. In-depth reviews of implementation of the programme of work on Article 10 of the Convention (sustainable use of biodiversity) and application of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
XIV/6.In-depth reviews of implementation of the programme of work on Article 10 of the Convention (sustainable use of biodiversity) and application of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
I.RECOMMENDATION TO THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES
The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice recommends that the Conference of the Parties, at its tenth meeting adopt a decision along the following lines:
The Conference of the Parties
1.Welcomes the recommendations of the Liaison Group on Bushmeat, as contained in annex I to the present decision.
2.Invites Parties and other Governments to:
(a)Implement the recommendations of the Liaison Group on Bushmeat for the conservation and sustainable use of bushmeat, where appropriate, as annexed to this decision, while taking into consideration Article 10(c) as related to customary sustainable hunting practices for the livelihoods of indigenous and local communities;
(b)Further integrate the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into national policies, plans, and strategies for relevant economic sectors, for example through the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines, in order to promote sustainable use of components of biodiversity; and strengthen the implementation of existing plans and the enforcement of legislation;
(c)Develop or further improve criteria, indicators and other relevant monitoring schemes and assessments on the sustainable use of biodiversity, as appropriate; and identify and utilize targets and indicators at the national level that contribute to the relevant targets and indicators of the post-2010 Strategic Plan of the Convention;
(d)Increase human and financial capacity as appropriate for the application of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and other provisions of the Convention related to sustainable use of biodiversity, inter alia, by establishing and enforcing management plans; enhancing cross-sectoral integration and coordination; improving the operationalization of the definition of sustainable use; improving the understanding and implementation of concepts of adaptive management; and combating unsustainable and unauthorized activities;
(e)Address obstacles and devise solutions to protect and encourage customary sustainable use of biodiversity by indigenous and local communities, for example by incorporating customary sustainable use of biological diversity by indigenous and local communities into national biodiversity strategies, policies, and actions plans, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities in decision making and management of biological resources;
(f)Recognize the value of human-influenced natural environments, such as farmlands and secondary forests, that have been created and maintained by indigenous and local communities, and promote efforts in such areas to advance the sustainable use of biodiversity;
(g)Where appropriate, review, revise and update national biodiversity strategies and action plans to further coordinate at the national level and engage different sectors (including, inter alia, energy, the financial sector, forestry, fisheries, water supply, agriculture, disaster prevention, health, and climate change) to fully account for the value of biodiversity and ecosystem services in decision-making;
(h)Strengthen the application of ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation, and the precautionary approach, in particular through adaptive management approaches (including customary management systems by indigenous and local communities, where appropriate, with reference to decision IX/7 on the ecosystem approach) and adequate monitoring, for key economic sectors depending on and impacting biodiversity;
(i)With reference to the programme of work on incentive measures (decisions V/15 and IX/6 as well as related decisions of the Conference of the Parties at its tenth meeting) and national biodiversity strategies and action plans, review and revise, where appropriate, national incentive measures and frameworks with a view to: integrating the sustainable use of biodiversity in production, private and financial sectors; identifying and removing or mitigate incentives that are harmful to biodiversity; strengthening existing incentives that support biodiversity conservation and sustainable use; and creating new incentives that are consistent and in harmony with the three objectives of the Convention and other relevant international obligations;
(j)Encourage, among others, effective market-based instruments that have the potential to support the sustainable use of biodiversity and improve the sustainability of supply chains, such as voluntary certification schemes, green procurement by public administrations, chain-of-custody improvements, application of the polluter-pays principle, and other authentication schemes including markers identifying products of indigenous and local communities;
3.Invites Parties, other Governments, and relevant international and other organizations to:
(a)Make use of the LifeWeb initiative as a clearing-house for financing protected areas and addressing sustainable use strategies within protected areas and buffer zones;
(b)Promote the Business and Biodiversity Initiative as a means to further integrate sustainable use of biodiversity in the private sector;
(c)Encourage the private sector to adopt and apply the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines and compatible provisions of the Convention into sectoral and corporate strategies, standards and practices, and facilitate such efforts of the private sector;
4.Requests the Executive Secretary to:
(a)In order to support current and future livelihood needs and to reduce unsustainable use of bushmeat, develop, through the Liaison Group on Bushmeat and in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and other relevant organizations and based on available case studies, options for small-scale food and income alternatives in tropical and sub-tropical countries based on the sustainable use of biodiversity, and submit a report for the consideration by the Subsidiary Body on Scientifi, Technical and Technological Advice at a meeting prior to the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties;
[(b)Convene, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), based on the Memorandum of Understanding between the secretariats, and other members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, and other relevant international organizations, an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Agriculture and Forestry, including Non-Timber Forest Products, with draft terms of reference as annexed to this decision;]
[Tools for promoting the sustainable use of biodiversity]
1.Notes with appreciation the leading role played by the Government of Japan and the United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies in facilitating and coordinating the development of the Satoyama Initiative;
2.Takes note of the Satoyama Initiative, as described in the Paris Declaration on the Satoyama Initiative (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/14/INF/28), as a [potentially] useful tool to better understand, support or enhance socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes for the benefit of biodiversity and human well-being, and affirms that the Satoyama Initiative is to be used consistent and in harmony with the Convention, internationally-agreed development goals, and other relevant international obligations[, including World Trade Organization obligations];
3.Recognizes and supports further discussion, analysis and understanding of the Satoyama Initiative, the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme, the International Model Forest Network, and other initiatives that include community conserved areas that are developed and managed by local and indigenous communities, as [potentially] useful tools to advance understanding and implementation of customary use in accordance with Article 10(c) and to further disseminate knowledge, build capacity, and promote projects and programmes for the sustainable use of biological resources;
4.Requests the Executive Secretary and invites Parties, other Governments and relevant organizations to support, as appropriate, the promotion of the sustainable use of biodiversity, including the Satoyama Initiative.
5.Requests the Executive Secretary to consider the development of a Memorandum of Understanding for the Satoyama Initiative between the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations University.
II.REQUEST TO THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice requests the Executive Secretary to solicit views from Parties and relevant international organizations on the draft terms of reference for the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group, as annexed to this report, and to submit revised terms of reference to the Conference of the Parties at its tenth meeting, based on the views received.
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL RECOMMENDATIONS TOWARDS A MORE SUSTAINABLE USE OF BUSHMEAT
The Liaison Group on Bushmeat 1 of the Convention on Biological Diversity met in Buenos Aires, from 15 to17 October 2009, and adopted the following recommendations to improve the sustainability of harvesting of bushmeat:
1.Increase capacity to fully evaluate the bushmeat issue for policy and planning. National Governments should evaluate the role of bushmeat and other wild animal products in national and local economies as well as the ecological services provided by wildlife and biodiversity as an essential step towards conserving and sustainably using this resource. This can be done by:
(a)Increasing the visibility of the existing bushmeat market as a precursor to putting its management on a sounder footing;
(b)Increasing capacity to monitor levels of bushmeat harvest and consumption in national statistics to inform improved policy and planning;
(c)Incorporating a realistic and open assessment of wildlife consumption and its role in livelihoods into major policy and planning documents.
2.Engaging the private sector and extractive industries. Wildlife management, including bushmeat species management, should be an essential part of management or business plans for the extractive industries (oil, gas, minerals, timber, etc.) operating in tropical, sub-tropical forest, wetland and savannah ecosystems.
3.Rights and tenure, and traditional knowledge. Access, rights and associated accountability, as well as the responsibility to sustainably manage wildlife resources should be transferred whenever possible to local stakeholders who have a vested interest in maintaining the resources and who can deliver sustainable, desirable solutions. Capacity of these empowered local communities should be built and strengthened to ensure that they have the capacity to exercise these rights. Conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources would be enhanced through the incorporation of traditional knowledge into management and monitoring systems, as well as by favouring the use of the most ecologically friendly (e.g. species-specific), cost-efficient, and humane hunting methods.
4.Review of national policies and legal frameworks. States within the range of bushmeat species are strongly encouraged to review existing policies and legal frameworks related to the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife. Whenever possible, outside strictly protected areas and species, it is recommended to establish policies, capacity, and management systems that support the legal and sustainable hunting of targeted species (i.e. common and fecund). The review should ensure:
(a)The coherence of policy and legal frameworks through mainstreaming conservation and sustainable use of wildlife in the various sectoral and national planning exercises; 5
(b)That management schemes are practical and feasible for harvestable species as well as those in need of strict protection (e.g., endangered species);
(c)Realistic approaches to enforcement in which control measures are consistent with capacity;
(d)Rationalizing legal and regulatory texts to reflect actual practices without surrendering key conservation objectives;
(e)Favouring the harvest of low-risk species (e.g. highly productive species) while promoting trade-offs to enhance protection of high-risk species.
5.Landscape-level management. An effective and coherent network of protected areas is essential to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife, including threatened species. Wildlife populations outside protected areas are also essential and management should be instigated at the highest possible landscape scale.
6.Science. Management decisions should be made based on the best available and applicable science and the precautionary approach. Further research is crucial and better information management is needed. Appropriate monitoring systems of bushmeat harvest and trade should be developed and implemented at national level, and allow for comparability of bushmeat harvest and trade at the regional level. Standard and comparable population status assessment methods should be developed and implemented. New and additional reliable knowledge on used species' populations and on levels of use and trade should be made available for consideration within the IUCN Red listing process.
7.Substitution and other palliative measures. The development of alternative food and income sources is essential as wildlife alone cannot be sustainably used to support current or future livelihood needs, but these palliative measures (farming, ranching, captive breeding, etc.) are unlikely to be effective alone in conserving wildlife resources. In the long term, there is no substitute for proper management of the resource for protection and production, as appropriate.
