The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) is an international agreement with the overall goal of supporting sustainable agriculture and global food security. The Treaty, which entered into force in 2004, allows governments, farmers, research institutes and agro-industries to work together by pooling their genetic resources and sharing the benefits derived from their use. Facilitated access is granted for the first time at the international level through its Multilateral System and its Standard Material Transfer Agreement to 35 food crops as well as 29 genera forages listed in the Treaty. The fair sharing of benefits arising from the use of these resources is also granted in a multilateral way thanks to the Funding Strategy and the financing of small scale projects, particularly in developing countries.
International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer
The International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer aims to promote the rational collection and sustainable use of genetic resources, to prevent genetic erosion, and to protect the interests of both donors and collectors of germplasm. Among other elements, it sets out minimum responsibilities of collectors, sponsors, curators and users of collected germplasm, in the collection and transfer of plant germplasm. The Code is addressed primarily to governments and is to be implemented in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity and other legal instruments protecting biological diversity or parts of it. The Code, a voluntary one, was adopted by the FAO Conference in 1993, and negotiated through what is now the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, which also has the responsability to oversee its implementation and review.
Guidelines on Access and Benefit-sharing in research projects
The Guidelines are one of the outcomes of the GEF Project “In situ/On farm Conservation and Use of Agricultural Biodiversity (Horticultural Crops and Wild Fruit Species) in Central Asia”, supported by UNEP-GEF and coordinated by Bioversity International. They were developed taking into account the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in order to facilitate the implementation of access and benefit-sharing agreements in the context of the In situ/On farm project. The Guidelines also propose a model prior informed consent agreement, a model transfer material agreement, a model benefit-sharing agreement and a model information-sharing agreement.