At its tenth meeting in 2010, the Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted, in decision X/2, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 with 20 global targets known as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, to guide national and international efforts to conserve biodiversity. While all the Targets had potential linkages to health and well-being, Aichi Target 14 focused explicitly on ecosystem services that contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being. Actions that support implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets provided opportunities to improve both global human health and ecosystem health.

In decision XII/21, the COP recognized the value of the “One Health” approach to address the cross-cutting issue of biodiversity and human health, as an integrated approach consistent with the ecosystem approach (decision V/6) that integrates the complex relationships between humans, microorganisms, animals, plants, agriculture, wildlife and the environment.

In decision XIII/6 , the COP requested the Executive Secretary to prepare technical guidance to support the consideration of biodiversity and ecosystem management in the application of the “One Health” approach. The COP (COP), at its twelfth and thirteenth meetings called for strengthened collaboration between the CBD Secretariat, the World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations, to pursue collaborative activities under the joint work programme with the WHO to support the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020.

In decision 14/4, the COP adopted the Guidance on integrating biodiversity considerations into One Health approaches. Parties requested the Executive Secretary, subject to the availability of financial resources, and invited the WHO, in collaboration, as appropriate, with other members of the Inter-agency Liaison Group on Biodiversity and Health as well as other partners, to develop a draft global action plan to mainstream biodiversity and health linkages into national policies, strategies, programmes and accounts.

The 24th virtual session of SBSTTA held in May-June 2021 considered agenda item 9 on biodiversity and health, including a draft Global Action Plan for Biodiversity and Health which aims to support Parties in implementing a biodiversity-inclusive One Health approach and a sustainable recovery from COVID-19. This Global Action Plan for Biodiversity and Health is expected to be adopted by the CBD Parties at the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties.

Rationale of the Global Action Plan for Biodiversity and Health: an illustration