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COP 8 Decision VIII/26

Incentive measures: preparation for the in-depth review of the programme of work on incentive measures

The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity,

Recognizing that biodiversity and its resources and functions, as well as successful policies and programmes that protect or enhance them, provide important ecosystem services, including ecosystem services of regional and global importance, that need to be adequately recognized and taken into account in private and public decision‑making,

Recalling that Article 11 of the Convention calls upon Parties, as far as possible and as appropriate, to adopt economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of components of biodiversity,

Also recalling decisions V/15, VI/15 and VII/18,

Having considered the challenges at the international level in furthering the implementation of the programme of work on incentive measures and noting the work undertaken by SBSTTA 10 and 11, and also noting the existing and emerging policy, legal and scientific issues at the national level,

Noting that the work on incentive measures under the Convention is scheduled for in-depth review by the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, in accordance with the multi-year programme of work of the Convention adopted by the Conference of the Parties in decision VII/31,

1. Decides to initiate a structured, transparent and inclusive preparatory process for the in‑depth review of work on incentive measures with a view to identify, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting, the further outcomes that would be required from a revised programme of work on incentive mechanisms to meet obligations under the Convention and the requirements of Parties, and possible options for a future programme of work;

2. Requests the Executive Secretary to:

(a) Prepare a brief overview of the decisions of the Conference of the Parties related to incentive measures including references to analytical documents and draft recommendations prepared for consideration by the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies;

(b) Prepare a synthesis report of information provided by Parties in the third national reports;

(c) Facilitate access to the information provided through the electronic database and the toolkit on incentive measures;

and to transmit this information referred to under subparagraphs (a) and (b) above to Parties, other Governments, relevant international organizations and stakeholders with a view to assisting them in the preparation of submissions invited in paragraph 3 below;

3. Invites Parties, other Governments, international organizations and stakeholders to communicate to the Executive Secretary their experiences in the implementation of the programme of work on incentive measures contained in decisions V/15, VI/15 and VII/18 and provide views on elements such as:

(a) Lessons learned and key challenges in implementing the existing programme of work, based on practical examples and case‑studies from national implementation, where available, including whether the measures initiated or adopted by Parties have maintained or improved the conservation and sustainable use of components of biodiversity;

(b) Options to address the challenges identified;

(c) Priorities for a future programme of work including requirements for effective national implementation, including financial and institutional support and capacity‑building;

(d) Key gaps in the work to date, and gaps and obstacles in the existing programme of work that are impeding its implementation at the national level;

(e) Interface with other international initiatives and instruments in this area;

(f) Linkages to other programmes of work under the Convention;

4. Requests the Executive Secretary:

(a) To update the synthesis report of the third national reports referred to in paragraph 2 above;

(b) To compile and provide a summary of the above-mentioned views and experiences, including a summary of the options provided by Parties,

and to make them available for consideration by the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting;

Positive incentive measures

Recognizing that positive incentive measures, can influence decision-making by recognizing and rewarding activities that are carried out for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and are important in achieving the objectives of the Convention and the 2010 biodiversity target, when such positive incentive measures are targeted, flexible, transparent, appropriately monitored and adapted to local conditions,

Noting that policy guidance on incentive mechanisms developed under the Convention is voluntary and should be applied in accordance with national law, taking into account other international instruments,

Alsonoting the recent work by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on environmentally harmful subsidies 1 / for the removal or mitigation of perverse incentives,

5. Encourages relevant national, regional and international organizations and initiatives to strengthen mechanisms that build capacity and extend research and training on the design, implementation and review of positive incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in accordance with domestic needs and priorities, taking into account the need to understand the risks of perverse effects on livelihoods, sustainable development or the biodiversity of third parties;

6. Encourages relevant national, regional and international institutions and organizations, such as IUCN and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, as well as representatives of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders, to strengthen research activities, including research cooperation and exchange at national, regional and international levels, on, as appropriate:

(a) Further assessment of positive incentive measures and their application at the national, regional and global levels, taking into account the context in which they were implemented, the conditions necessary for their success, as well as the ecosystem approach;

(b) Comparative analyses of the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of individual positive incentive measures, including their impact on the livelihood and biodiversity of third parties;

(c) The development of innovative positive incentive measures;

(d) The development of mechanisms, including policy, legal and institutional measures in full consultation with representatives of indigenous and local communities that ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from positive incentive measures;

(e) The analysis and evaluation of the relevant economic, social and cultural impacts of individual positive incentive measures at different levels and scales;

and to communicate the results of this research to Parties and the Executive Secretary;

7. Invites Parties and other Governments as well as national, regional and international funding institutions, to support the capacity‑building and research activities identified in paragraph 6 above;

8. Invites the United Nations Environment Programme to continue supporting the programme of work on incentive measures of the Convention, in particular through its work on the creation of pro-poor markets for ecosystem services;

9. Invites the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, through its initiatives, including, Biotrade initiative, to continue supporting the programme of work on incentive measures of the Convention.





1 / Environmentally harmful subsidies: challenges for reform. OECD, Paris 2005.

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme