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COP 8 Decision VIII/31

Administration of the Convention and budget for the programme of work for the biennium 2007-2008

The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity,

Recalling paragraphs 10 and 11 of decision VII/34,

Satisfied with the development of the Secretariat-wide tracking mechanism for differentiating shared costs of secretariat services between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Protocol as well as the analysis of the results by the Executive Secretary and the conclusions drawn from that analysis,  

1. Welcomes the annual contribution to date of US$1,000,000 to be increased at 2 per cent per year, from the host country Canada and the Province of Quebec to the operation of the Secretariat, of which 83.5 per cent has been allocated per annum to offset contributions from the Parties to the Convention for the biennium 2007-2008;

2 . Approves a core (BY) programme budget of $11,012,400 for the year 2007 and of $11,390,600 for the year 2008 for the purposes listed in the table 1 below;

3. Adopts the scale of assessments for the apportionment of expenses for 2007 and 2008 as contained in the table 5 below;

4. Approves a Secretariat staffing table for the programme budget contained in table 2 below;

5. Notes with concern the high vacancy rate in staff positions, and requests that all positions be filled expeditiously with due regard to the need of recruiting qualified staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, and to gender equality at all levels.

6. Reaffirms a working capital reserve at a level of 5 per cent of the core budget (BY Trust Fund) expenditure, including programme support costs;

7. Approves a drawing of US$4,000,000 from the unspent balances or contributions (“carryover”) from previous financial periods to cover part of the 2007-2008 budget;

8. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to transfer resources among the programmes between each of the main appropriation lines set out in table 1 below up to an aggregate of 15 per cent of the total programme budget, provided that a further limitation of up to a maximum of 25 per cent of each such appropriation line shall apply;

9. Notes with concern that a number of Parties have not paid their contributions to the core budget (BY Trust Fund) for 2006 and prior years, which are due on 1 January of each year in accordance with paragraph 4 of the financial rules, and the late payment of contributions to the core budget by Parties during each calendar year of a biennium has contributed to the significant carry-over from one biennium to the next, and, in the event that there is no improvement in the payment of contributions by Parties, invites the Executive Secretary to submit proposals for promoting full and timely payment of contributions by Parties for consideration and review by the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting;

10. Urges Parties that have still not paid their contributions to the core budget (BY Trust Fund) to do so without delay, and requests the Executive Secretary to publish and regularly update information on the status of contributions of Parties to the Convention’s trust funds (BY, BE, BZ);

11. Decides that, with regard to contributions due from 1 January 2001 onwards, Parties whose contributions are in arrears for two (2) or more years will:

(a) Not be eligible to become a member of any bureau of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies; and

(b) Not receive any hard copies of documents from the Secretariat; 

Subparagraphs (a) and (b) above will only apply in the case of Parties that are not least developed countries or small island developing States;

12. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to enter into arrangements with any Party whose contributions are in arrears for two or more years to mutually agree on a “schedule of payments” for such a Party, to clear all outstanding arrears, within six years depending on the financial circumstance of the Party in arrears and pay future contributions by the due date, and report on the implementation of any such arrangement to the next meeting of the Bureau and to the Conference of the Parties;

13. Decides that a Party with an agreed arrangement in accordance with paragraph 12 above and that is fully respecting the provisions of that arrangement will not be subject to the provisions of paragraph 11 above;

14. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to enter into commitments up to the level of the approved budget, drawing on available cash resources, including unspent balances, contributions from previous financial periods and miscellaneous income;

15. Decides to fund, upon request, from the core budget (BY) the participation of members of the bureaux of the Conference of the Parties and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific Technical and Technological Advice at the meetings of the respective bureaux;

16. Invites all Parties to the Convention to note that contributions to the core budget (BY) are due on 1 January of the year in which these contributions have been budgeted for, and to pay them promptly, and urges Parties, in a position to do so, to pay by 1 October 2006 for the calendar year 2007 and by 1 October 2007 for the calendar year 2008 the contributions required to finance expenditures approved under paragraph 2 above, as offset by amounts in paragraphs 1 and 7, and, in this regard, requests that Parties be notified of the amount of their contributions by 1 August of the year preceding the year in which the contributions are due;

17. Decides that the trust funds (BY, BE, BZ) for the Convention shall be extended for the period of two years, beginning 1 January 2008 and ending 31 December 2009;

18. Urges all Parties and States not Parties to the Convention, as well as governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and other sources, to contribute to the trust funds (BY, BE, BZ) of the Convention;

19. Takes note of the funding estimates for the:

(a) Special Voluntary Trust Fund (BE) for Additional Voluntary Contributions in Support of Approved Activities for the Biennium 2007-2008 specified by the Executive Secretary and included in table 3 below;

(b) Special Voluntary Trust Fund (BZ) for Facilitating Participation of Developing Country Parties, in particular the Least Developed and the Small Island Developing States, as well as Parties with Economies in Transition, for the biennium 2007-2008, as specified by the Executive Secretary and included in table 4 below,

and urges Parties to make contributions to those funds;

20. Endorses the decisions of the Bureau of the seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties authorizing the Executive Secretary to utilize savings, unspent balances from previous financial periods and miscellaneous income in the amount of US$1,937,182 from the BY Trust Fund, of which US$761,531 was spent, to fund inter-sessional activities, that were not envisaged and therefore for which no budgetary allocations were approved by the Conference of the Parties at its seventh meeting, including the participation of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as Parties with economies in transition, in the meetings of the Convention, as well as US$116,678 reimbursement for participation of eligible participants to the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, and requests the Executive Secretary, in consultation with the Bureau, to continue to monitor the availability of voluntary contributions to the special voluntary Trust Funds (BE and BZ) in the event of any shortfalls;

21. Requests the Executive Secretary with guidance from the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties, to develop as an interim arrangement for the 2007-2008 biennium pending endorsement by the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting, procedures for the allocation of funding from the Special Voluntary Trust Fund (BZ) for Facilitating Participation of Parties in the Convention Process, to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as Parties with economies in transition, to secure adequate representation from each region;

22. Decides that all Parties eligible for funding from the Special Voluntary Trust Fund (BZ), and who requested funding within three weeks of the official notification of the meeting being disseminated by the Secretariat, shall be informed by the Executive Secretary no later than four weeks prior to the relevant meeting, whether funding is available or not, and urges Parties to contribute to the special voluntary Trust Fund (BZ) in a timely manner but no later than five weeks before the meeting, to facilitate the planning of meetings and the full participation of representatives from developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing states, as well as Parties with economies in transition;

 23. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to draw, subject to the agreement of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties, on available cash resources, including unspent balances, contributions from previous financial periods and miscellaneous income within the approved core budget (BY Trust Fund) for the biennium 2007-2008, to cover shortfalls temporarily in the special voluntary Trust Fund (BZ), until such time as these shortfalls can be met with pledges in writing, but which have not yet been received by the Executive Secretary, for facilitating participation of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries and the small island developing States, as well as Parties with economies in transition, for the biennium 2007-2008, in priorities identified in the core budget (BY Trust Fund) and requests that the BY Funds be reimbursed as soon as the pledges are received;

24. Authorizes the Executive Secretary to consult with the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties on any adjustments which may be necessary in the servicing of the programme of the work as foreseen in the core budget (BY Trust Fund) for the biennium 2007-2008, including the postponement of meetings, in the event that sufficient resources are not available to the Secretariat in a timely fashion from the approved budget (BY Trust Fund), including available cash resources, unspent balances, contributions from previous financial periods and miscellaneous income;

25. Requests the Executive Secretary, in accordance with rule 14 of the rules of procedure, to provide Parties with an indication of the administrative and financial implications of decisions to be referred by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice; an ad hoc openended working group; or an ad hoc technical expert group for adoption by the Conference of the Parties, that may have administrative and budgetary implications that cannot be met from existing resources within the core budget (BY Trust Fund);

