Global Monitoring Report 2012: South-South cooperation in the context of resource mobilization is defined as concessional loans and grants and technical cooperation provided by a developing country for biodiversity purposes. Globally speaking, South-South Cooperation is estimated to be US$15 billion –US$20 billion a year, and 22 per cent is channeled via multilateral organizations including the United Nations and World Bank. Using the OECD Rio marker for biodiversity as reference, some US$200 million of annual South-South cooperation may be of high relevance to biodiversity purpose. Cuba implemented a total of 23 projects relating to the subject of biodiversity are positive experiences for efficient use of resources. Cuba carried out training and joint projects with Colombia, Venezuela, Dominican Republic, and Mexico. The bilateral Agreements for Sustainable Development signed between the Netherlands, Bhutan, Costa Rica, and Benin have fostered technical and policy exchange with Costa Rica for Bhutan and Benin.
Between 1990 and 2008, world trade expanded fourfold, while South-South trade multiplied by more than 20 times its initial levels over the same period of time. As of 2008, developing countries accounted for around 37 per cent of global trade and nearly three quarters of global growth, with South-South flows making up about half of that total. Economists have predicted that by 2030 South-South cooperation will be one of the main engines of growth, accounting for 57 per cent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP). Several developing countries agree formal programmes with Finance and Planning Ministries, but most developing countries agree to South-South assistance at Head of State or Government level, and provide technical cooperation via line ministers, other public sector agencies or non-governmental organizations.