Databases on the costs of IAS eradications
Eradications are particularly useful to consider as a source of data on management costs as they have a clear definition of their objectives and success – something much less simple to define for long-term management programmes. This should support comparisons of the costs of eradications between environments and taxa as our data sources increase. Sources such as the Database on Island Invasive Species Eradications http://diise.islandconservation.org
provide information on eradications undertaken in a sector, but don’t include information on associated costs.
The scientific literature includes a number of published reviews of the measures and costs of different IAS eradications in relation to scale, including of plants (Rejmanek and Pitcairn 2002); forest insects (Brockerhoff et al. 2010); mammals from islands (Martins et al. 2006, Howald et al. 2007, Holmes et al. 2015, 2016) or larger land masses (Robertson et al. 2017). The Gerda website has collated information on the costs of eradicating terrestrial invertebrate pests. (http://b3.net.nz/gerda/index.php
). It would be good to hear of our sources for eradication cost data. There are a range of other project specific reports but these different sources need to be pulled together – something we are working on.
There are clear conclusions from these papers, that the area over which eradication is undertaken is the main determinant of total cost, that there are upper limits to the area over which successful eradications have been achieved, and these vary between different taxa and control methods, and that the costs per unit area vary for different taxa and environments.
However, this literature contains a number of shortcomings, such as under-reporting of failed eradications (Bradshaw et al. 2016), or that very few studies (Gardener et al. 2010) systematically document the cases where eradication could have been applied but was not attempted. However, these reviews document how costs change in relation to area, and record the areas of the eradications. These provide a useful and growing data source on management costs.
Bradshaw, CJA, Leroy, B, Bellard, C, Roiz, D, Albert, C, Fournier, A, Barbet-Massin, M, Salles , J-M, Simard, F, Courchamp, F. (2016). Massive yet grossly underestimated global costs of invasive insects. Nat. Commun. 7, 12986 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12986
Brockerhoff, E.G., Liebhold, A.M., Richardson, B. and Suckling, D.M., (2010). Eradication of invasive forest insects: concepts, methods, costs and benefits. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 40 suppl. S117-S135
Gardener, M. R., Atkinson, R., & Rentería, J. L. (2010). Eradications and people: lessons from the plant eradication program in Galapagos. Restoration Ecology, 18(1), 20-29.
Holmes, N.D., Campbell, K.J., Keitt, B.S., Griffiths, R., Beek, J., Donlan, C.J. and Broome, K.G., 2015. Reporting costs for invasive vertebrate eradications. Biological Invasions, 17(10), pp.2913-2925.
Holmes, N.D., Campbell, K.J., Keitt, B., Griffiths, R., Beek, J., Donlan, C.J. and Broome, K., 2016. Correction: reporting costs for invasive vertebrate eradications. Biological Invasions, 18(10), pp.2801-2807.
Howald, G., Donlan, C., Galván, J.P., Russell, J.C., Parkes, J., Samaniego, A., Wang, Y., Veitch, D., Genovesi, P., Pascal, M. & Saunders, A. (2007). ‘Invasive rodent eradication on islands’. Conservation Biology, 21(5), pp.1258-1268.
Martins, T.L.F., Brooke, M.D.L., Hilton, G.M., Farnsworth, S., Gould, J. & Pain, D.J. (2006). Costing eradications of alien mammals from islands. Animal Conservation, 9(4), pp.439-444.
Rejmánek, M. & Pitcairn, M.J. (2002). ‘When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal.’ Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species, pp.249-253.
Robertson, P.A., Adriaens, T., Lambin, X., Mill, A., Roy, S., Shuttleworth, C.M. and Sutton‐Croft, M., 2017. The large‐scale removal of mammalian invasive alien species in Northern Europe. Pest Management Science, 73(2), pp.273-279.