26. Requests the Executive Secretary to prepare and submit a budget for the programme of work for the biennium 2009-2010 for the consideration of the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting, and to report on income and budget performance as well as any adjustments made to the Convention budget for the biennium 2007-2008;

27. Authorizes the Executive Secretary, in an effort to improve the efficiency of the Secretariat and to attract highly qualified staff to the Secretariat, to enter into direct administrative and contractual arrangements with Parties, Governments and organizations, in response to offers of human resources and other support to the Secretariat, as may be necessary for the effective discharge of the functions of the Secretariat, while ensuring the efficient use of available competencies, resources and services, and taking into account United Nations rules and regulations.  Special attention should be given to possibilities of creating synergies with relevant, existing work programmes or activities that are being implemented within the framework of other international organizations;

28. Welcomes the development and continuation of the fellowship programme as a means of enabling developing country Parties, as well as Parties with economies in transition to send their nationals to the Secretariat for the purposes of enhancing their understanding of the Convention and for increasing awareness of biodiversity related issues;

29. Notes that the Junior Professional Officer programme and the internship programme afford an opportunity for Parties to learn about and further develop an understanding of the thematic or cross-cutting issues covered under the Convention; 

30. Requests that, in accordance with article 14 of the Financial Rules, a financial audit of the budget be undertaken on a biennial basis and the report submitted to the Conference of the Parties, together with the management response;

31. Agrees to share the costs for secretariat services between those that are common to the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on an 85:15 ratio for the biennium 2007-2008;

32. Requests the Executive Secretary, in presenting the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2009-2010 to the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, to use the tracking mechanism to review the ratio specified in paragraph 31 above.

33.  Authorizes the Executive Secretary to review the terms of reference of posts in the Secretariat with a view to adjusting the staffing to meet the new challenges facing the Convention and to ensure the effective functioning of the Secretariat, and in that regard also authorizes the Executive Secretary to fill a P-2 position in his office through, inter alia, the adjustment of the staffing in the Secretariat.

 

Table 1

BIENNIUM BUDGET OF THE TRUST FUND FOR THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY2007-2008

Expenditures

2007

2008

(US$ thousands)

(US$ thousands)

I

Programmes

Office of the Executive Secretary

574.4

645.2

Scientific, technical and technological matters

2,200.6

2,497.0

Social, economic and legal matters

1,903.4

1,288.0

Outreach and major groups

1,561.8

1,283.7

Implementation and technical support

1,505.9

1,393.6

Resource management and conference services

1,950.1

2,972.7

Sub-total (I)

9,696.2

10,080.2

II

Programme support charge 13%

1,260.5

1,310.4

GRAND TOTAL (I + II )

10,956.7

11,390.6

III

Working capital reserve

55.7

GRAND TOTAL (I + II + III)

11,012.4

 11,390.6

Less contribution from the host country

851.7

868.7

Less savings from previous years

2,000.0

  2,000.0

NET TOTAL (amount to be shared by Parties)

8,160.7

8,521.9

Priority meetings to be funded from the core budget

Meetings of the bureaus of the Conference of the Parties and SBSTTA

Twelfth and thirteenth meetings of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice

Ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties

Ad Hoc Working Group on Article 8(j) and Related Provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Ad Hoc Working Group on Access and Benefit-sharing

Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention

Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Protected Areas


Table 2

SECRETARIAT STAFFING REQUIREMENTS FROM THE CORE BUDGET (BY TRUST FUND)

 

2007

2008

A

Professional category

 

 

 

ASG

1

1

 

D-1

3

3

 

P-5

4

4

 

P-4

17

17

 

P-3

8

8

 

P-2

1

1

 

Total professional category

34

34

B.

Total General Service category

26

26

TOTAL (A + B)

60

60

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3

RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FROM THE SPECIAL VOLUNTARY TRUST FUND (BE) FOR ADDITIONAL VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS IN SUPPORT OF APPROVED ACTIVITIES FOR THE 2007–2008 BIENNIUM (thousands of United States dollars)

Description

2007

2008

1. Meetings/Workshops

 

 

Office of the Executive Secretary

 

 

Regional meetings for the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties

-

40.0

Scientific technical and technological matters

 

 

AHTEG on forest targets indicators

60.0

 

Consultative Workshop on dry and sub-humid lands

 

60.0

Global Taxonomy Initiative development Workshop

 

120.0

International workshops on Inland waters biodiversity (2) back-to-back with RAMSAR STRP mtgs.

50.0

50.0

Regional capacity building workshops on Protected Areas

120.0

120.0

Subregional capacity building workshops (2) on Strategic Environment Assessment

60.0

60.0

Social, economic and legal matters

 

 

Meeting of the Open-ended Ad Hoc Working Group on Access and Benefit Sharing *

400.0

 

Technical Expert Group meeting on the functioning of certificates of origin under ABS

60.0

 

Advisory group meeting on the indigenous knowledge

40.0

 

Capacity building workshops for indigenous and local communities in particular indigenous women

120.0

120.0

Regional and subregional workshops on new information and web-based technologies to assist indigenous and local communities

120.0

120.0

Outreach and major groups

 

 

Expert Group on communication, education and public awareness

60.0

60.0

CEPA needs assessments workshop

60.0

 

CEPA global support network

 

100.0

Regional workshops on the CEPA (4)

180.0

60.0

Implementation and technical support

 

 

Regional workshops on the clearing-house mechanism (4)

180.0

60.0

Regional and subregional workshops on strengthening capacity of national focal points

120.0

120.0

Regional training workshops for national reporting

120.0

120.0

Regional workshops on in-depth review of the financial resources and mechanisms and National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (4) (back-to back)

360.0

-

Expert meeting on technology transfer and scientific technological cooperation

60.0

 

Biodiversity Finance Study Group to assist the in-depth review of financial resources and mechanisms

60.0

 

2. Staff

 

 

Senior Liaison Officer (FAO)

178.1

183.4

3. Consultants

 

 

SEL – ABS ($30K); Incentive measures ($10K); Technology Transfer ($15K)

40.0

15.0

ITS - Indepth review of Articles 20 and 21 and preparation of a draft strategy

150.0

 

OMG - CEPA consultants

40.0

30.0

 

 

 

4. Publications

 

 

CEPA tool kit in UN languages

20.0

 

5. Activities

 

 

Outreach activities

250.0

250.0

Technical Assistance and Training activities

250.0

250.0

Sub-total I

3,158.1

1,938.4

II. Programme support costs (13%)

410.6

252.0

Sub-total II

410.6

252.0

III. Working Capital Reserve (5%)

22.9

 

Sub-total III

22.9

 

TOTAL COST (I + II+III)

3,591.5

2,190.4

* Funding pledged by Canada (US$50,000); Finland (US$50,000); France (US$60,000); Ireland (US$60,000); Netherlands (US$60,000); Norway (Euros 50,000); Sweden (US$60,000); Switzerland (US$50,000)

 

 

 

Table 4

RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FROM THE SPECIAL VOLUNTARY TRUST FUND (BZ) FOR FACILITATING PARTICIPATION OF PARTIES IN THE CONVENTION PROCESS FOR THE 2007–2008 BIENNIUM ( thousands of United States dollars )

  Description

2007

2008

I.  Meetings

Ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties

             1,800.0

Regional meetings in preparation for the Conference of the Parties (4) (COP-9)

                300.0

Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (2)

          1,300.0

             1,300.0

Open-ended Ad hoc Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity

             650.0

Ad-hoc Open-ended Working Group meeting on Article 8(j)

             650.0

Open-ended Ad Hoc Working Group on Access and Benefit Sharing

             300.0

                650.0

2nd Open-ended Ad Hoc Working Group on Protected Areas

                650.0

Support to indigenous and local communities

             100.0

                150.0

Subtotal I

          3,000.0

             4,850.0

II.  Programme support costs (13%)

             390.0

                630.5

TOTAL COST (I + II)

          3,390.0

             5,480.5


Table 5

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE TRUST FUND FOR THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY FOR THE BIENNIUM 2007-2008

Party

UN scale of

assessments

2006

(per cent)

Scale with 22%

ceiling, no LDC

paying more than

0.01 %

(per cent)

Contributions

per

1 Jan. 2007

US$

UN scale of assessments

2006

(per cent)

Scale with 22%

ceiling, no LDC

paying more than

0.01 %

(per cent)

Contributionsas

per1 Jan. 2008(US$)

Total contributions

2007-2008 (US$)

Afghanistan

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Albania

0.005

0.006

527

0.005

0.006

550

1,077

Algeria

0.076

0.098

8,008

0.076

0.098

8,363

16,371

Angola

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Antigua and Barbuda

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Argentina

0.956

1.234

100,736

0.956

1.234

105,194

205,930

Armenia

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Australia

1.592

2.056

167,752

1.592

2.056

175,177

342,929

Austria

0.859

1.109

90,514

0.859

1.109

94,521

185,035

Azerbaijan

0.005

0.006

527

0.005

0.006

550

1,077

Bahamas

0.013

0.017

1,370

0.013

0.017

1,430

2,800

Bahrain

0.030

0.039

3,161

0.030

0.039

3,301

6,462

Bangladesh

0.010

0.010

816

0.010

0.010

852

1,668

Barbados

0.010

0.013

1,054

0.010

0.013

1,100

2,154

Belarus

0.018

0.023

1,897

0.018

0.023

1,981

3,877

Belgium

1.069

1.380

112,643

1.069

1.380

117,628

230,271

Belize

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Benin

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Bhutan

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Bolivia

0.009

0.012

948

0.009

0.012

990

1,939

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Botswana

0.012

0.015

1,264

0.012

0.015

1,320

2,585

Brazil

1.523

1.967

160,481

1.523

1.967

167,584

328,066

Bulgaria

0.017

0.022

1,791

0.017

0.022

1,871

3,662

Burkina Faso

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Burundi

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Cambodia

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Cameroon

0.008

0.010

843

0.008

0.010

880

1,723

Canada

2.813

3.632

296,411

2.813

3.632

309,530

605,942

Cape Verde

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Central African Republic

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Chad

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Chile

0.223

0.288

23,498

0.223

0.288

24,538

48,036

China

2.053

2.651

216,328

2.053

2.651

225,903

442,232

Colombia

0.155

0.200

16,333

0.155

0.200

17,056

33,388

Comoros

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Congo

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Cook Islands

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Costa Rica

0.030

0.039

3,161

0.030

0.039

3,301

6,462

Cote d'Ivoire

0.010

0.013

1,054

0.010

0.013

1,100

2,154

Croatia

0.037

0.048

3,899

0.037

0.048

4,071

7,970

Cuba

0.043

0.056

4,531

0.043

0.056

4,732

9,263

Cyprus

0.039

0.050

4,110

0.039

0.050

4,291

8,401

Czech Republic

0.183

0.236

19,283

0.183

0.236

20,137

39,420

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

0.010

0.013

1,054

0.010

0.013

1,100

2,154

Democratic Republic of the Congo

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Denmark

0.718

0.927

75,657

0.718

0.927

79,006

154,663

Djibouti

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Dominica

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Dominican Republic

0.035

0.045

3,688

0.035

0.045

3,851

7,539

Ecuador

0.019

0.025

2,002

0.019

0.025

2,091

4,093

Egypt

0.120

0.155

12,645

0.120

0.155

13,204

25,849

El Salvador

0.022

0.028

2,318

0.022

0.028

2,421

4,739

Equatorial Guinea

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Eritrea

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Estonia

0.012

0.015

1,264

0.012

0.015

1,320

2,585

Ethiopia

0.004

0.005

421

0.004

0.005

440

862

European Community

2.500

2.500

204,018

2.500

2.500

213,048

417,065

Fiji

0.004

0.005

421

0.004

0.005

440

862

Finland

0.533

0.688

56,163

0.533

0.688

58,649

114,812

France

6.030

7.786

635,392

6.030

7.786

663,515

1,298,908

Gabon

0.009

0.012

948

0.009

0.012

990

1,939

Gambia

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Georgia

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Germany

8.662

11.184

912,731

8.662

11.184

953,129

1,865,861

Ghana

0.004

0.005

421

0.004

0.005

440

862

Greece

0.530

0.684

55,847

0.530

0.684

58,319

114,166

Grenada

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Guatemala

0.030

0.039

3,161

0.030

0.039

3,301

6,462

Guinea

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Guinea-Bissau

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Guyana

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Haiti

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Honduras

0.005

0.006

527

0.005

0.006

550

1,077

Hungary

0.126

0.163

13,277

0.126

0.163

13,865

27,141

Iceland

0.034

0.044

3,583

0.034

0.044

3,741

7,324

India

0.421

0.544

44,362

0.421

0.544

46,325

90,687

Indonesia

0.142

0.183

14,963

0.142

0.183

15,625

30,588

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

0.157

0.203

16,543

0.157

0.203

17,276

33,819

Ireland

0.350

0.452

36,880

0.350

0.452

38,513

75,393

Israel

0.467

0.603

49,209

0.467

0.603

51,387

100,595

Italy

4.885

6.308

514,742

4.885

6.308

537,525

1,052,266

Jamaica

0.008

0.010

843

0.008

0.010

880

1,723

Japan

19.468

22.000

1,795,354

19.468

22.000

1,874,818

3,670,172

Jordan

0.011

0.014

1,159

0.011

0.014

1,210

2,369

Kazakhstan

0.025

0.032

2,634

0.025

0.032

2,751

5,385

Kenya

0.009

0.012

948

0.009

0.012

990

1,939

Kiribati

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Kuwait

0.162

0.209

17,070

0.162

0.209

17,826

34,896

Kyrgyzstan

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Lao People's Democratic Republic

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Latvia

0.015

0.019

1,581

0.015

0.019

1,651

3,231

Lebanon

0.024

0.031

2,529

0.024

0.031

2,641

5,170

Lesotho

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Liberia

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Libya

0.132

0.170

13,909

0.132

0.170

14,525

28,434

Liechtenstein

0.005

0.006

527

0.005

0.006

550

1,077

Lithuania

0.024

0.031

2,529

0.024

0.031

2,641

5,170

Luxembourg

0.077

0.099

8,114

0.077

0.099

8,473

16,586

Madagascar

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Malawi

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Malaysia

0.203

0.262

21,390

0.203

0.262

22,337

43,728

Maldives

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Mali

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Malta

0.014

0.018

1,475

0.014

0.018

1,541

3,016

Marshall Islands

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Mauritania

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Mauritius

0.011

0.014

1,159

0.011

0.014

1,210

2,369

Mexico

1.883

2.431

198,415

1.883

2.431

207,197

405,612

Micronesia (Federated States of )

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Monaco

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Mongolia

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Morocco

0.047

0.061

4,952

0.047

0.061

5,172

10,124

Mozambique

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Myanmar

0.010

0.010

816

0.010

0.010

852

1,668

Namibia

0.006

0.008

632

0.006

0.008

660

1,292

Nauru

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Nepal

0.004

0.005

421

0.004

0.005

440

862

Netherlands

1.690

2.182

178,078

1.690

2.182

185,960

364,039

New Zealand

0.221

0.285

23,287

0.221

0.285

24,318

47,605

Nicaragua

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Niger

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Nigeria

0.042

0.054

4,426

0.042

0.054

4,622

9,047

Niue

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Norway

0.679

0.877

71,547

0.679

0.877

74,714

146,262

Oman

0.070

0.090

7,376

0.070

0.090

7,703

15,079

Pakistan

0.055

0.071

5,795

0.055

0.071

6,052

11,847

Palau

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Panama

0.019

0.025

2,002

0.019

0.025

2,091

4,093

Papua New Guinea

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Paraguay

0.012

0.015

1,264

0.012

0.015

1,320

2,585

Peru

0.092

0.119

9,694

0.092

0.119

10,123

19,817

Philippines

0.095

0.123

10,010

0.095

0.123

10,453

20,464

Poland

0.461

0.595

48,576

0.461

0.595

50,726

99,303

Portugal

0.470

0.607

49,525

0.470

0.607

51,717

101,242

Qatar

0.064

0.083

6,744

0.064

0.083

7,042

13,786

Republic of Korea

1.796

2.319

189,248

1.796

2.319

197,624

386,872

Republic of Moldova

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Romania

0.060

0.077

6,322

0.060

0.077

6,602

12,924

Russian Federation

1.100

1.420

115,909

1.100

1.420

121,039

236,948

Rwanda

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Saint Kitts and Nevis

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Saint Lucia

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Samoa

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

San Marino

0.003

0.004

316

0.003

0.004

330

646

Sao Tome and Principe

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Saudi Arabia

0.713

0.921

75,130

0.713

0.921

78,455

153,586

Senegal

0.005

0.006

527

0.005

0.006

550

1,077

Serbia and Montenegro

0.019

0.025

2,002

0.019

0.025

2,091

4,093

Seychelles

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Sierra Leone

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Singapore

0.388

0.501

40,884

0.388

0.501

42,694

83,578

Slovakia

0.051

0.066

5,374

0.051

0.066

5,612

10,986

Slovenia

0.082

0.106

8,640

0.082

0.106

9,023

17,663

Solomon Islands

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

South Africa

0.292

0.377

30,769

0.292

0.377

32,130

62,899

Spain

2.520

3.254

265,537

2.520

3.254

277,290

542,827

Sri Lanka

0.017

0.022

1,791

0.017

0.022

1,871

3,662

Sudan

0.008

0.010

816

0.008

0.010

852

1,668

Suriname

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Swaziland

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Sweden

0.998

1.289

105,161

0.998

1.289

109,816

214,977

Switzerland

1.197

1.546

126,130

1.197

1.546

131,713

257,843

Syrian Arab Republic

0.038

0.049

4,004

0.038

0.049

4,181

8,185

Tajikistan

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Thailand

0.209

0.270

22,023

0.209

0.270

22,997

45,020

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

0.006

0.008

632

0.006

0.008

660

1,292

Togo

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Tonga

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Trinidad and Tobago

0.022

0.028

2,318

0.022

0.028

2,421

4,739

Tunisia

0.032

0.041

3,372

0.032

0.041

3,521

6,893

Turkey

0.372

0.480

39,198

0.372

0.480

40,933

80,132

Turkmenistan

0.005

0.006

527

0.005

0.006

550

1,077

Tuvalu

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Uganda

0.006

0.008

632

0.006

0.008

660

1,292

Ukraine

0.039

0.050

4,110

0.039

0.050

4,291

8,401

United Arab Emirates

0.235

0.303

24,762

0.235

0.303

25,858

50,621

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

6.127

7.911

645,613

6.127

7.911

674,189

1,319,802

United Republic of Tanzania

0.006

0.008

632

0.006

0.008

660

1,292

Uruguay

0.048

0.062

5,058

0.048

0.062

5,282

10,340

Uzbekistan

0.014

0.018

1,475

0.014

0.018

1,541

3,016

Vanuatu

0.001

0.001

105

0.001

0.001

110

215

Venezuela

0.171

0.221

18,019

0.171

0.221

18,816

36,835

Viet Nam

0.021

0.027

2,213

0.021

0.027

2,311

4,524

Yemen

0.006

0.008

632

0.006

0.008

660

1,292

Zambia

0.002

0.003

211

0.002

0.003

220

431

Zimbabwe

0.007

0.009

738

0.007

0.009

770

1,508

TOTAL

80.445

100.00

     8,160,700

80.445

100.00

    8,521,900

  16,682,600

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme