2.2 - Indigenous and local communities

Goal 2.2: To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders

  • Goal 2.2
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Target:

Full and effective participation by 2008, of indigenous and local communities, in full respect of their rights and recognition of their responsibilities, consistent with national law and applicable international obligations, and the participation of relevant stakeholders, in the management of existing, and the establishment and management of new, protected areas


Suggested activities of the Parties

  • 2.2.1 Carry out participatory national reviews of the status, needs and context-specific mechanisms for involving stakeholders, ensuring gender and social equity, in protected areas policy and management, at the level of national policy, protected area systems and individual sites.

  • 2.2.2 Implement specific plans and initiatives to effectively involve indigenous and local communities, with respect for their rights consistent with national legislation and applicable international obligations, and stakeholders at all levels of protected areas planning, establishment, governance and management, with particular emphasis on identifying and removing barriers preventing adequate participation.

  • 2.2.3 Support participatory assessment exercises among stakeholders to identify and harness the wealth of knowledge, skills, resources and institutions of importance for conservation that are available in society.

  • 2.2.4 Promote an enabling environment (legislation, policies, capacities, and resources) for the involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders [73]/ in decision making, and the development of their capacities and opportunities to establish and manage protected areas, including community-conserved and private protected areas.

  • 2.2.5 Ensure that any resettlement of indigenous communities as a consequence of the establishment or management of protected areas will only take place with their prior informed consent that may be given according to national legislation and applicable international obligations.

Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary

  • 2.2.6 Make available to Parties case-studies, advice on best practices and other sources of information on stakeholder participation in protected areas

  • 2.2.7 Promote, through the CHM, technical publications and other means, the international sharing of experience on effective mechanisms for stakeholder involvement and governance types in conservation in particular with regard to co-managed protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas and private protected areas.

Key activities include:

  • Review mechanisms for involving stakeholders
  • Implement plans to effectively involve indigenous and local communities
  • Support participatory assessment exercises to identify societal knowledge, skills and resources
  • Promote an enabling environment for the involvement of indigenous and local communities in decision making
  • Ensure that resettlement only takes place with prior informed consent

What is an assessment of indigenous and local community participation?

An assessment of indigenous and local community participation entails an examination of the extent to which participatory mechanisms exist for all levels of decision making regarding protected areas, and an analysis of the actual degree and distribution of participation.

What are participatory assessment exercises?

Participatory assessment exercises are assessments that involve indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders as key actors and leaders. This means not simply consulting stakeholders, but rather engaging with them in meaningful dialogue regarding protected area objectives and management actions.

What is an enabling environment for decision making?

An enabling environment includes the conditions and circumstances under which actions are taken. In this case, an enabling environment for effective participation for indigenous and local communities could include: clear mechanisms for two-way communication, effective avenues for resolving disputes, legal and economic studies that can enable communities to understand the impact of protected area management decisions, and protected area staff with effective and appropriate communication skills.

What is prior informed consent?

Prior informed consent indicates that the consent a person gives meets certain minimum standards. An informed consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and future consequences of an action. In order to give prior informed consent, the individual concerned must possess all relevant facts at the time consent is given. In the context of this goal, this means that indigenous and local communities must fully understand how resettlement will affect their lives, and agree to any resettlement conditions, prior to finalizing any plans.



E-learning module

Module 18: Marine Protected Areas

This module shows how the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas applies in a marine environment, and enables protected area planners to increase marine protection, improve the marine protected area network, and reduce threats to the marine environment.

External forum

Protected areas and governance

For those interested in protected area governance, participation, equity and benefit sharing.

E-learning module

Module 7: Protected area participation

This module covers aspects related to protected area participation (PoWPA Goal 2.2), including participation of indigenous and local communities.

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Article
Governance  is  about  power,  relationships, responsibility  and  accountability.  It  is  about who  has  influence,  who  decides,  and  how decision-­makers  are  held  accountable.
Themes:2.1 Equity and benefit sharing,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
Topics:Governance,Indigenous
5/9/2012
E-learning module
This module shows how the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas applies in a marine environment, and enables protected area planners to increase marine protection, improve the marine protected area network, and reduce threats to the marine environment.
Themes:1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments,1.2 Protected area policy and landscape integration,3.4 Financial sustainability and business planning,1.3 Regional networks and transboundary areas,1.4 Management planning and climate change adaptation,1.5 Protected area threats and restoration,4.2 Management effectiveness assessments,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,3.1 Enabling policy and legal environment,PoWPA Implementation
Topics:Adaptive management,Benefits and values,Multi-sectoral commitees,Best practices,Connectivity,Partnerships and collaboration,Conservation planning,Policy integration,Ecological gaps,Financing,Protected area system master plan,Regional challenges,Governance,Resilience and adaptation planning,Sustainable use,Mainstreaming,Management effectiveness,Training and curricula,Management planning,Marine
6/10/2011
External forum
For those interested in protected area governance, participation, equity and benefit sharing.
Themes:2.1 Equity and benefit sharing,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
5/8/2010
E-learning module
This module covers aspects related to protected area participation (PoWPA Goal 2.2), including participation of indigenous and local communities.
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
5/8/2010
Article
It's an article about the complex links between governance and biodiversity. (30 pages).
Themes:2.1 Equity and benefit sharing,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
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Short guide
This document is about practice pointers in participatory planning and decisionmaking. (24 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
Topics:Participatory planning
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Short guide
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Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,1.4 Management planning and climate change adaptation
Topics:Participatory planning,Freshwater
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Short guide
Socio-economic methodologies best practice guidelines. (12 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Short guide
This publication is about Partnerships “A Conceptual Approach”. (12 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Report
It's a report about Participation and Social Assessment: Tools and Techniques
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Short guide
This publication is about a simple, cost-effective method for involving stakeholders in spatial assessments of threats to biodiversity. (24 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,1.5 Protected area threats and restoration
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Case study
It's a report about a study of modes of governance and categories of protected areas present and future in Burundi. (51 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,2.1 Equity and benefit sharing
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Comprehensive guide
This publication is about shared resources. (268 pages). IUCN.
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities,1.1 Ecological network and gap assessments
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Report
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Short guide
It's an appendix on General Conflict Resolution Guidelines for Protected Areas Management. (5 pages).
Themes:2.1 Equity and benefit sharing,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
Topics:Participatory planning
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Report
This administrative report is about Caribbean natural resources institue. (17 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
Topics:Participatory planning
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Report
This document is about exploring biological diversity, environment and local people’s perspectives in forest landscapes. (106 pages).
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Topics:Participatory planning
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Comprehensive guide
It's a manual about Trade-off Analysis for Participatory Coastal Zone Decision-Making. (112 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Case study
It's a report about review of collaborative management arrangements for Mt. Elgon National Park. (43 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
Topics:Governance,Participatory planning
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Article
It's an article about Bolinao, Northern Philippines: Participatory Planning for Coastal Development. (11 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
Topics:Participatory planning,Marine
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Report
It's a report about indigenous social movements and ecological resilience in Indonesia. (111 pages).
Themes:1.4 Management planning and climate change adaptation,2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Article
It's an article about indigenous land rights in the Amazon ; a landscape approach. (22 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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Brochure
It's a brochure about indigenous peoples and protected areas management. (20 pages).
Themes:2.2 Participation of indigenous and local communities
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