Angola, Botswana, Lesotho
(2010) Public Private Partnership
. African Parks (Majete) entered into a PPP arrangement with Department of National Parks and Wildlife regarding the management of Majete Wildlife Reserve in 2003. Through the partnership, Majete Wildlife Reserve has restocked species that were once locally extinct. It is evident from the case study the current PPP arrangement with African Parks Majete has contributed to conservation of such endangered species such as Black Rhinos and elephants.
(2013) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Malawi
(2009) The role of the private sector
includes: Promotion of natural resources conservation and research; Collaboration with national and international research institutions; Involvement of community intervention; Socio-economic development; Tourism development; Involvement in the policies of economic and social development and the preservation of biodiversity, with the aim of achieving sustainable development in this for future generations; Participation in the management, conservation and exploitation of forest and faunal resources, to give greater added value, and improve development for local communities.
(2010) Public Private Partnership, Changes in Ownership Rights, The Torra Conservancy
. At least 20 public-private partnerships for effective biodiversity conservation underway nationwide and demonstrating positive results. Examples include 140 Private reserves covering an area of 760,000 ha, corporate social responsibility initiatives of private companies supporting conservation research and projects, and joint venture agreements between the private sector and local communities (tourism and indigenous plant products).
(2003) Appropriate Ownership Models for Natural Product-based Small and Medium Enterprises in Namibia
(2009) Private Sector Initiatives
(Biodiversity and Wine Initiative, fishing industry initiatives): participatory forest guideline series developed and being implemented, e.g. employing local communities as tour guides; initiatives being undertaken through Expanded Public Works Programmes e.g. Working for Water – use wood for coffins, Working for Wetlands etc; bioregional programmes create biodiversity-based projects to generate incomes for communities; conservation agencies, such as SANParks, promote projects for development using Community Based Natural Resource Management Programmes principles; government assisting traditional healers and communities to use biological resources sustainably (e.g. DWAF bark-harvesting programmes. CSIR agro-processing of indigenous plants used for oil extraction, medicinal plant nursery projects); ecotourism projects, for example, Wild Coast agreements with local communities to work at hotels etc.; Farmer to Pharma programme. Challenges: Public Private Partnership guidelines do not exist for all biodiversity-related sectors; No standards (certification of products, labelling, packaging standards etc) for natural products that will facilitate trade in products; Additional emphasis required on “value adding” of harvested resources, since the amount of resources harvested in most areas and species should not be increased; Limited progress in establishing a natural-based product sector, especially with focus on SMMEs; Concerns that projects may not create sustainable jobs; Support from strategic/ technical partners to communities to ensure sustainability of natural resource projects often lacking; Piecemeal and uncoordinated approach to partnerships The South African Natural Heritage Programme (SANHP)
provides the opportunity for individual and corporate landowners to participate actively in the protection of biodiversity and natural areas. The programme aims to encourage the protection of important natural sites, large or small, in private and public ownership. Not only private land, but also state land managed by different spheres of government, can be registered under the programme. By informing landowners of the special attributes of a particular site, registration as a Heritage Site reduces the possibility that significant natural features and the associated biodiversity may be unwittingly degraded or destroyed
(2002) Private Supply of Protected Land in Southern Africa: A Review of Markets, Approaches, Barriers and Issues
: Private management structures are more effective in capturing the economic value of biodiversity, and thereby turning conservation into a competitive form of land use. Beside the economic benefits accruing to landowners, private reserves and game ranches provide the public good ‘biodiversity’ at zero cost to the tax-payer. The experience from southern Africa further supports the economic theory that secure property rights to land and wildlife are an essential ingredient in any strategy to conserve and encourage long-term investment in wildlife habitat. Markets for biological resources are responsible for the private supply of wildlife habitat, and any policy impairing the relative competitiveness of wildlife as a land use will have a direct impact on the private supply of biodiversity.
(2003) Transforming or Tinkering? New Forms of Engagement between Communities and the Private Sector in Tourism and Forestry in Southern Africa
: There are too many unsuccessful examples to suggest that ‘making markets work for the poor’ happens easily or automatically. While some of the poor are earning or will gain cash incomes and economic opportunities, there is inequality in these opportunities, and insufficient attention paid to the participation of the poor in decision-making and to the trade-offs with other livelihood priorities. For the market to be helpful in alleviating poverty there needs to be a more level playing field; a recognition that markets are intensely politicised and easily captured by elites; and a willingness on behalf of the state to intervene in markets and address the issue of equity with redistributive mechanisms where necessary.
(2013) Standard Bank Group in South Africa
: the integrated management system to implement the Equator Principles. Before granting a loan, Standard Bank evaluates the E&S risks of the project using E&S Risk Screening Tools. The bank identifies the extent of the risks, and communicates with the clients to see if they have the capabilities of risk control. During the loan-approval process, the bank’s environmental team will conduct a technical assessment of the project, and carry out internal and external due diligence based on the risk. E&S risk management is integrated throughout the five phases of the bank’s loan process: i) on-boarding, ii) re-credit committee, iii) credit, iv) legal documentation, and v) monitoring.
(2004) Integrating Mining and Biodiversity Conservation: Bushmanland Conservation Initiative
. Plans announced by Anglo American in 1999 to develop a zinc mine in South Africa were met by strong protests from environmental organisations and groups concerned about the possible impact on biodiversity in the area. Yet systematic conservation planning at both regional and local scales contributes to building the basis for effective engagement between mining companies and the organisations concerned about biodiversity conservation.
(2013) In 2004, the Johannesburg Stock Exchange
launched the Socially Responsible Investment Index, which assesses a company’s performance against four criteria: governance, society, environment and economy. Environmental scores are established through an assessment of environmental policies, management and reporting/disclosure practices. High environmental impact companies need to score highly to meet the requirements of the Index methodology. The Sustainable Finance Forum consists of members from the financial and industrial sectors and developed a Code of Conduct for its financing activities in line with the Equator Principles. The New Banking Initiative has been established as an umbrella process for green finance. The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA)is involved in shaping and financing biodiversity conservation/sustainable use and employment-generating programmes such as the Dry Lands Fund and the Green Fund.
(2001) Private Reserves
. Big Game Parks is a privately owned body which manages three reserves in the country (Mlilwane & Mkhaya Game Reserves, and Hlane Royal National Park, which is held in trust for the Nation by the King). Big Game Parks, thus, contributes to the management of the country’s biodiversity. A few other title deed land (TDL) owners have turned to ecotourism as a business venture. Private reserves and game ranches, however, cover only a small area of Swaziland, and thus their contribution to the conservation and management of Swaziland’s biodiversity is still limited (mainly to larger mammals). However, the area of land dedicated to ecotourism and game farming (and other conservation-oriented activities) is steadily increasing with the result that these TDL areas may play an important role in the future.
(2011) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises: An “EESE” Assessment
(2013) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Zambia
(2003) Government departments and NGOs have gone into partnership with the private sector
. In such partnership, the private sector finances specific activities. The success of such partnerships has depended on: a demonstration of accountability and transparency by the receiving institution, a commitment to corporate responsibility by the private sector partner, clarity in the deliverables and impact of the project.