8.Capacity-building and awareness-raising. To achieve conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources, capacity-building and public awareness need to be raised at national and local levels across a range of themes, including: governance and law enforcement, wildlife monitoring and management, livelihood alternatives, and collaboration across government, private and public sectors.
9.Health Where wildlife hunting and bushmeat trade occur, appropriate public-health information and capacity building should emphasize disease prevention to mitigate risk and protect both human and animal health. In regions with bushmeat trade, sanitary control and biosecurity measures are necessary to prevent the sale of infectious meat or animal products that can contribute to the spread of pathogens (including emerging infectious diseases and parasites) between wildlife, domestic stock and people. Furthermore, wildlife, domestic livestock and human health need to be monitored and legislation, regulations, and enforcement need to be developed and implemented to reduce the threat of epizootics from newly emerging infections.
10.Climate change. Mechanisms such as REDD-plus should take into account the importance of wildlife for maintaining healthy ecosystems and ecological services, and for the permanence of forest carbon stocks and forest adaptation capacity.
11.Special management areas: Specific areas for wildlife management should be designated at national and local levels, similar to permanent forest estates designated to manage timber resources. These may span existing protected area systems and multi-use landscapes (e.g., game-management areas or districts).
1.National and international strategies to address bushmeat. Such strategies could include:
(a)Supporting and strengthening national political will to take action on key bushmeat and existing conservation commitments;
(b)Supporting and strengthening existing international commitments and agreements and encourage new ones concerning the conservation and sustainable use of transboundary and shared wildlife resources.
2.Participatory processes. International community invites national Governments to develop or strengthen participatory and cross-sectoral processes in formulating and implementing the sustainable management and harvesting of bushmeat species.
3.Policy processes. International partners should seek to effectively integrate wildlife conservation strategies for long-term sustainability into relevant internationally supported development policy processes, such as poverty reduction strategies.
4.Impacts of international trade on natural resources. International policy processes and institutions concerning trade and development should take steps to better assess and mitigate impacts of extraction and trade of natural resources such as timber, fish, minerals and oil etc. on wildlife and resulting bushmeat demands.
5.International trade in wild bushmeat. The international community is concerned with the potential threat that a growing international trade in bushmeat may have on wild populations and discourages an international trade in illegally harvested bushmeat.
6.International policy environment. In order to optimize the sustainability of hunting, the international community should support integrated national, transboundary, and local action to build partnerships among organizations and institutions to:
(a)Build enforcement capacity;
(b)Develop and implement protein and income alternatives;
(c)Increase awareness and education regarding bushmeat hunting and trade.These actions taken together have the potential to encourage communities to sustainably manage their wildlife resource and reduce the demand for bushmeat.
7.International science. The international community should encourage ecosystem research to inform future policy, with a focus on natural forest regeneration, including the role of seed-dispersers such as primates and game-birds, DNA bar-coding, keystone species, disease transmission and impacts on climate change.
8.Incentives. Financial mechanisms and payments for ecosystem services such as REDD should take into account the importance of ecosystem functioning and the role of forest fauna in forest health and resilience.
9.Forest certification. Forest certification schemes should take into account the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife to maintain healthy forest ecosystems.
TERMS OF REFERENCE OF AD HOC TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUP ON SUSTAINABLE USE ON AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, INCLUDING NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS
[1.The Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Sustainable Use, drawing on The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) report, the third Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO 3) and other relevant studies, will develop recommendations for the improvement of sectoral policies, international guidelines, certification schemes and best practices for sustainable agriculture and forestry, covering biomass production for all purposes, in the context of the achievement of the objectives and targets of the post-2010 Strategic Plan of the Convention, and the revision of national biodiversity strategies and action plans. The AHTEG will develop its recommendations with a view to support relevant global and regional for a related to sustainable agriculture, agricultural biodiversity, and forestry, and its results will be submitted to the Conference of the Parties at its eleventh meeting.
2.The AHTEG will provide an analysis on how the coherence of global and regional policy frameworks for forestry and agriculture with the sustainable use provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity can provide win-win situations for both biodiversity and the sectors.
3.With regard to the forest sector, the AHTEG will, in collaboration with the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) and also consulting with relevant processes such as FOREST EUROPE, and the Montreal Process, develop recommendations on how criteria, indicators, definitions, and policies of relevant global and regional forum related to sustainable forest management (SFM) can better reflect sustainable use of biodiversity.
4.With regard to the agriculture sector, the AHTEG will develop recommendations for the further improvement of indicators, definitions, and policies for matters relating to the sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity and sustainable agriculture (also considering impacts of agriculture on land and water), such as those available through the FAO, the CGIAR (including Bioversity International and the International Water Management Institute), and relevant ongoing work of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.]
4 The meeting was convened in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC).
5 Including Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP), forest management plans, national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAP), national forest programmes (NFP), nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), national adaptation programmes of action (NAPA), REDD-PIN, national bushmeat action plans, national wildlife management plans and regulations, species-specific national management and conservation plans.