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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Monterrey Consensus

Basis for action: "To develop and implement economic incentives that are supportive of the Convention’s three objectives at local and national levels, consistent and in harmony with the other relevant international obligations"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 2.4

"To fulfil the implementation of the provisions of the Monterrey Consensus on mobilizing international and domestic funding as related to biodiversity"...Strategy for resource mobilization, objective 3.6

"Mindful of the potential of Aichi Biodiversity Target 3 to mobilize resources for biodiversity, decides to consider modalities and milestones for the full operationalization of this Target at its twelfth meeting, with a view to their adoption"... Decision XI/4, paragraph 8

Indicator: Resources mobilized from the removal, reform or phase-out of incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity, which could be used for the promotion of positive incentives, including but not limited to innovative financial mechanisms, that are consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other international obligations, taking into account national social and economic conditions

Asia
Afghanistan trade, technology, governance and sustainable consumption
Bangladesh 1. Estimating green jobs in Bangladesh (2010)
2. Skills for Green Jobs in Bangladesh (2009)
Cambodia What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
China 1. Skills for green jobs in China (2010)
2. environmental impacts of WTO accession, forest imports, endangered species
India 1. Sustainable consumption and production
2. Sustainable Production, Technology
3. Skills for green jobs in India (2010)
4. National Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)
Indonesia 1. Skills for green jobs in Indonesia (2010)
2. What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
3. Strategic Plan: Sustainable Tourism and Green Jobs for Indonesia
Japan expanding environment-related markets and employment, environment-trade interface (forest products, endangered and threatened species, fisheries)
Lao What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
Republic of Korea 1. Skills for green jobs in the Republic of Korea (2010)
2. Free trade agreements, endangered species, forest products
Mongolia The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises and a framework for SME growth and development (2011)
Nepal Green jobs – Good jobs: a dual challenge
Philippines 1. Green jobs and green skills in a brown Philippine economy (2010)
2. An investigation of an environmentally benign method for small-scale gold mining in the Philippines (2005)
Thailand Skills for green jobs in Thailand (2010)
Turkey employment and the environment, trade and environment (endangered species)
Vietnam What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)

Europe
Austria 1. Notes
2. expanding environment-related markets and employment
Belgium environment-related jobs, net effect of environmental policies on employment, trade and the environment (tropical timber, genetically modified organisms
Czech Republic trade in endangered species
Denmark 1. Skills for green jobs
2. access to nature, environmental employment, international trade in endangered species
Estonia Skills for green jobs
Finland 1. National programme to promote sustainable consumption and production
2. Sustainable consumption and production, Environment and employment, Trade and endangered species
France 1. Skills for green jobs
2. environment and employment, environmental job creation programmes, international trade and tropical timber, endangered species
3. Environmental employment in France 96-98 (2000), by European Commission
Germany 1. Skills for green jobs
2. Environmental pressures from German imports and exports. Results of the Environmental-Economic Accounting on embodied energy, carbon dioxide and transport of goods (2007), by German Federal Statistical Office
3. CO2-content of German imports and exports (2010), by Federal Statistical Office of Germany

Greece environment and employment, trade and endangered species
Hungary public work programme at the national park directorates, Environment and employment, Trade and endangered species
Italy Expanding green sectors, promoting environmental skills
Luxembourg 1. employment and environment
2. Trade in endangered species
Netherlands 1.Environmental employment, Trade, tropical timber, endangered species
2. Environmental employment in the Netherlands, 1997 (2000), by European Commission
3. Green Growth in the Netherlands (2011), by Statistics Netherlands

Poland trade and endangered species
Portugal 1. trade and wildlife products
2. Environment Industry and Employment in Portugal, 1997 (2000) by European Commission

Slovenia Trade in endangered species
Spain 1. Skills for green jobs
2. direct environmental jobs, active environmental employment policy
Sweden 1. employment effect of environmental policy, environmental employment market, Trade, timber, endangered species
2. The Environment Industry in Sweden, 1999 (2000), by European Commission
3. The Environment Industry in Sweden, 2000 (2000), by European Commission
4. Environmental Impact of Swedish Trade (2002), by Statistics Sweden

Switzerland environment and employment, trade, endangered species, forestry
United Kingdom 1. Skills for green jobs
2. Environment-related employment
Regional Skills for green jobs: European Synthesis Report (2010)

General
CITES Report on the Technical Workshop on Economic Incentives and Trade Policy (1-3 December 2003)
ILO Proposals for the statistical definition and measurement of green jobs
IMF Trade Integration and Political Turbulence: Environmental Policy Consequences (2001)
OECD Environmental Goods and Services: A Synthesis of Country Studies, OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2005-03
UNEP Sustainable Consumption and Production and the SDGs (2014)
The Monterrey Consensus
The Monterrey Consensus provides an international framework of resource mobilization for broad development purposes, within which the strategy for resource mobilization for biodiversity should be considered. Recognizing its importance, the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties adopted the Bonn message on finance and biological diversity, as an input of the Convention on Biological Diversity to the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus held in Doha from 29 November to 2 December 2008. The Bonn message was posted on the website of the Follow-up International Conference, but was not referred to in the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development. Nevertheless, the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration outline a balanced approach to considering all the elements of financing for biodiversity, including mobilizing domestic financial resources for development, mobilizing foreign direct investment and other private flows, international trade as an engine for development, increasing international financial and technical cooperation for development, external debt, and enhancing the coherence and consistency of the international monetary, financial and trading systems in support of development.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme