The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity
1. Adopts the programme of work on island biodiversity annexed to
the present decision, as a set of actions addressing characteristics and problems
that are specific to islands;
2. Recognizes that Parties should implement the programme of work
on island biological diversity in the context of nationally determined priorities,
capacities and needs. Activities implemented domestically by Parties will be
prioritized based on country and regionally specific needs, national determination,
legislation, circumstances and priorities, and their biodiversity strategies.
Inclusion of an activity does not mean relevance of that activity to all Parties;
3. Urges Parties, other Governments, international organizations and
other relevant organizations to implement the programme of work primarily through
its incorporation into National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans, and
to mainstream it into national sustainable development strategies;
4. Requests the Global Environment Facility and its implementing agencies
to recognize the programme of work on island biodiversity and its relevance
to developing countries, and in particular least developed countries and small
island developing States, and to provide support for its implementation;
5. Requests the Global Environment Facility to further simplify their
procedures so as to take into account the special circumstances of small island
developing States in implementing the programme of work on island biodiversity;
6. Invites the international community to actively address, during
the fourth replenishment of the Global Environment Facility, the financial
requirements for the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity;
7. Invites donor country Parties, regional development banks and other
financial institutions to assist developing countries, and in particular least
developed countries and small island developing States for the implementation
of the programme of work according to their needs and priorities;
8. Requests Parties to apply the targets and timeframes in the programme
of work on island biodiversity as a flexible framework within which national
and/or regional targets may be developed, according to national priorities
and capacities, and taking into account differences in diversity between countries;
to use existing national indicators or to establish national indicators, where
possible, in accordance with the list of global indicators for assessing progress
towards the 2010 target; and report in the context of the national reports
of the Convention on Biological Diversity. To achieve these targets, the international
community is invited to assist small island developing States by implementing
the recommendations contained in the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation
of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small
Island Developing States, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Millennium
9. Requests the Executive Secretary to assist Parties, and collaborate
with other Governments, international organizations and other relevant bodies,
to implement the programme of work on island biodiversity, as detailed in section
C of the annex to this decision.
10. Further requests the Executive Secretary to identify linkages
between the priority actions of the programme of work on island biodiversity
and all other thematic work programmes and cross-cutting issues under the Convention
on Biological Diversity and to make this available prior to twelfth meeting
of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice;
11. Requests the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on
Article 8(j) and Related Provisions to provide guidance on the implementation
of the programme of work in the context of their work;
12. Agrees, recognizing the critical values of islands for the conservation
of biodiversity and the current alarming rate of loss of island biodiversity,
to give priority in the programme of work to activities that could significantly
contribute to the conservation of island biodiversity;
13. Invites Parties, where applicable, to address the programme of
work on island biodiversity into the current work on national capacity self-assessment;
14. Encourages the development of community-based approaches in the
implementation of the programme of work;
15. Invites Parties to implement relevant activities under this programme
of work in conjunction with corresponding activities under the Mauritius Strategy;
16. Encourages Parties to establish national, subregional, regional
and international island partnerships that bring Governments and civil society
organizations together to increase political, financial and technical support
to accelerate the implementation of the programme of work on island biodiversity;
17. Urges Parties, subject to their national legislation, to implement
the programme of work consistent with Article 8(j) and Related Provisions;
18. Invites the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the Earth System Science
Partnership to collaborate in activities relevant to island biodiversity and
19. Invites the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
to enhance collaboration in activities relevant to land degradation that could
negatively impact island biological diversity;
20. Encourages the World Conservation Union (IUCN) to expand its guidelines
on the use of IUCN Red List categories and criteria to provide further guidance
on addressing specific issues that arise in the listing of island species;
21. Welcomes the offer of Conservation International to provide information
on islands classified as biodiversity hotspots, and invites the United Nations
Food and Agriculture Organization, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre,
UNESCO, Conservation International, Birdlife International, WWF and other relevant
organizations and initiatives to work in partnership with Parties to implement
this programme of work;
22. Requests Parties to regularly monitor progress in implementing
this programme of work and in meeting the global targets and report to the
Conference of the Parties, taking into account the special capacity constraints
of small island developing States.
A. Introduction 1 /
1. The Earth is home to over 100,000 islands, which host more than 500 million
inhabitants. Their combined land and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) cover
more than one sixth of the Earth’s total area. Islands and their surrounding
near-shore marine biodiversity constitute self-contained, bounded ecosystems,
each with their own unique, often very limited, assemblage of biodiversity.
In terms of island biodiversity inheritances, these range from some of the
richest on Earth, with extremely high levels of endemism, to some of the
poorest, with little or no endemism. Both are seriously under threat and
constitute global conservation priorities
2. In terms of those islands with rich biotas, the isolation of island environments
has resulted in the evolution of often endemic and characteristic flora and
fauna. A total of 104 of the 218 Endemic Bird Areas are confined entirely
to islands, 2 / while 36 of the
143 terrestrial Global 200 Ecoregions 3 /
are comprised of islands. Ten of the 34 biodiversity hotspots 4 /
wholly comprise islands, and many of the rest also include islands. No less
than 218 of the 595 individual sites holding the entire global population
of one or more critically threatened species are found on islands. 5 /
A recent global gap analysis of the coverage of terrestrial vertebrate species
within protected areas 6 /
found that of the gaps, most “are montane or insular regions in the tropics.”
3. At the other extreme, some of the smaller low-lying islands and atolls
are among the Earth’s biodiversity “cool spots” in that they have the lowest
biodiversity on Earth and few, if any, endemic species. However, despite
a disproportionate dependence on biodiversity for almost all forms of economic
livelihood on these small islands, a very high percentage of their terrestrial
biodiversity is threatened and in need of some form of protection. 7 /
4. The significance of marine biodiversity within islands has been well recognized 8 /
with over half of the tropical marine biodiversity found in islands and 12
of the 18 centres of endemism, and seven of the ten coral-reef hotspots surround
islands. In terms of cultural diversity, a number of islands, including arctic
islands, are also the home to unique cultures that have developed traditional
resource-management methods that have, in many cases, enabled people to develop
and live in harmony with biodiversity.
5. The programme of work offers a particularly unique opportunity for building
bridges among all islands and all island nations in efforts to conserve,
sustainably use and equitably share island biological diversity.
6. From small islands through to large, from countries that have islands
through to countries that entirely comprise islands, and from large continental
remnants through to remote atolls, there are opportunities and challenges
for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Islands are self-contained
ecosystems with well defined geographical limits that encapsulate fundamental
ecological processes and interactions. Islands incorporate all the existing
thematic areas considered under the Convention, i.e., forests, inland waters,
agricultural land, dry and sub-humid lands, marine and coastal ecosystems,
and mountain ecosystems. The connectivity of ecosystems and the interface
between marine and terrestrial realmswill create specific issues and
opportunities for the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
7. The close connectivity and vulnerability of island ecosystems offers the
opportunity and challenge to design and implement biodiversity conservation
programmes that look beyond the protection of specific species to the integrated
management, sustainable use and conservation of marine, terrestrial and freshwater
ecosystems. The design of integrated programmes for the conservation of island
biodiversity take into account the spatial and temporal interconnectedness
of island ecosystems and human activities from island ridges down to coral
reefs. A holistic approach to the conservation of island biodiversity considers
and addresses the impacts of upstream activities on downstream ecosystems,
such as the siltation of coral reefs due to unsustainable agricultural and
forestry practices in island watersheds. Further, the conservation and sustainable
management of water resources, including hydrologic cycles for the benefit
of human and ecological communities is an essential element of successful
integrated island biodiversity conservation.
8. Because of their scale, and the scope for integrated management of biodiversity,
small islands are microcosms of their continental counterparts, where strategies,
policies and management regimes for sustainable development can be applied,
tested and refined; where the components of cause and effect are more readily
assessed, outcomes more rapidly seen and results more specifically tangible.
Focusing efforts and resources on the conservation and sustainable use of
island biodiversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
from the utilization of island genetic resources can provide rapid progress
towards the reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 and the achievement
of representative systems of protected areas by 2010 in terrestrial and 2012
in marine realms.
9. However, biodiversity can be particularly vulnerable on small and fragile
islands. The vulnerabilities of small islands require not only special but
urgent attention from their inhabitants and the world community. Species
that have evolved on islands have done so free from competition with large
numbers of other species and are, therefore, susceptible to invasions by
alien species. Populations of island fauna and flora tend to be naturally
small, and species often become concentrated in special small areas, where
they are subject to various natural and anthropogenic pressures that endanger
their survival. They have the highest proportion of recorded species extinctions
and continue to be significantly threatened by invasive alien species, climate
change and variability, natural and environmental disasters, land degradation
and land based sources of marine pollution.
10. Islands, in particular small island developing States, constitute a special
case for both the environment and development. As articulated in chapter
17 of Agenda 21 and emphasized in the Barbados Programme of Action, as well
as in the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development,
small island developing States rely significantly on the conservation and
sustainable use of island biodiversity for their sustainable development
and experience even more specific challenges and vulnerabilities. These arise
from the interplay of such socio-economic and environmental factors as small
populations and economies, weak institutional capacity in both the public
and the private sector, remoteness from international markets, susceptibility
to natural disasters and climate change (including, in particular, sea-level
rise), fragility of land and marine ecosystems (particularly affected by
tourism development and unsustainable agriculture and forestry), high cost
of transportation, limited diversification in production and exports, dependence
on international markets, export concentration, and income volatility and
vulnerability to exogenous economic shocks. Traditional resource management
and practices relevant to the sustainable use of island ecosystems are at
risk of breaking down as a result of modern economic and social pressures,
and require actions for revitalization and protection. The Secretary-General
of the United Nations has stated that, among developing countries, small
island developing States, as a group, are amongst the most vulnerable. The
expression of their vulnerabilities often has cumulative effects, further
exacerbating the risks to their biodiversity.
11. Although islands are unique environments in their own right, and are
deserving of a special programme of work under the Convention they also incorporate
the existing programme areas and cross-cutting issues considered under the
Convention and implementation of these programmes should continue as appropriate.
12. Information and input from international forums has also been taken into
account, including particular: (i) decision VII/30 of the Conference
of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (ii) chapter 17
of Agenda 21; (iii) the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States; (iv) the Mauritius Strategy
for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action; (v) the
Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development; and
(vi) the Millennium Development Goals, in particular goal 7.
13. Although it was considered that potential threats from genetically modified
organisms to island biodiversity were extremely important for islands and
island States, no reference has been made to these within the programme of
work, as these issues would be most appropriately addressed under the Cartagena
Protocol on Biosafety.
B. Overall purpose and scope of the programme of work
14. The overall purpose of the programme of work on island biodiversity is
the significant reduction of island biodiversity loss by 2010 and beyond
at global, regional and national levels, through the implementation of the
three main objectives of the Convention, for the benefit of all forms of
life on islands and, in particular, as a contribution to poverty alleviation
and the sustainable development of small island developing States. The implementation
of the programme of work thereby contributes to the objectives of the Strategic
Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Barbados Programme of
Action, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
and the Millennium Development Goals.
15. The programme of work recognizes the uniqueness of island ecosystems
and focuses on addressing characteristics and problems specific to island biological
diversity that make island ecosystems particularly vulnerable to almost all
types of natural, technological and human-related threats. It also recognizes
that island biodiversity is of global significance and, as such, merits increased
attention at the global scale, as its conservation and sustainable use will
produce global benefits. Furthermore, it acknowledges that islands are microcosms
that offer great scope for the application, testing and refinement of a wide
range of conservation tools and approaches, including the ecosystem approach.
16. The programme of work seeks to complement existing thematic work programmes
and other existing initiatives of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
It acknowledges and identifies issues contained in other programmes of work
and cross-cutting issues and notes the rationale for specific activities
that are important for the understanding, conservation and sustainable use
of island biological diversity. Parties are encouraged to apply, where appropriate,
the objectives and activities from these work programmes to the conservation
of island biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and
the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of island
17. The programme of work shall be consistent with any rights or obligations
under existing international agreements.
18. By identifying synergies between this programme of work and other thematic
programmes, conventions and agreements, Parties can strengthen cooperation
and partnerships at the national, regional and international levels. Such
partnerships should be broad-based and ensure the sharing and exchange of
information and relevant trained personnel bearing in mind the necessity
for cross-cultural exchange at the regional level and the involvement and
participation of all stakeholders, including indigenous and local communities,
civil society and the private sector.
19. In addition, this programme of work responds, inter alia, to the
call made by small island developing States, during their regional and interregional
preparatory meetings for the International Meeting to Review the Implementation
of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States, that island biodiversity should be addressed under the
Convention on Biological Diversity in a manner that responds to the unique
characteristics of small island developing States, in particular their vulnerabilities,
and to the threats related to climate change and land degradation. Consequently,
the programme of work is also a contribution to the implementation of the
Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme
of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.
20. In addition to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 7, on environmental
sustainability, this programme of work will contribute to the achievement
of other Millennium Development Goals relating to poverty eradication and
health. While the reference to poverty reduction and health is not explicitly
stated throughout the programme of work, it is understood that the conservation
and sustainable use of island biodiversity will contribute significantly
to food security, sustainable livelihoods, health improvements and human
21. It is important to note that cultural diversity, the traditional knowledge
and practices of indigenous and local communities of many small islands,
including arctic islands, are unique and have special significance for these
communities and need special consideration and integration in this programme
of work. All aspects of the programme of work should be read and implemented
through integrated national programmes with respect for the rights of indigenous
and local communities, subject to national legislation and relevant international
obligations, and with their full and effective participation.
22. The programme of work is intended to assist Parties in establishing national
programmes of work with targeted goals, objectives, and actions, with specific
actors, timeframes, inputs, and expected measurable outputs. Parties may
select from, adapt, and/or add to, the goals, objectives and actions suggested
in the current programme of work according to particular national and local
conditions, and their level of development. Implementation of this programme
of work through National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans should
take into account the ecosystem approach of the Convention on Biological
Diversity as the logical planning and management tool for integral island
policies. In determining national programmes of work, Parties are encouraged
to pay due regard to the socio-economic, cultural and environmental costs
and benefits of various options. In addition, Parties are encouraged to consider
the use of appropriate and adaptive technologies, sources of finance, and
technical cooperation, and to ensure, through appropriate actions, the means
to meet the particular challenges and demands of their island ecosystems.
23. As outlined in the introduction to the programme of work, the scale of
islands provides significant opportunities for the integrated management
of biodiversity. The goals and targets within the programme of work are therefore
closely inter-related. Countries are encouraged to consider implementation
of this programme in an integrated manner and in light of existing plans
and within existing planning and programming cycles.
C. Supporting activities of the Secretariat
24. This programme of work will also require supporting actions from the
Secretariat which will include provision of assistance to the Parties, and
collaboration with other Governments, international organizations and other
relevant bodies, which are specific to the implementation of the programme
of work on islands biodiversity. This will comprise work, inter alia,
(a) Develop a list of, and encourage, potential partners for each of the
goals of the island biodiversity programme of work;
(b) Disseminate information on sources of expertise on islands biodiversity
conservation, sustainable use and benefit sharing relevant to the islands biodiversity
programme of work;
(c) Facilitate links between Parties, partners, experts and
other stakeholders and encourage capacity-building;
(d) Liaise with the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification,
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ramsar Convention,
the Convention on Migratory Species, the World Heritage Convention, the Convention
on International Trade in Endangered Species and other multilateral environment
agreements with a view to identifying and realizing synergies relevant to the
island biodiversity programme of work; and
(e) Ensure the development and maintenance of a web portal on island biodiversity
in support, inter alia, of the above activities.
D. Working definitions
25. The following terms have been clarified in order to facilitate the understanding
and the implementation of this programme of work:
- Global target = desired outcome/results to be achieved within a specific
timeframe. These should be measurable and achievable;
- Priority action = major action that must be implemented and will contribute
significantly to achieving the target. It answers the question, “What
must we do to achieve this target?”.
E. Goals, targets and timeframes, and island-specific
priority actions for the Parties
TIMEFRAME & GLOBAL
ACTIONS FOR THE PARTIES
FOCAL AREA 1: PROTECT THE COMPONENTS OF
Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of island ecosystems, habitats
At least 10%
of each of the island ecological regions effectively conserved
1.1.1. Develop and implement integrated policies and measures
to conserve key terrestrial and marine ecosystems, habitats important
for island biodiversity, societies and economies, taking into account
the close ecological links within and between island marine and terrestrial
Rationale: Islands have many endemic species whose
habitats are restricted to small areas. Island societies depend very
largely on local biodiversity – whether terrestrial, fresh-water
1.1.2. Re-establish components that have been lost from
or whose populations have been reduced within natural ecosystems
1.1.3. Undertake measures to restore at least 15% of
degraded island ecosystems
Areas of particular importance to island biodiversity
are protected through comprehensive, effectively managed and ecologically
representative national and regional protected area networks
and establish, as appropriate, comprehensive, representative and effectively
managed national and regional systems of protected areas taking into
account issues of resilience, ecological and physical connectivity to
conserve viable populations of threatened, endemic, and ecologically
or culturally important island species. This
should be done with the full respect for the rights of indigenous and
local communities and relevant stakeholders and their full and effective
participation, consistent with national law and applicable international
Rationale: Many species on islands are often either
locally endemic, restricted in range, threatened, or all three, and
are not likely to survive without legal protection.
GOAL 2 : Promote the conservation of
island species diversity
of island species of selected taxonomic groups restored, maintained,
or their decline substantially reduced
Status of threatened island species
2.1.1. Develop and implement
conservation measures and policies, including protection, and where needed,
recovery of populations of threatened, endemic, or ecologically or culturally
important species and recovery plans.
Rationale: Key issue for island
biodiversity. Continued loss of island biodiversity is of global importance.
Many species have critical ecosystem roles, or are or social or cultural
significance to islanders.
2.2.1. Compile detailed inventories of island
species, assess their conservation status, including the main threat
criteria, and develop the taxonomic expertise necessary to facilitate
Rationale: Many island species occur in very small
populations. The transition from satisfactory conservation status
to threatened status can occur with great rapidity.
GOAL 3 : Promote the conservation of
island genetic diversity
Target 3.1: Genetic diversity
of crops, livestock, and other valuable island species conserved, and
associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained
3.1.1. Develop and
implement measures to strengthen in situ or on-farm conservation of wild
plants and animals and traditional crops and associated knowledge of
indigenous and local communities, recognizing the widespread use of land-races
of crops and stock strains on islands
Rationale: Island communities often have unique human
cultures that have considerable knowledge of local biodiversity and
have developed a wide range of local crop and domestic stock varieties.
3.1.2. Develop national and regional gene-pools
and gene-banks for the conservation of genetic material of significance
to the islands for food sources and health care enhancement and food
security and/or that address threats to the high levels of island endemism
Rationale: Endemism and local land races of island
species provide a unique and irreplaceable source of genetic resources.
PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE
GOAL 4 : Promote sustainable use and
Target 4.1: Island biodiversity-based products are derived from sources that
are sustainably managed, and production areas managed, consistent with
the conservation of biological diversity
| 4.1.1. Remove subsidies that encourage unsustainable use of island biodiversity
and where livelihoods are resource-based, support the development of sustainable
Rationale: Subsidies and other economic incentives may have very wide-reaching
and rapid detrimental effects on biodiversity in islands. Island species
are often restricted to very small populations that are quickly impacted
by unsustainable practices.
Target 4.2: Unsustainable
consumption of island biological resources and its impact upon biodiversity
4.2.1. Adopt measures to ensure
sustainable management of coastal and marine biodiversity, with due regard
to the conservation of threatened, endemic, ecologically and/or culturally
important island species, to prevent, inter alia, over-exploitation
and destructive practices
Rationale: Island species are often restricted to
very small populations that are quickly impacted by unsustainable
4.2.2. Adopt measures to promote the sustainable use
of terrestrial and freshwater resources in islands
Rationale: Island communities are very largely dependent
on local biodiversity.
4.2.3. Adopt and apply strategies to sustainably use
agroecosystems on islands with biodiversity of importance to the ecological
integrity of island societies and economies through efficient and sustainable
agricultural production, and ensure food security through diversification
of agriculture, alternative use of crops, improved husbandry, integrated
crop-pest management, irrigation and water management, and the use
of appropriate technologies.
Rationale: Island agroecosystems include many unique
varieties and land races. Island communities are very largely dependent
on local biodiversity.
4.2.4. Develop, adopt and apply strategies appropriate
to islands to sustainably use managed forest ecosystems with biodiversity
of importance to the ecological integrity of island societies and economies
through improved production and harvesting methods, integrated pest
management, water management, fire control, non-timber resources and
the use of appropriate technologies.
Rationale: Island forests typically contain species
and assemblages that are unique, and many of them provide island
peoples with food, medicine and fertilizer.
4.2.5. Promote implementation of sustainable
tourism best practices appropriate to islands.
Rationale: Many island economies are based on tourism.
No species of wild flora and fauna on islands is endangered by international
4.3.1. States not yet parties
to accede to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and all States implement that Convention.
Rationale: A number of island States are not yet
Party to CITES. The economic circumstances of islands, combined with
their unique biodiversity, tend to encourage the trade in rare organisms.
4.3.2. Develop and enforce measures to stop illegal,
unreported and unregulated harvesting and trading of endangered species
of wild flora and fauna.
Rationale: The high levels of endemism on islands
make species more vulnerable to global extinction through illegal
4.3.3. Manage trade in those species not covered by
CITES to ensure that their wild populations are sustained
Rationale: Island species are often not listed in
FOCAL AREA 3: ADDRESS THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
GOAL 5 : Pressures from habitat
loss, land-use change and degradation, and sustainable water use, reduced
Target 5.1: Rate
of loss and degradation of natural habitats in islands significantly decreased
(target 5.1 of the 2010 framework)
5.1.1. Develop and implement
integrated land and water use plans that take into account ecological
and physical connectivity and important biodiversity areas.
Rationale: Island ecosystems frequently cover small
areas and may be highly fragmented, and connectivity of habitats
has become increasingly limited under anthropogenic pressure. Distances
from the centre of the island to the ocean are often short, and impacts
on biodiversity in one area are often rapidly reflected in nearby
5.1.2. Develop and apply environmental and socio-economic
impact assessment methods prior to land-use conversion such as for
agriculture, human settlements, mining, logging, infrastructure development,
and tourism and military activities.
Rationale: Impact assessment is particularly important
when large fractions of remaining ecosystems can be affected by infrastructure
development or other human activities.
Control threats to island biological diversity from invasive alien
Target 6.1: Pathways for major potential alien
invasive species are identified and controlled on islands
6.1.1. Establish effective control systems at national island
borders and between and within islands to prevent the movement of invasive
6.1.2. Collaborate to identify and address pathways for movement of
invasive alien species at the island, national, regional and global
6.1.3. Develop and implement measures for the early detection and rapid
response to the introduction or establishment of invasive alien species
in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems
Rationale: This is one of the most important issues for island biodiversity,
which needs urgent, concerted and sustained action.
Target 6.2: Management plans in place and
implemented for major alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats
| 6.2.1. Develop and implement prevention, eradication and management plans
for long-term management of priority invasive alien species. These plans
should include, provisions for the, elimination or control of pathways
that lead to the introduction and spread and re-invasion of these species
6.2.2. Enlist the support and cooperation of all sectors of society
for appropriate prevention, eradication and management of alien invasive
Rationale: This is one of the most important issues for island biodiversity,
which needs urgent, concerted and sustained action.
GOAL 7: Address challenges to island biodiversity
from climate change , and pollution
Target 7.1: Resilience of the components of
biodiversity to adapt to climate changein islands maintained
7.1.1. Research and implement adaptation and mitigation measures in land-use
and coastal zone planning and strategies to strengthen local-level biodiversity
resilience to climate change
Rationale: Island biodiversity is particularly threatened by climate change,
which could have a major impact on island ecosystems.
7.1.2. Create where feasible viable national systems of protected areas
that are resilient to climate change
Target 7.2: Pollution
and its impacts on island biological diversity significantly reduced
and implement measures to prevent and reduce the impact of pollution
and waste, also by developing and implementing pollution and waste management
plans, including contingency plans, with special attention to solid and
Rationale: Islands are largely coastal communities,
where it is particularly difficult to dispose of wastes without impacting
biodiversity. The siting of landfills, the disposal of liquid wastes
and the uptake of solid wastes and plastics by marine organisms are
all of considerable significance to islands.
7.2.2. Develop and implement watershed integrated management
to prevent siltation and run-off impacts on island coastal ecosystems
7.2.3. Implement measures to prevent eutrophication
of island coastal ecosystems caused by, inter alia, wastewater
and agricultural run-off and infiltration
FOCAL AREA 4: MAINTAIN GOODS AND SERVICES
FROM BIODIVERSITY TO SUPPORT HUMAN WELL - BEING
GOAL 8 : Maintain capacity of island
ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods
Target 8.1: Capacity of island ecosystems
to deliver goods and services maintained or improved
8.1.1. Develop policies, programmes and actions
to ensure the capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services
8.1.2. Understand and promote the role of island ecosystems and
habitats in providing ecosystem services that prevent or mitigate the
impacts of natural or anthropogenic disasters and extreme events, and
protect islands, island biodiversity and island communities
Rationale: Disasters tend to affect significant fractions of the
area of islands, and integrated management can provide mitigation .
| Target 8.2: Biological resources that support sustainable
livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor
people living on islands, maintained
8.2.1. Develop policies, programmes and actions to ensure
the capacity of island ecosystems to deliver goods and services and biological
resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and
health care, especially of poor people
Rationale: Island communities are largely depedent on local biodiversity
for food and livelihoods
FOCAL AREA 5: PROTECT TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
GOAL 9: Maintain socio-cultural diversity
of indigenous and local communities on islands
Target 9.1: Measures to
protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices associated
with island biological diversity implemented, and the participation
of indigenous and local communities in activities aimed at this promoted
9.1.1. Recognize and protect island traditional
knowledge, innovations and practices which improve the understanding,
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
9.1.2. Develop and implement measures and legislation,
where appropriate and in keeping with national laws and relevant international
obligations, for the respect and protection of indigenous and local
communities rights over their traditional knowledge innovations and
|Target 9.2: Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
regarding island biodiversity respected, preserved and maintained, the
wider application of such knowledge, innovations and practices promoted
with the prior informed consent and involvement of the indigenous and
local communities providing such traditional knowledge, innovations and
practices, and the benefits arising from such knowledge, innovations
and practices equitably shared
9.2.1. Develop and implement ways and means
to share in a fair and equitable way with indigenous and local communities
the benefits arising from use of their traditional knowledge, innovations
Rationale: Island communities have extensive knowledge of local biodiversity
and traditional practices related to its conservation and use, but both
knowledge and practices are vulnerable to social change misuse and misappropriation.
FOCAL AREA 6: ENSURE THE FAIR AND EQUITABLE SHARING OF BENEFITS ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES
GOAL 10 : Ensure the fair and equitable
sharing of benefits arising out of island genetic resources
All access to genetic resources from islands is in line with the
Convention on Biological Diversity and its relevant provisions and,
as appropriate and wherever possible, with the International Treaty
on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other applicable
10.1.1. Improve the knowledge
base of genetic resources
Rationale: Island biodiversity is unique – and the same remark holds
for the genetic resources, but
Target 10.2: Benefits arising
from the commercial and other utilization of island biodiversity genetic
resources shared in a fair and equitable way with the island countries
providing such resources in line with the CBD and its relevant provisions
10.2.1. Establish administrative, legislative
and/or regulatory measures and systems in line with the Convention to
ensure access to genetic resources, in particular those endemic to islands,
and ensure that benefits arising from their utilization are fairly and
Rationale: Island biodiversity is unique – and the same remark
holds for the genetic resources, but in general, very little is known
of the genetic diversity of island organisms.
FOCAL AREA 7: ENSURE PROVISION
OF ADEQUATE RESOURCES
Parties have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and technological
capacity to implement the Convention
Target 11.1: New and additional financial resources are allocated to
all islands, in particular small islands developing States and for developing
country Parties, to facilitate the effective implementation of this programme
of work and, in general, their commitments under the Convention in accordance
with Article 20
11.1. Develop and strengthen partnership
at all levels and across sectors to finance the implementation of national
biodiversity strategies and action plans and the programme of work
11.1.2. Provision of additional financial resources from the
financial mechanism of the Convention for developing country Parties
in accordance with Article 20
11.1.3. Assess, develop and implement a range of conservation finance
mechanisms at the local, national and international levels
Technologies are transferred to developing country Parties, in particular
small island developing States, to allow for the effective implementation
of this programme of work and, in general, their commitments under the
Convention, in accordance with Article 20, paragraph 4
11.2.1. Identify and develop or transfer knowledge,
science and technology appropriate to islands for the conservation and
sustainable use of island biodiversity
1 1.2.2. Develop island-based technology to support conservation
and sustainable use of biodiversity
| Target 11.3: Capacity of islands to implement this programme
of work on island biological diversity and all its priority activities
is significantly strengthened
11.3.1. Where appropriate, strengthen the capacity
to develop and implement legal and other mechanisms that support this
programme of work
11.3.2. Promote the sharing of best practices within and among
islands, and enhance learning opportunities for all relevant groups,
including governments, non-governmental organizations and indigenous
and local communities, to accelerate effective implementation of this
programme of work
11.3.3. Develop and implement effective communication and public
awareness and education programmes at all levels, to promote the programme
of work on island biodiversity, taking into account local capacity, language
11.3.4. Adopt an integrated, inter-disciplinary and participatory
approach at all levels of planning, management, inventory, monitoring,
and governance involving all stakeholders related to the understanding,
conservation and sustainable use of island biodiversity
11.3.5. Develop the capacity for a national and regional biodiversity
11.3.6. Strengthen regional cooperation particularly between small
island developing States and developed countries in the same region
* Noting that not all Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity are
also Parties to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources.
LIST OF SUGGESTED SUPPORTING ACTIONS FOR PARTIES
This appendix provides a list of suggested supporting actions for the Parties,
and is intended to be a menu of actions from which Parties may choose when
implementing this programme of work.
GOAL 1 10 /
Priority action 1.1.1
18.104.22.168. Identify, classify, map, and prioritize island ecosystems and sensitive
areas important for biodiversity and/or for the maintenance of ecosystem
goods and services, with the full and effective participation of indigenous
and local communities, taking into account practical issues of connectivity
and implementation of conservation activities.
22.214.171.124. Develop, implement and enforce through a participatory process,
legislation and management plans for the conservation of important ecosystems
and habitats, engaging all relevant stakeholders.
126.96.36.199. Establish efficient local, national, and regional ecosystem monitoring
188.8.131.52. Facilitate participatory workshops on conservation legislation
for all relevant stakeholders to develop long term local support and commitment
184.108.40.206. Improve understanding of ecological processes on and around islands,
including isolation and fragmentation of habitats such as, seamounts, cold
water coral reefs, hydrothermal vents, and cold seeps in conserving biodiversity.
Priority action 1.1.2
220.127.116.11. Develop and implement appropriate techniques and guidelines through
reviewing and monitoring restoration projects globally.
18.104.22.168. Identify and undertake rehabilitation of natural terrestrial ecosystems
from which key components have been lost or significantly reduced, in cooperation
with local, traditional, and indigenous experts to identify key vegetation
components that have been lost or significantly reduced.
22.214.171.124. Re-establish animal species in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems
from which they have been lost or significantly reduced.
126.96.36.199. Re-establish depleted species into marine ecosystems (e.g. artificial
reefs, coral transplanting and species restocking).
188.8.131.52. Develop and implement methods to protect endangered species in
their island environments and to enhance or re-establish populations that
have sustained extensive declines.
184.108.40.206. Use restoration techniques in order to foster and reinforce natural
processes, as appropriate.
220.127.116.11. Recognize, encourage and facilitate restoration initiatives by
indigenous and local communities, including through policies, legislation,
technical assistance and financial support for community based initiatives.
18.104.22.168 Explore the possibility of documenting traditional knowledge, innovations
and practices relevant to local species, taking on board the work of the
Ad Hoc Open-Ended Inter-Sessional Working Group on Article 8(j) and related
provisions while developing technical guidelines for such activities, with
the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities,
consistent with Article 8(j).
Priority action 1.1.3
22.214.171.124 Develop practical criteria for classifying degraded island ecosystems
and selecting priority ecosystems for restoration, based on
their conservation and ecosystem service value and impact on other ecosystems
126.96.36.199 Systematically compile existing and new data on the status and trend
of degraded island ecosystems. Establish a baseline measure
of the extent of degraded island ecosystems as a means of determining progress
towards restoration targets.
188.8.131.52 Restore selected island ecosystems through control and management
or, where feasible, the eradication of invasive alien species.
184.108.40.206 Restore degraded mangrove, seagrass and coral reef ecosystems.
220.127.116.11 Recognize, encourage and facilitate ecosystem restoration initiatives
by indigenous and local communities, through effective measures
that could include policies, legislation, technical assistance and financial
support for community-based initiatives.
Priority action 1.2.1
18.104.22.168. Where national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs)
do not exist or are not inclusive of protected areas, prepare and implement
management and conservation plans for protected areas and micro-reserves,
including community-based management plans.
22.214.171.124. Develop and apply active conservation methods that integrate ex
situ, if appropriate, and in situ conservation.
126.96.36.199. Recognize, promote and establish marine, coastal and terrestrial
protected areas using a broad set of governance types, including innovative
types such as co-managed protected areas and community-based conserved
areas and by:
(a) Working with traditional, indigenous and local experts to identify
and promote effective protected area governance options;
(b) Using international legal designations (such as Ramsar and World Heritage)
to leverage support for island protected areas;
(c) Developing and conducting outreach activities to inform indigenous
and local communities and other stakeholders on the benefits and importance
of protected areas;
(d) Empowering stakeholders in resource management and promoting community-based
(e) Establishing partnerships with other governments, NGOs, and/or indigenous
and local communities to assist governments to build representative and resilient
protected area networks.
188.8.131.52. Support integrated management of coastal and marine protected areas,
and the enhancement of ecosystem resilience and recovery.
184.108.40.206. Integrate climate change adaptation measures when establishing
networks of island protected areas.
220.127.116.11. Identify and protect areas of significance to migratory species
18.104.22.168 Consider ratification or accession to the Convention on Migratory
Species and/or its subsidiary agreements.
22.214.171.124. Encourage the establishment of transboundary marine protected areas
where appropriate, consistent with the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea.
Priority action 2.1.1
126.96.36.199 Identify, map, and prioritize areas containing native threatened, 11 endemic,
and/or culturally important species working closely with traditional,
indigenous and local experts and communities.
188.8.131.52 Develop and implement habitat protection, management, and if necessary,
species reintroduction strategies giving priority to in situ activities.
184.108.40.206 Adopt measures to prevent unsustainable harvesting.
220.127.116.11 Collaborate with local and indigenous and local communities to develop
and apply active conservation methods that integrate both ex
situ and in
18.104.22.168 Implement inter-island translocation of threatened species, especially
within archipelagos, in cases where this will improve chances for
survival, and conduct risk assessment about hybridization and out-breeding
processes before implementation.
22.214.171.124 Consider, where appropriate, economic and other forms of incentives
that encourage the conservation of threatened endemic, or ecologically
or culturally important species by private sector, NGOs, and indigenous
and local communities, giving priority to in situ activities.
126.96.36.199 Maintain as appropriate/necessary threatened island species under ex
situ conditions, preferably in the country and/or region
188.8.131.52 Improve scientific capacity in conservation biology tools for recovery
of endangered species, including population genetic studies as
part of recovery efforts.
184.108.40.206 Promote the gathering of the maximum genetic diversity in the samples
to be stored in ex-situ collections at population and species
levels. 12 /
220.127.116.11 Understand delayed response processes of species responding to degradation,
loss and fragmentation of insular habitats.
18.104.22.168 Develop and implement recovery plans for selected single, multiple
or region-wide island endangered species in collaboration with
indigenous and local communities, giving particular priority to species most
at risk of extinction, those that are endemic, and species that will provide
the broadest range of benefits.
22.214.171.124 Develop protocols for translocation of island endemics threatened
by invasive alien species to different islands or new locations
within the same island
Priority action 2.2.1
126.96.36.199 Compile and/or update maps and undertake censuses of all native threatened
endemic, and/or culturally important species.
188.8.131.52 Undertake studies and provide baseline data and information on marine
species, spawning and breeding sites.
184.108.40.206 Survey and assess known and potential biodiversity hot spots, with
rapid assessments of components of island biodiversity.
220.127.116.11 Undertake taxonomic studies or revisions of important island taxa,
including marine, freshwater and terrestrial species.
18.104.22.168 List all endangered island species that are stored in ex situ collections.
22.214.171.124 Document traditional use with the full and effective participation
and prior informed consent of indigenous and local communities, consistent
with Article 8(j).
126.96.36.199 Promote studies on key species life histories with special emphasis
on conservation biology tools and approaches to assist active recovery efforts.
188.8.131.52 Understand the dynamics of key island populations and ecological
communities, and what constitutes an adequate area of key habitat to ensure
184.108.40.206 Assess genetic diversity and differentiation within and among island
populations of wild flora and fauna.
220.127.116.11. Improve the infrastructure and resources for data and information
collection, management and exchange including:
- Informatics tools to provide easy access to data, repository collections
and identification reference materials;
- Regional, national and local capacity, where appropriate, to house and
maintain repository collections of voucher specimens and other reference
specimens with the participation of indigenous and local communities.
18.104.22.168. Provide taxonomic training and prepare guides to enable researchers
to identify poorly known biological groups, coral species and other associated
22.214.171.124. Undertake monitoring of those species at risk, especially, at a
minimum, all critically endangered and endangered species.
Priority action 3.1.1
126.96.36.199 Support regional, subregional, national and local efforts to conserve
the genetic diversity of crops and
livestock on farms and of useful wild species in their natural habitats.
188.8.131.52 Integrate in situ and ex situ strategies for conservation
of genetic diversity.
184.108.40.206 Identify and support mechanisms for the restoration of lost germplasm
and associated information to communities
220.127.116.11 Support projects of indigenous and local communities to perpetuate
and revitalize customary use of wild
species and traditional crops and livestock in accordance with traditional
cultural practices that are compatible with in situ conservation and/or
sustainable use requirements.
18.104.22.168 Develop, with the full and effective participation of indigenous
and local communities, processes and
mechanisms to facilitate the return of genetic resources held in ex situ collections
to their ecosystems of origin, with the view to assisting in
initiatives of indigenous and local communities.
Priority action 3.1.2
22.214.171.124 Develop capacity to establish and maintain gene banks/genetic resources
centres, including for aquatic/marine species, crops,
and livestock, subject to Article 8(j).
126.96.36.199 Develop a mechanism that enables and facilitates the development
of regional gene banks/genetic resources centres to
serve those islands that lack the resources and infrastructure to establish
and maintain gene banks.
188.8.131.52 Ensure the placement of gene banks/genetic resources centres in
least vulnerable areas and where possible, maintain stocks in duplicate
Priority action 4.1.1 (comes from 6.1)
184.108.40.206 Develop and implement policies and a legal framework to facilitate
the removal of subsidies that encourage unsustainable exploitation of island
biodiversity, including, inter alia, the following actions:
(a) Increase awareness of policy makers, legislators and the private sector
on the impacts of subsidies on island biodiversity.
(b) adopt/encourage measures to help eradicate over-exploitation of threatened
species and other species with an unfavourable conservation status (e.g.,
seabirds, marine turtles and dugong).
(c) Assess the effectiveness of policies designed to make economic activities
sustainable on islands, and use socio-economic and scientific knowledge to
develop them further.
(d) Understand how island-specific economic policies can be incorporated
in over-arching trade, tourism and environmental governance.
220.127.116.11 Adopt, promote and enforce the use of environmentally friendly technologies
in all production processes.
18.104.22.168 Support indigenous and local communities in developing sustainable
resource-based livelihoods and economic activities, including appropriate research
22.214.171.124 Understand how biodiversity is affected by pressures resulting from
economic activities including tourism, agriculture, forestry and fisheries,
which are intensified in small island environments.
126.96.36.199 Assess the current and potential contribution of biodiversity to
island peoples in terms of sustaining livelihoods, economic activity and cultural
Priority action 4.2.1
188.8.131.52. Develop and implement participatory standards and protocols in establishing
measures for the sustainable utilization of marine-based resources.
184.108.40.206 Establish and ensure compliance with frameworks on unsustainable
fishing gears and practices that severely impact
vulnerable marine and coastal ecosystems, taking into account sustainable customary
resource use of indigenous and local communities.
220.127.116.11 Develop an updated assessment of fishing gears and practices.
18.104.22.168 Assess and promote new techniques to help alleviate fishing pressures
on coastal ecosystems.
22.214.171.124 Promote the use of gears and techniques that minimize by-catch of
126.96.36.199 Develop and implement fishery management plans to control pressure
on resources and habitats, ensure stock replenishment
and prevent loss of biodiversity/habitats, taking into account
user’s rights, zoning (including setting of no take zones), drawing on traditional
and science-based knowledge.
188.8.131.52 Encourage the development and implementation of environmentally
friendly and socially fair and equitable certification
of marine biodiversity-based products.
184.108.40.206 Promote the establishment of marine no-take zones to enhance replenishment
of fishery resources.
220.127.116.11 Address the impacts of unsustainable aquaculture and promote sustainable
aquaculture practices ensuring opportunities
for the participation of indigenous and local communities.
18.104.22.168 Establish effective participatory monitoring, control and surveillance
systems to ensure compliance with regulations
by users of coastal and marine resources, at the local, national and regional
22.214.171.124 Remove harmful subsidies that encourage unsustainable exploitation
of marine and coastal biodiversity, or irreversible
loss of critical habitats.
126.96.36.199 Support integrated and participatory policy development, planning
and management (for example IMCAM) of coastal
and marine resources with adjacent watersheds, including farming systems.
188.8.131.52 Support and strengthen the capacity of governments, indigenous and
local communities and other stakeholders to sustainably
manage coastal and marine resources and to document sustainable
Priority action 4.2.2
184.108.40.206 Work with civil society, the private sector, and local leaders to
enable indigenous and local communities to
develop and/or implement adaptive community-management systems, through participatory
processes, to conserve and sustainably use terrestrial and
freshwater biological diversity, where appropriate.
220.127.116.11 Support and strengthen the capacity of indigenous and local communities
to sustainably manage terrestrial and freshwater
resources and to document sustainable practices.
18.104.22.168 Establish effective monitoring, control and surveillance systems
to ensure compliance with regulations by users
of terrestrial and freshwater resources, at the local, national and regional
22.214.171.124 Provide incentives 13 /
to encourage sustainable use of terrestrial and
freshwater biodiversity in islands and remove subsidies that encourage unsustainable
exploitation or habitat destruction.
126.96.36.199. Develop effective and generally accessible information systems and
management strategies for terrestrial and freshwater resources.
188.8.131.52. Promote implementation and monitoring of integrated and sustainable
land use and water resources management strategies and practices.
Priority action 4.2.3.
184.108.40.206 Develop and implement, through a participatory process, a sustainable
and integrated agriculture development plan, including:
- The use of knowledge, practices and innovations of indigenous and
- Production and use of traditional crops and livestock, and associated
- Sustainable use of medicinal plants and maintenance of home gardens;
- Revitalization of sustainable farming systems aiming to prevent land
degradation and increase productivity through
agroforestry techniques and other soil conservation practices;
- Application of integrated pest management methodologies and techniques
in agricultural production;
- Protection and enrichment of trees and arboreal biodiversity within
agroforestry and cropping systems;
- Efficient and sustainable agricultural production to ensure food security.
220.127.116.11 Establish strong collaborative partnerships and networks at the
local, national, regional and international
levels in order to undertake studies and projects advancing sustainable agriculture
18.104.22.168 Address land tenure issues where relevant to the development of
sustainable farming systems.
22.214.171.124 Identify market opportunities at the local, national, and international
level to support the revitalization
of sustainable agricultural production systems and consistent with international
instruments, promote fair and equitable access to these markets for indigenous
and local communities.
126.96.36.199 Identify key components of biological diversity in agricultural
production systems responsible for
maintaining natural processes and cycles; monitor and evaluate the effects
of different agricultural practices and technologies on these components and
encourage restoration and other practices to attain appropriate levels of biological
188.8.131.52 Compile, in collaboration with FAO and other relevant bodies and
organizations, and disseminate through
the clearing-house mechanism and other means:
(a) Guidelines/tool kits geared towards the development of sustainable
(b) Case-studies, lessons learned and best-practice guidance on sustainable
Priority action 4.2.4.
184.108.40.206 Develop and implement, through a participatory process, a sustainable
forestry plan, integrating, where appropriate,
the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous
and local communities, subject to Article 8(j):
- Sustainable forestry systems aiming to prevent land degradation and
increase productivity through appropriate
techniques and soil conservation practices.
- Sustainable use of medicinal plants and other non-timber forest resources.
- Application of integrated pest management methodologies and techniques.
- Use of fire management and prevention tools and techniques for maintaining
and enhancing biological diversity within managed forests.
220.127.116.11 Develop plans for sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems
and ensure sustainability of fuelwood harvests.
18.104.22.168 Address land tenure issues relevant to the development of sustainable
22.214.171.124 Establish strong collaborative partnerships and networks at the
local, national, regional and
international levels in order to undertake studies and projects advancing
sustainable forestry in islands.
126.96.36.199 Conduct research and extension activities on the propagation,
production and use of native and endemic forest species,
and associated traditional knowledge, where applicable,
to maintain the diversity of native species.
188.8.131.52 Support community-based reforestation projects using native species
that enhance island biodiversity.
Priority action 4.2.5.
184.108.40.206 Mainstream biodiversity into the integrated planning, strategies,
policies and implementation for
all tourism and tourism-related projects. Include community-based initiatives,
220.127.116.11 Develop and promote specific guidelines and responsible codes
for all tourism activities, including socio-cultural
and environmental impact assessments, sustainable water
use, energy management, waste generation and disposal, and construction
in order to have a real benefit for biodiversity conservation,
taking into account: the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism
Development, the Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines on Cultural, Environmental
and Social Impact Assessment, and guidelines for integrating biodiversity
considerations in environmental impact assessment and strategic
18.104.22.168 Promote networks of island destinations respectful of biological
diversity and develop an island
forum on innovation supporting biodiversity and responsible tourism.
22.214.171.124 Promote and facilitate partnerships between tourism stakeholders,
operators, and indigenous and
local communities to promote sustainable tourism.
126.96.36.199 Support pilot tourism projects in island tourist destinations
that favour conservation of local biodiversity.
188.8.131.52 Disseminate information on specific island biological and cultural
diversity issues and value to
improve knowledge and increase awareness of responsibilities among all
relevant tourism actors (including tour operators, tourists, indigenous
and local communities, authorities, etc.).
184.108.40.206 Enhance local benefits from tourism on islands (e.g., keeping
tourism receipts within local economies) and strengthen
local capacity for sustainable tourism management.
220.127.116.11 Develop regional partnership to help enforcement of regulations
against illegal practices connected to biodiversity
Priority action 4.3.1.
18.104.22.168 Adopt regulatory programmes to ensure
that harvest for trade in species i s sustainable, in accordance with CITES
and relevant national regulations.
Priority action 4.3.2.
22.214.171.124 Strengthen legislation and enforcement to manage international trade
in threatened species, inter alia,
by applying appropriate penalties
and strengthening the weakest parts
of the enforcement system.
126.96.36.199 Empower communities to support enforcement of regulations
concerning collection for trade and in monitoring
the populations of the species concerned.
188.8.131.52 Consider incentives 14 /
to re-invest revenue from trade
in conservation and sustainable management of the species concerned.
Priority action 4.3.3.
184.108.40.206 Develop and adopt management
plans for key species to ensure that harvest for international trade in them
Priority action 5.1.1.
220.127.116.11 Establish and promote participatory tools and mechanisms to develop
and implement integrated
land and water use plans, including community-based resource mapping
18.104.22.168 Develop and implement enabling-policy and legal frameworks for integrated
land and water use planning
and management, including integrated watershed, marine and coastal
area management and prevention of cumulative impacts from incremental development
22.214.171.124 Create mechanisms to ensure coordination of all agencies and sectors
responsible for land and water use planning or management
126.96.36.199 Assess and address underlying causes of habitat loss in small islands,
in particular in small island developing States
188.8.131.52 Develop alternatives to prevent loss of habitats and overexploitation
of existing natural resources
(e.g., forests, mangroves, marine resources) driven by mariculture,
agriculture or tourism.
184.108.40.206 Reduce the negative impacts on ecosystems and resources of mining
and quarrying (including
sand exploitation, coral mining and dredging) by developing and implementing:
- Policy and legal frameworks, including in particular for conservation
of important ecosystems and habitats, e.g. mangroves;
- Technologies that minimize adverse impacts;
- Environmentally friendly and socially responsible approaches;
- Methods for minimizing impacts of extraction of mineral resources,
such as sand, aggregates, gravel, coral, limestone and mud.
220.127.116.11 Prevent and reduce coastal erosion, siltation and land/soil degradation.
18.104.22.168 Promote and implement “whole island” or “ridge-to-reef” planning
to anticipate and prevent cumulative impacts from incremental development.
Priority action 5.1.2.
22.214.171.124 Take measures to avoid/prevent or reduce soil erosion caused by,
inter alia, deforestation, overgrazing, and fires.
126.96.36.199 Implement strategic environmental assessment, and environmental
and socio-economic impact
assessment procedures or regulations integrating biodiversity considerations
prior to land-use conversion.
Priority action 6.1.1.
Establish an effective quarantine control system at national borders to protect
against the introduction of invasive alien species taking into account existing
control systems, such as those under the International Plant Protection Convention.
Establish and, where appropriate, improve quarantine measures to protect against
movement of invasive alien species between islands within nation states (i.e.,
intra-island in the case of islands that are part of an archipelago or a larger
Collect baseline data on invasive alien species introductions, and support regional
and global databases providing comprehensive information on invasive species.
Support efforts to develop scientific, effective and safe biological control
of invasive alien species that negatively affect islands.
Develop, strengthen and enforce legislative and policy frameworks as a basis
for effective prevention measures.
Integrate, where appropriate, WTO/SPS measures developed or implemented under
the WTO work programme on small economies into broader control measures for invasive
Establish linkages to other international instruments and the work of organizations
with an interest in invasive alien species (e.g., the IPPC, EPPO, WTO/SPS, OIE,
APEC, SPREP and other regional bodies relevant to the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean,
Priority action 6.1.2.
188.8.131.52. Collaborate to identify and address pathways for movement of invasive
species at the regional and global level, so that clusters of island States
can work together to protect their biodiversity from them.
184.108.40.206. Share national invasive alien species lists and data on invasive
alien species intercepted and their pathways at the international
220.127.116.11. Solicit assistance from the International Maritime Organization
in the assessment and compilation of best practices, and in the development
and implementation of regulatory measures for the management
of ballast water and bio-fouling to prevent the spread of invasive alien
species both internationally and intra-nationally.
18.104.22.168. Encourage island governments that have not done so to accede to
Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water
and Sediments (2004), and related agreements relevant to invasive
Priority action 6.1.3 .
22.214.171.124. Develop contingency plans for the early detection and rapid response
to the introduction of invasive alien species that may affect the ecological,
social, economic and cultural balance in both terrestrial and
126.96.36.199. Implement participatory surveillance programmes (integrating as
as possible, local communities) to detect new introductions and to assess
the probability that species already present will become invasive.
188.8.131.52. Share national invasive alien species lists and data on invasive
alien species intercepted and their pathways at the national
184.108.40.206. Develop or strengthen policy frameworks and develop, strengthen
and enforce legislation for effective response systems.
220.127.116.11. Collect baseline data for existing native and endemic species
in order to
better understand what alien and invasive alien species populations
have become established, so as to better assess their impacts.
18.104.22.168. Make available information on population dynamics, habitat (natural
and semi-natural), reproductive biology and propagation features of potentially
22.214.171.124. Identify and address likely invasion processes in the design of
biodiversity conservation strategies.
126.96.36.199. Perform science-based risk assessment for: (a) proposed deliberate
introductions of alien species; and (b) importation of goods that may accidentally
include invasive alien species (e.g. insects on food shipments).
188.8.131.52. Develop science-based risk assessment methodologies applicable
at the local,
national and regional levels, including the risk of hybridization
with endemic species.
184.108.40.206. Encourage assistance by regional international entities in development
of regional science-based risk assessment policies and tools and capacity-building
to assist countries in addressing the requirements of IPPC and
WTO/SPS for raising quarantine measures to keep invasive alien species out.
Priority action 6.2.1
220.127.116.11. Identify priorities and opportunities for the practical control
and eradication of key invasive alien species from islands, working closely
with, civil society, business and local stakeholders.
18.104.22.168. Encourage, develop and support implementation of economically
sustainable management programmes for control and eradication
of priority invasive alien species on islands.
22.214.171.124. Develop an inventory of invasive alien species on islands based
on surveys. Link this with inventory of species and ecosystems to identify
the pressures, risks and most cost-effective opportunities for
preventing the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, thereby
supporting the restoration of affected habitats.
126.96.36.199. Develop or strengthen policy frameworks and develop, strengthen
and enforce legislation for effective management systems
188.8.131.52. Promote regional mechanisms for supporting communication, rapid
response, risk assessment procedures and coordination of regulatory measures
to counter the spread of invasive alien species across island
chains or groups and among insular regions with similar ecosystems.
184.108.40.206. Facilitate and support the work of cooperative initiatives to
manage priority invasive alien species on islands (e.g. Cooperative
Initiative on Invasive Alien Species).
220.127.116.11. Review and, as necessary, facilitate the revision or development
of national and/or local legal instruments, adapted to the situation
of each island state or island region, to prevent undesired introductions
and to manage or eradicate established invasive alien species.
18.104.22.168. Provide the systemic institutional and individual technical capacities
at the national and regional levels to conduct research, public
education, and awareness and institute enforcement mechanisms
for ongoing prevention and control of invasive species.
Priority action 6.2.2.
22.214.171.124. Develop and conduct public awareness and social marketing activities
and programmes for key audiences and key species to increase public
will to address invasives and strategic action by target
groups, working closely with local governments, civil society, business
and local stakeholders.
126.96.36.199 Develop and implement participatory processes for integrated planning
for prevention and management of invasive alien species, working
with all relevant stakeholders.
188.8.131.52 Create or maintain active multi-sector invasive alien species
committees (or equivalent) at the island or national level
(a) Ensure ongoing coordination by all public and private sector agencies
with a role in invasive alien species planning and action;
(b) Assist national and local governments, non-governmental organizations,
local communities, and the private
sector to clearly identify their own responsibilities for the prevention,
detection, rapid response, eradication, and long-term management of invasive
alien species, including,
inter alia, procedures
for the regulation of domesticated or captive species that may become invasive;
(c) Establish and/or strengthen collaborative working relationships
among conservation, agriculture and border
control (customs and quarantine) authorities.
184.108.40.206. Develop and implement codes of conduct to regulate intentional introductions
and prevent unintentional introductions by the general public and by enterprises
that import, export or transport goods.
Priority action 7.1.1.
220.127.116.11. Develop monitoring techniques to identify and monitor the impacts
of climate change on key species.
18.104.22.168. Consider afforestation and reforestation projects that enhance
island biodiversity, noting that it may be
possible for these projects to be eligible to generate certified
emission reduction units under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean
22.214.171.124. Develop models to understand the vulnerability of island biodiversity
to climate change, including:
(a) Understand how sea level rise and other aspects of climate change
threaten island biodiversity;
(b) Develop general circulation models and other scientific tools to
help understand and adapt to the impacts of climate change on island biodiversity.
126.96.36.199. Monitor and exchange information on the impacts of global climate
change on island biodiversity.
188.8.131.52. Strengthen national capacity to address climate change issues
for island biodiversity.
184.108.40.206. Identify species (e.g., corals) that are resilient to climate
change in order to use those species for restoration.
220.127.116.11. Reduce chemical and physical degradation of coral reefs to facilitate
recovery from climate-induced bleaching.
Priority action 7.1.2.
18.104.22.168. Identify and protect sites whose environmental conditions favour
the maintenance and recovery of species and ecosystems under changed climate
and sea level.
Priority action 7.2.1. (from 9.1)
Enforce the environmental, social and cultural impact assessment process for
island industries, infrastructure, and urban plans.
Integrate pollution and waste management into regional, national and sub-national
regulations and plans to prevent ecosystem pollution and degradation.
Develop and implement wastewater treatment plants and other appropriate systems
for management of human waste.
Enhance and promote public awareness projects and actions to minimize, manage
and recycle waste, including appropriate facilities.
Develop mechanisms to assist islands in the safe disposal of their hazardous
Develop and enforce instruments to control ship-source pollution, and prepare
contingency plans for oil spills.
Give incentives to industries and local communities to adopt clean energy sources
as their main power supply.
Priority action 7.2.2 (from 9.2)
Maintain and, where necessary, restore mangrove and other vegetated ecosystems
to help prevent run-off and siltation, working closely with civil society and
Ensure that infrastructure developments include measures to mitigate run-off
Minimize clearing of native vegetation in coastal areas.
Priority action 7.2.3. (from 9.3)
Promote appropriate agricultural techniques, including organic and sustainable
agriculture, to prevent unnatural run-off and eutrophication impacts.
Priority action 8.1.1.
Empower or maintain the capacity of indigenous and local communities to address,
respond and adapt effectively to natural hazards and their impacts on island
biodiversity, taking into account traditional practices.
22.214.171.124. Strengthen efforts to conserve and restore ecosystems that
protection against tidal and storm surges and damage (e.g. mangroves,
coral reefs, and sand dunes).
Priority action 8.1.2.
126.96.36.199. Identify and implement effective early-warning systems (forecasting)
and strategies that address natural hazards and their impacts on
island biodiversity and its recovery capacity, such as tsunamis,
hurricanes, storm surges, floods, and tropical storms and
longer-term trends such as climate change, sea level rise, El Niňo and La
188.8.131.52 Establish and strengthen formal national and local organizations
responsible for disaster preparedness, response and
mitigation on islands.
Priority action 8.1.3.
184.108.40.206. Integrate education and awareness related to biodiversity’s role
in natural hazard reduction into ongoing natural disaster programmes on islands.
220.127.116.11. Develop specific participatory plans, including community response
and mitigation plans, to address specific disasters such as flooding,
storm surges, drought, bush fires and mainstream these into
national planning processes, including appropriate traditional practices.
Priority action 8.2.1.
18.104.22.168. Identify settled areas at risk from mudslides, landslides and storm
surge, and implement vegetation stabilization and other mitigation
Priority action 9.1.1 (comes from 15. 1, 2 and 3)
22.214.171.124 .Initiate programmes, where appropriate, to record and study traditional
knowledge and practices, in particular those that support the sustainable
use of island biodiversity with the full and effective participation
of indigenous and local communities and their prior informed
consent, in accordance with national legislation and international
126.96.36.199. Respect, preserve and maintain indigenous and local communities’
linguistic diversity that maintains biodiversity-related
188.8.131.52. Establish and implement mechanisms to respect traditional knowledge,
innovations and practices on lands and waters traditionally occupied
and/or used by indigenous and local communities.
184.108.40.206. Compile information on the methods of protection and maintenance
of traditional knowledge and practices on islands.
Priority action 9.1.2.
220.127.116.11. Enhance access to appropriate information to ensure the full participation
and involvement of indigenous and local communities in decisions
that affect them in relation to island biodiversity.
18.104.22.168. Develop local capacities for protecting and facilitating the use
of island traditional knowledge and practices, including, where
appropriate, processes to ensure prior informed consent.
22.214.171.124. Facilitate opportunities for involvement and the participation
of indigenous and local communities
in implementation of the present programme of work.
126.96.36.199. Acknowledging that linguistic diversity can be important for island
biodiversity conservation and use, support measures for its maintenance
where appropriate and practical.
188.8.131.52. Develop and implement effective systems to respect, preserve and
maintain traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, where
appropriate, for sustainable use of island resources.
184.108.40.206. Document traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant
to local species or the sustainable use of island biodiversity,
with the full and effective participation and prior informed
consent of indigenous and local communities consistent with Article
Priority action 9.2.1.
220.127.116.11. Encourage, support and develop, in cooperation with the Working
Group on Article 8(j) and related provisions, mechanisms and methods
to ensure the preservation of the traditional knowledge,
innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities associated
with island genetic resources.
18.104.22.168. Establish, with full and effective participation of indigenous
and local communities, a process and
requirements, consistent with Article 8(j), to ensure the equitable sharing
of benefits arising from use of their traditional knowledge, innovations
and practices associated with island genetic resources subject
to national legislation and international obligations.
Priority action 10.1.1.
10.1.1.1. Investigate and document, subject to Article 8(j), island genetic
resources and associated knowledge, and their existing and potential uses,
including status, trends, and threats.
10.1.1.2. Identify and assess systems of information delivery, and update
them to improve the recording and cataloguing of island genetic resources and,
where appropriate, to implement alternative systems.
Priority action 10.2.1.
10.2.1.1 Investigate and document the potential for research, including bioprospecting,
into island genetic resources.
10.2.1.2. Develop national guidelines on bio-prospecting, taking into account
the Bonn Guidelines.
10.2.1.3. Establish and harmonize access and benefit-sharing processes, mechanisms
and measures to protect island genetic resources and for bio-prospecting.
10.2.1.4. Develop and implement a national access and benefit-sharing
strategy, and national access and benefit-sharing measures, including legislative,
administrative and policy measures with particular reference to endemic island
species, taking into account the Bonn Guidelines.
10.2.1.5.Establish mechanisms that respect the use of endemic species and
locally generated races and cultivars.
Priority action 11.1.1.
22.214.171.124. Identify constraints and difficulties at the national level for
the establishment of partnerships, including use conflicts and management
126.96.36.199. Develop active partnerships focused on specific island biodiversity
issues across the full range of stakeholders at the local, national,
regional and/or international levels.
188.8.131.52. Establish partnerships in different sectors, such as tourism,
fisheries and natural disaster management.
184.108.40.206. Encourage and support partnerships with non-governmental organizations,
as well as local partnerships.
220.127.116.11. Secure the engagement of the private sector, including financial,
technical and political support, at the local, national, regional
and international levels.
Priority action 11.1.2.
18.104.22.168. Develop collaborative projects and enabling activities for the
implementation of the programme of work.
Priority action 11.1.3.
22.214.171.124. Assess and establish conservation trust funds (including national
biodiversity trust funds), debt-for-nature swaps, user fees, payments
for ecosystem services, and other instruments, including
national funding of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
126.96.36.199. Secure increased bilateral and multilateral grants and loans to
support to support activities related to this programme of work
in the context of implementation of National Biodiversity
Strategies and Action Plans.
188.8.131.52. Assist countries and communities to identify practical mechanisms
to increase local financial support of conservation action.
Priority action 11.2.1.
184.108.40.206. Assess and identify suitable technology for conserving island
biodiversity, at all scales.
220.127.116.11. Determine the most effective means to facilitate effective transfer
of knowledge and technology to maximize their use at
the local level.
18.104.22.168. Share information on appropriate technologies on a regional and
22.214.171.124. Establish protocols for access to and transfer of technology
of benefit to island biodiversity.
126.96.36.199. Respect and facilitate the exchange of knowledge on indigenous
island technologies among indigenous and
local communities, consistent with article 8(j).
188.8.131.52. Increase national and regional information networking capacity
to facilitate broader access to and
of technology of benefit to island biodiversity, including through national
CHMs, by, as appropriate:
- Establishing or strengthening national centres on island biodiversity
that centralize or coordinate knowledge and capacities for inventorying,
evaluating and assisting other agencies on biodiversity issues.
Such centres should have legal capacity for identifying biodiversity
elements (species, genes) and their particular condition (endemism, etc)
and should include the complementary elements of modern and traditional
- Establishing national information system and clearing-house mechanisms
for island biodiversity in small island developing States;
- Developing a regional and/or subregional umbrella structure/mechanism
to coordinate national centres;
- Developing a roster of regional experts on island biodiversity.
Priority action 11.2.2.
184.108.40.206. Identify existing island-based technology that supports the implementation
of the programme of work on island biodiversity.
220.127.116.11. Facilitate the development of new island-based technology, where
needed, including through the provision of funding.
18.104.22.168. Provide protection to the technologies developed, including through
intellectual property rights according to existing national
Priority action 11.3.1.
22.214.171.124. Strengthen national capacity to develop island-appropriate policies,
and to enact and fully enforce legislation and regulations. This
would include technical assistance, training and/or other
support to legislatures, regulatory and enforcement agencies, and the
126.96.36.199. Promote collaboration among agencies involved in environmental
protection enforcement, including land use
planning authorities, to prevent adverse impacts on
188.8.131.52. Strengthen legislation and enforcement to address domestic trade
and commercial use of threatened species.
184.108.40.206. Promote compliance with legislation and regulations related to
island biological diversity through awareness raising and
220.127.116.11. Increase, if needed, the ability of indigenous and local communities
to apply existing customary laws consistent with national
18.104.22.168. Take measures that will enable mitigation of detrimental actions
and facilitate participatory approaches in the conservation, management
and sustainable use of biodiversity.
22.214.171.124. Ratify relevant multilateral environmental agreements and integrate
them into national law, through enabling legislation,
Priority action 11.3.2.
126.96.36.199. Promote cooperation between small island developing States on
the conservation of biodiversity resources,
shared ecosystem management and exchange of experiences.
188.8.131.52. Implement peer learning opportunities and networks to ensure rapid
dissemination of best practices and lessons learned, to accelerate
successful implementation of national biodiversity strategies
and action plans and the programme of work on island biodiversity.
184.108.40.206. Explore ways and means on how the clearing-house mechanism can
be more effectively and efficiently
for the sharing of information on best practices and technologies that promote
sustainable use, particularly on islands with limited information
220.127.116.11. Develop and implement training programmes to enhance science and
technology capabilities relevant to the programme of
18.104.22.168. Provide training on the understanding of multilateral environmental
agreements to enhance capacity to implement the programme of work
on island biodiversity.
Priority action 11.3.3.
22.214.171.124. In collaboration with relevant national and local leaders and
organizations, as appropriate, develop and implement
communication, public awareness and education programmes at all levels to
promote and advance the programme of work on island biodiversity, taking
into account local capacity, language and culture. .
126.96.36.199. Develop and conduct public awareness and social marketing activities
and programmes for key audiences and key species to increase public
support and strategic action on critical issues within this
programme of work.
188.8.131.52. Investigate perceptions of biodiversity by island inhabitants,
tourists, developers and other stakeholders
the legitimacy and effectiveness of island-specific, science-based
184.108.40.206. Increase public awareness of the value of island biodiversity
and of preventing species from becoming threatened.
220.127.116.11. Introduce island biodiversity issues into the curricula of schools
and universities, and in the framework of education for sustainable
development, to build the understanding of island biodiversity.
18.104.22.168. Integrate island environmental issues into non-formal education.
22.214.171.124. Undertake education, capacity-building and training activities
at all levels, including indigenous
communities, to contribute to sustainable management practices on islands.
126.96.36.199. Involve United Nations agencies and intergovernmental organizations
in the promotion of the programme of work on island biodiversity.
188.8.131.52. Enhance and promote public awareness and action to minimize, manage
and recycle waste.
Priority action 11.3.4.
184.108.40.206. Use, whenever possible, the island as the unit for spatial planning,
with due consideration to biodiversity requirements.
220.127.116.11. Develop participatory decision-making mechanisms involving civil
society, scientists, indigenous peoples, local communities and key
18.104.22.168. Mainstream biodiversity into integrated planning, including strategies,
policies and implementation plans for all development
22.214.171.124. Integrate national biodiversity strategies and action plans into
national sustainable development plans and national and island planning
126.96.36.199. Develop mechanisms to allow for the integration of appropriate
traditional conservation management systems
into national policies and management and development plans, with full
involvement of relevant stakeholders.
188.8.131.52. Develop the capacity and enhance opportunities for community-based
research and monitoring to conserve island biodiversity and provide
greater benefits to island communities.
184.108.40.206. Integrate consideration of the programme of work on island biodiversity
in the national capacity self-assessment and in the development
of ongoing action plans.
220.127.116.11. Establish, as appropriate, a coordination process/mechanism for
the implementation of all relevant multilateral environmental agreements
at the national level.
18.104.22.168. Coordinate and harmonize the implementation of different ongoing
programmes under the Convention on Biological Diversity with cross-cutting
activities and other biodiversity-related conventions.
Priority action 11.3.5.
22.214.171.124. Establish monitoring systems to assess the implementation and
long-term impact of national biodiversity
strategies and action plans and the programme of work.
126.96.36.199. Develop and adopt methods, standards, criteria and indicators
addressing ecological, social, cultural and
aspects for evaluating progress in implementing the programme of work.
188.8.131.52. Build on existing indicators to develop biodiversity monitoring
indicators adapted to small islands.
184.108.40.206. Continue work on a vulnerability index and other indicators that
reflect the status of small islands, and integrate ecological fragility,
socio-economic and cultural vulnerabilities.
220.127.116.11. Develop appropriate techniques for monitoring island biodiversity
in order to assess and report on long-term regional and global trends
and on the drivers of biodiversity loss, including global
change, and their impacts on biodiversity.
18.104.22.168. Establish baseline knowledge and information systems for the conservation
of island biodiversity, including.
- Inventories of components of island biodiversity;
- Data sharing protocols for all stakeholders;
- Improved infrastructure and capacity for data collection, management
22.214.171.124. Develop appropriate arrangements and explore innovative means
to report on the Convention while minimizing
the reporting burden for island nations with limited
Priority action 11.3.6.
126.96.36.199. Establish national, regional and international island partnerships
that bring Governments, communities and civil-society organizations
together to increase political, financial and technical support
for this programme of work
188.8.131.52. Promote regional cooperation on the conservation and sustainable
use of biodiversity resources, shared ecosystem management and exchange
184.108.40.206. Promote island networks and exchanges that will accelerate implementation
of this programme of work at the national, regional and international
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9 / Decision VII/30, annex II
10 / Goals and priority
actions are described in section E of the annex above.
11 / In the IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species, a species is listed as threatened
if it falls in the Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable categories
12 / For example, Center for Plant
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and Conservation of Rare Plants. Oxford University
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13 / Any economic incentive should
be WTO consistent.
14 / Any economic incentive should
be WTO consistent