The third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3) reported that despite many actions taken by Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the 2010 Biodiversity Target was not met. Biodiversity continues to be lost, ecosystems are degraded, and the consequent decline in ecosystem services threatens to undermine human well-being. The GBO-3 reports that urgent actions must be taken during this decade and the next to reduce biodiversity loss and prevent tipping points being reached.

Against this background, COP-10 held in Aichi-Nagoya, Japan, in October 2010, adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, a framework for action by all partners, including 20 ambitious but achievable “Aichi Biodiversity Targets.” The establishment of national targets in line with the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and their integration into updated national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) are key to the implementation of the Strategic Plan.

In Aichi-Nagoya, two new legal instruments were adopted:

  • The Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety was adopted by the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (MOP 5), and
  • The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing was adopted by COP 10.

Several other important decisions were adopted at the Aichi-Nagoya meetings, on:

  • Biodiversity and Climate Change
  • Marine and Coastal Biodiversity.
  • South-South Cooperation,
  • Local Authorities and Biodiversity,
  • Biodiversity for Development and Poverty Eradication,