. Agenda item 4: Scientific, technical and technological aspects of the conservation and sustainable use of coastal and marine biological diversity: report of the first meeting of experts on marine and coastal biological diversity and consideration of a draft three-year work plan
AGENDA ITEM 4: SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF COASTAL AND MARINE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: REPORT OF THE FIRST MEETING OF EXPERTS ON MARINE AND COASTAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND CONSIDERATION OF A DRAFT THREE-YEAR WORK PLAN
Recognizing the continued importance of conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity to all countries,
Recognizing the special significance of small island developing States in the global conservation of marine and coastal biological diversity,
Recognizing that the precautionary approach underlies effective use of all coastal and marine living resources,
Recommends to the Conference of the Parties that, in light of the Jakarta Mandate, and in light of the elaboration of the Mandate by the group of experts meeting on coastal and marine biological diversity, held in Jakarta in March 1997:
1. It direct the Executive Secretary to:
undertake the programme of work in the attached Annex;
maintain and develop liaison with partner and other organizations concerned with coastal and marine living resources, including those involved in both conservation and sustainable use of marine living resources, taking into consideration existing memoranda of cooperation between the secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other entities;
utilize to the extent possible the competence of the roster of experts to monitor and moderate the outputs for the program of work;
invite countries, Parties, regional governmental organizations and IGOs to propose contributions to implement specific elements of the programme of work;
2. And that it recognize that there is a cost implication in the programme of work, and budget accordingly.
Annex to Recommendation III/2
Programme element 1. Implementation of integrated marine and coastal area management
Rationale: Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management (IMCAM) constitutes the most effective tool for implementing the Convention with respect to the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity, pollution control and environmental degradation. Such a tool may require implementation at different levels, ranging from the intra-national, or local, through national and regional, or supra-national to the global level.
Operational objective 1.1: To review the existing instruments relevant to IMCAM and their implication for the implementation of the Convention.
(a) To identify existing mechanisms and instruments relevant to IMCAM;
(b) To identify focal points for the implementation of IMCAM at different levels (national, regional and global);
(c) To gather, compare and analyze information provided by the focal points;
(d) To convene meetings involving representatives of stakeholders at different levels; and
(e) To develop and promote as appropriate the implementation of IMCAM at the national and regional levels.
Time schedule and ways and means: The activities will be carried out during the three-year period by the secretariat, with the collaboration of an informal inter-agency task force.
Budgetary implications *
Operational objective 1.2: To develop guidelines for ecosystem evaluation and assessments, paying attention to the need to identify and select indicators, including social and abiotic indicators, that distinguish between natural and human-induced effects.
(a) To identify existing organizations and initiatives;
(b) To promote exchange of information and experience to identify and select key indicators using appropriate mechanism; and
(c) To collaborate with relevant organizations in the preparation of guidelines.
Time schedule and ways and means: The activities should be carried out, under the guidance of the SBSTTA, as part of the work programme on indicators, monitoring and assessment.
Programme element 2. Marine and coastal living resources
Rationale: Very little is currently known about the loss of genetic, species and ecosystem diversity in marine and coastal ecosystems. A significant number of marine species have suffered population decline in recorded history and this process continues. Ecosystems have been degraded and, from the loss of populations, it is reasonable to infer that there has been a consequent loss of genetic diversity. The overall goal is to achieve conservation and long-term sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources in a manner that satisfies human needs and guarantees the integrity of ecosystems.
Operational Objective: To promote ecosystem approaches to the sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources, including the identification of key variables or interactions, for the purpose of assessing and monitoring:
(a) Components of biological diversity;
(b) The sustainable use of such components; and
(c) Ecosystem effects.
(a) To develop collaborative links with relevant organizations and institutions;
(b) To promote exchange of information and experience using appropriate mechanism;
(c) To develop and promote ecosystem approaches compatible with sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources;
(d) To promote the identification of components of the ecosystems which are critical to the functioning and key threats;
(e) To promote capacity-building at national and regional level; and
(f) To carry out a study on the effects of stock enhancement on coastal and marine biological diversity.
Time schedule and ways and means: The activities should be undertaken throughout the three-year period. The information dissemination aspects should be included in the work plan of the clearing-house mechanism. The secretariat will seek to establish an informal inter-agency task force for this work.
Programme element 3. Marine and coastal protected areas
Rationale: Marine and coastal protected areas are useful and important tools of effective biological diversity conservation strategies. Individual protected areas can serve many conservation-related and sustainable-use functions by enhancing critical habitats, ecological features or processes, special or unique sites or features, ecologically representative or typical habitats, and control areas for research and monitoring. To be effective, however, such protected areas have to be integrated into wider strategies for preventing adverse effects to marine and coastal ecosystems from external activities and must take into consideration the sustainable use of resources and the needs of stakeholders, inter alia.
Operational objective 3.1: To facilitate research and monitoring on the value and on the effects of marine and coastal protected areas or similarly restricted management areas on sustainable use of marine living resources;
(a) To collaborate with relevant organizations for the preparation of project proposals;
(b) To work with relevant organizations to identify pilot projects;
(c) To facilitate countries or international/regional organizations in conducting research on the effects of marine and coastal protected areas on population size and dynamics, subject to national legislation; and
(d) To conduct a desk study to gather and assimilate information.
Time schedule and ways and means: The programme should be an ongoing activity, to be carried out by an ad hoc technical expert group under SBSTTA.
Operational objective 3.2: In collaboration with relevant intergovernmental, national and non-governmental organizations, to develop guidance on criteria for, and operational aspects of, marine and coastal protected areas.
(a) To compile research findings on relevant aspects of marine and coastal protected areas through existing relevant literature, bibliographies and information networks;
(b) To facilitate the exchange of information on relevant incentive measures, including through the clearing-house mechanism and through regional workshops;
(c) To assist the development of national and regional capacity-building;
(d) To provide information on relevant legal and institutional issues, having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and other related international agreements;
(e) To assist the development of appropriate education and public awareness programmes at all levels;
(f) To assist information exchange between sites aimed at networking;
(g) To provide guidance on the maintenance and wider application of local and traditional knowledge; and
(h) To identify the linkages between conservation and sustainable use.
Time schedule and ways and means: These should be ongoing activities over the three-year period. The basis for undertaking these activities should be collaboration between the secretariat, under the guidance of SBSTTA, and relevant intergovernmental, national and non-governmental organizations. The creation of an informal task force may be an appropriate mechanism, conducting its work through regular communication and through periodic meetings as required. The clearing-house mechanism will play a key role.
Programme element 4. Mariculture
Rationale: Mariculture offers possibilities for sustainable protein-rich food production and for the economic development of local populations, but poses risks for marine and coastal biological diversity.
Operational objective 4.1: To assess the consequences of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity and promote techniques which minimize adverse impact.
(a) To provide guidance on criteria and methods and techniques which avoid the adverse effects of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity;
(b) Collection and dissemination of information, data, literature and bibliography relevant to the objective and best practices of successful sustainable mariculture; and
(c) Evaluation of the current state of knowledge on the effects of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity.
Time schedule and ways and means: The coordination of this programme of activities within the secretariat creates the need for a professional with specific high-level expertise. This need could probably best be met through the secondment by a Party or specialized institution of an appropriate professional. To be successful and cost-effective, the work would need to draw upon specialist scientific knowledge worldwide. It would thus need to be supported by a specialist inter-agency task force or by the establishment of an ad hoc technical expert group under SBSTTA. Operational aspects thus suggest that this work be undertaken from 1999 onwards.
Programme element 5. Alien species and genotypes
Rationale: While some eradication and control technology options exist for alien species and genotypes in marine and coastal environment, the most effective strategy for limiting their effects on biological diversity is to prevent their introduction.
Operational objective 5.1: To achieve a better understanding of theimpact on biological diversity of the introduction of alien species and genotypes, with particular attention to the characteristics of the species and of the recipient ecosystems.
(a) To analyze and disseminate information, data and case studies on the subject;
(b) To develop collaboration with relevant organizations; and
(c) To ensure exchange of information and experience using appropriate mechanisms.
Time schedule and ways and means: The activities should be undertaken throughout the three year period. The secretariat, under the guidance of SBSTTA, will seek the assistance of relevant organizations through an informal inter-agency task force. In particular, the options will be investigated for collaboration with the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)/IUCN efforts to develop a global strategy and action plan.
Operational objective 5.2: To identify gaps in existing and proposed legal instruments and guidelines related to the introduction of alien species and genotypes, including a process to deal with reckless or deliberate introductions of alien species and genotypes (especially where transboundary effects have occurred).
Parties and other bodies should be requested to provide the Executive Secretary with their views on the linkages between biological diversity-related matters, and on the possible need for additional legal instruments, especially with regard to reckless or deliberate introductions.
Time schedule and ways and means*
Operational objective 5.3: To establish an "incident list" on introductions of alien species through the national reporting process.
To distil references of incidents from the national reports.
Time schedule and ways and means: To be considered by the Conference of the Parties at its fourth meeting, as part of its consideration of the intervals and forms of subsequent national reports. If approved, appropriate guidance to Parties would need to be prepared and this distillation and dissemination would form part of the ongoing work of the national reports unit and of the clearing-house mechanism unit, when receiving national reports from Parties.
Programme element 6. General
Rationale: The Executive Secretary should pursue further collaborative linkages with a wide range of agencies and organizations whose mandates and activities are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biological diversity, in order to avoid unnecessary duplication and to ensure efficiency and cost-effectiveness in carrying out the work.
Operational objective 6.1: To assemble a database of ongoing case studies through a cooperative approach with relevant bodies and organizations, with special emphasis on integrated marine and coastal area management.
(a) To identify sources of relevant information;
(b) To request inputs from countries and from relevant organizations and bodies; and
(c) To carry out desk evaluations of available information and to disseminate the findings.
Time schedule and ways and means: Ongoing activities to be carried out by the secretariat over the three-year period as previously described in programme element 1 above, involving collaboration between the Jakarta Mandate unit and the clearing-house mechanism unit.
Operational objective 6.2: To develop a database of experts, starting from the roster, to be available for the development and implementation of specific elements of national policies on marine and coastal biological diversity, giving full recognition to the importance of taxonomy and following closely the development of the Global Taxonomic Initiative. Special consideration should be given to regional perspectives and the setting up of regional centres of taxonomic expertise, as well as to the taxonomic efforts of other intergovernmental programmes, agencies and relevant institutions.
(a) To maintain and update regularly the database of information on experts on marine and coastal biological diversity nominated to the roster;
(b) To make the information database available through the clearing-house mechanism; and
(c) To promote strengthening taxonomic expertise at regional and national levels.
Time schedule and ways and means: Ongoing activity undertaken by the secretariat.
* To be developed by the Secretariat.