4. Submission 2012
5. Reports
6. public expenditure on nature and biodiversity protection, environmental expenditure
7. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
8. Pilot Survey of Environmental Protection Investments and Current Expenditure in the Manufacturing Industry in Denmark (2004), by European Commission
Estonia 1. Submission 2012
2. Report
Finland 1. Public sector environmental protection expenditure 2011
2. Submission 2012
3. Report
4. Governmental expenditure on nature and biodiversity conservation, environmental expenditure
Ireland 1. 2002, 2008, 2010
2. Expenditure on nature and biodiversity, environmental expenditure
Latvia 1. 1998, 2002, 2005, 2010
2. EPEA in Latvia - Final report (2005), by European Commission
Lithuania 1. 1996, 2002, 2005, 2009
2. EPEA in Lithuania -Final report (2005), by European Commission
Norway 1. Estimating Biodiversity Expenditure 2012
2. Methodology work for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure - 2002 data for Manufacturing, Mining and Quarrying, and Steam and Hot Water Supply; Methodological work for the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry (NACE 11) and preliminary figures for 2002
4. Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NORREA) Project 2003
5. Pilot studies for the development of Environmental Accounting: Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NORREA) Project 2005
6. Expenditure on nature and outdoor recreation
7. Methodology work for environmental protection investment and current expenditure in the manufacturing industry (2002), by European Commission
Sweden 1. Refined Environmental protection expenditures in Sweden
2. Public environmental protection expenditures and subsidies in Sweden
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts in Sweden – a pilot application and analysis
4. Environmental Protection Expenditure – new data collection and additional information
5. 1995, 2001, 2005, 2009
6. public environmental expenditure
7. Refined Environmental protection expenditures in Sweden (2002), by European Commission
8. Public EPE and subsidies in Sweden (2005), by European Commission

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1. Report1997, 2001, 2010, 2012
2. Public sector expenditure on UK and global biodiversity 2012
3. Indicators of funding of expenditure on biodiversity in the UK, and of UK Government funding on conservation of global biodiversity
4. Expenditure on the Farmland Birds PSA Target (2010)
5. Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01
6. Environmental Protection Expenditure by Industry: 2010 UK Survey
7. Environmental expenditure
8. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
9. Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01 (2002), by European Commission
10. Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01 (2010), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics

Southern Europe
Albania Report
Bosnia and Herzegovina Report
Croatia Report
Greece 1. Pilot survey for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry - Reference year 2001
2. Report
3. public environment expenditure
4. Pilot survey for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry Reference year 2001 (2004), by European Commission
Italy 1. The first Italian EPEA for waste and wastewater management
2. Submission 2012
3. Government expenditure on environmental protection
Malta 1. Environmental Accounts (EPEA)
2. Report
Portugal 1. Report
2. Public expenditure on biodiversity and landscapes, public environmental expenditure
3. EPE - Implementation of data collection using web forms (2005), by European Commission
Serbia Report
Slovenia 1. Data collection on Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts
2. Report
3. expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection, public environmental expenditure
Spain 1. Submission 2012
2. Report
3. environmental expenditure
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Report

Western Europe
Austria 1. Environmental expenditure in industry – Improvement of existing methodology for data collection
2. Financing of domestic environmental protection expenditure 2011 in million
3. Reports
4. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
5. expenditure for environmental protection and water supply, budgetary support to environmental investment
6. Environmental expenditure in industry - Improvement of existing methodology for data collection in Austria (2002), by European Commission
7. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
Belgium 1. Current environmental protection expenditure by the Belgian industry (1999)
2. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium – 1997
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium – 1997-2000
4. Environmental expenditures by the Belgian industries in 2002 - Imputation techniques and results
5. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium : 1997- 2002
6. Submission 2012
7. Reports
8. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
9. public expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection
10. Current environmental protection expenditure in Belgium (2001), by European Commission
11. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium 1997-2000 (2003), by European Commission
12. EPE by the Belgian industries in 2002 - Imputation techniques and results (2004), by European Commission
13. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium 1997-2002 (2005), by European Commission
European Union 1. Environmental expenditure statistics: General Government and Specialised Producers data collection handbook, 2007
2. Environmental expenditure statistics: Industry data collection handbook, 2005
3. OECD/Eurostat Environmental Protection Expenditure and Revenues Joint Questionnaire/SERIEE Environmental Protection Expenditure Account: Conversion Guidelines, 2005
4. SERIEE - Environmental protection expenditure accounts - Compilation Guide, 2002
5. SERIEE - European System for the collection of economic information on the environment, 1994 version
6. Submission 2012
7. Reports
8. Environmental protection expenditure in Europe - Data 1995-2009
France 1. Submission 2012
2. Reports
3. Environmental spending 2011
4. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
5. national expenditure on biodiversity and landscapes, environmental protection expenditure
6. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
Germany 1. Submission 2012
2. Reports
3. Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
4. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
Luxembourg 1. Reports
2. public expenditure on environmental protection
Netherlands 1. Environmental protection expenditure accounts for the Netherlands
2. Environmental protection expenditures from the Netherlands in foreign countries
3. Environmental protection expenditures of households home improvement
4. EPE estimation method for NACE (45-96)
5. Submission 2012
6. Reports
7. Environmental expenditure
Switzerland 1. Estimating Public and Private Financial Contributions to Biodiversity: submission 2012
2. Dépenses de protection de l’environnement des entreprises en 2003 - Premiers résultats
3. 1998, 2009
4. allocation of federal funding to biodiversity, expenditure on protection of the environment
5. Dépenses de protection de l'environnement des entreprises en 2003 - Switzerland (2005), by European Commission
6. Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission

Oceania
Australia 1. Report 1998, 2005, 2009
2. Australian Bureau of Statistics dedicated to Natural Resource Management 2006-7
3. environmental expenditure, funding parks management
4. Cost Sharing for Biodiversity Conservation
5. Environment Protection Expenditure, Australia, 1995-96 and 1996-97 (1999), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
6. Producing National Estimates of Environmental Protection Expenditure: The application of PAC and SERIEE in Australia (2000), by UNESCAP
7. Environment Expenditure, Local Government, Australia, 2002-03 (2004), by Australian Bureau of Statistics
Cook Islands Reports
Fiji Reports
Kiribati Reports
Marshall Islands Reports
Micronesia Reports
New Zealand 1. Reports
2. expenditure on bio-security, public environmental expenditure
3. Environmental Protection Expenditure Account for the Public Sector: Years ended June 2001 to June 2003 (2003), by Statistics New Zealand
Niue Reports
Palau Reports
Papua New Guinea Estimating Expenditure on Biodiversity Conservation, including economic incentives, national government and donors, non-government organizations, and mining companies
Samoa Reports
Solomon Islands Reports
Tonga Reports
Vanuatu Reports

Status and trends
The average percentage of environmental expenditure of central governments in gross domestic products of some 40 countries has stayed around 0.2 per cent over the period between 2002 and 2010, and the average percentage of general governments including lower levels of governments has been around 0.7 percent, implying that a difference of 0.5 percent of gross domestic products for environmental protection has come from provincial and local governments. Several countries registered higher than 1 percentage of general government environmental protection spending in their national domestic products in 2009.
Although the overall trend in environmental spending is rather stable, many countries reported quantum jump in national budgets for biodiversity and ecosystem services. The two diagrams from Namibia provide a snapshot of the story that can also be found in South Africa, Vietnam, and Antigua and Barbuda, where ten-fold increase in biodiversity funding was reported. Globally speaking, national budgetary support to biodiversity and ecosystem services is estimated to be in the range between US$15 billion - $45 billion in 2010. If one per mille of gross domestic products can be allocated for biodiversity and ecosystem services, some US$63 billion may be expected in 2010.

Counting

Ideas of Mobilization

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme