1.The loss of biological diversity and the consequent decline in ecosystem services is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and the causes of this loss are mostly steady or even increasing in intensity in the coming decades.
2.The loss of biological diversity has led to far-reaching environmental, social, economic and cultural impacts, exacerbated by the negative effects of climate change, and its consequences are harshest for the poor.
3.The loss of biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services poses a significant barrier to achieving sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals.
4.The Convention on Biological Diversity is the foremost international legal instrument to address the loss of biological diversity and ensure attendant ecosystem services. The lack of financial resources is a major impediment to achieve the Convention’s three objectives.
5.To achieve the Convention’s three objectives can be financially affordable and feasible. In a multitude of decisions, the Parties have acknowledged the urgent need for adequate financing.
6.The resource mobilization strategy aims to assist the Parties to the Convention and relevant organizations to mobilize adequate and predictable financial resources to support the achievement of the Convention’s three objectives including the achievement by 2010 of a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth.
7.The strategy considers the full range of possible local, national, regional and international funding sources, both public and private. It is geared towards implementation during an initial period up to 2015, coinciding with the international development planning cycle, including the Millennium Development Goals.
8.The target of the strategy for resource mobilization is to substantially enhance international financial flows and domestic funding for biological diversity in order to achieve a substantial reduction of the current funding gaps in support of the effective implementation of the Convention’s three objectives and the 2010 target. This target for global resource mobilization should be viewed as a flexible framework for the development of measurable targets and/or indicators addressing all relevant funding sources, according to national priorities and capacities, and taking into account the special situation and needs of developing countries.
9.The strategy calls for special consideration to the following guiding principles during its implementation:
(a)Promote efficiency and effectiveness;
(f)Take into account gender and socio-economic perspectives.
IV.STRATEGIC GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
10.Concrete activities and initiatives to achieve the following strategic goals should be developed as well as indicators to monitor the implementation of the Strategy, all within appropriate timeframes:
Goal 1:Improve information base on funding needs, gaps and priorities
1.1.To improve the existing financial information base through enhancing accuracy, consistency and delivery of existing data and improved reporting on funding needs and shortfalls for the Convention’s three objectives. Funding trends could be measured through the following indicators:
(a)OECD DAC Rio markers on biodiversity;
(b)National reports of Parties;
(c)Trends in funding to GEF;
(d)Funding flows through a selected number of the large international NGOs.
1.2.To assess economic costs of the loss of biodiversity and its associated ecosystem services, of the failure to take measures to fulfill the three objectives of the Convention, and benefits of early action to reduce loss of biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services.
1.3.To improve priority-setting for guiding resource allocation to biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services.
Goal 2:Strengthen national capacity for resource utilization and mobilize domestic financial resources for the Convention’s three objectives
2.1.To strengthen institutional capacities for effective resource mobilization and utilization, including strengthening capacities of relevant ministries and agencies to make the case for including biodiversity and its associated ecosystem services in discussions with donors and relevant financial institutions.
2.2.To prepare national financial plans in the context of national biodiversity strategies and action plans that can be implemented by local, national, regional and international stakeholders.
2.3.To strengthen capacity for integration of biodiversity issues and its associated ecosystem services into national and sectoral planning, and promote budgetary allocations for biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services in national and relevant sectoral budgets.
2.4.To develop and implement economic incentives that are supportive of the Convention’s three objectives at local and national levels, consistent and in harmony with the other relevant international obligations.
2.5.To consider the enhancement of existing, or the establishment of new, domestic funds and funding programmes through voluntary contributions, including for official development assistance, where biodiversity is identified as a priority by developing country Parties in poverty reduction strategies, national development strategies, United Nations development assistance frameworks and other development assistance strategies, that include innovative financing instruments to achieve the Convention’s three objectives.
2.6.To establish enabling conditions for private sector involvement in supporting the Convention’s three objectives, including the financial sector.
Goal 3:Strengthen existing financial institutions and, promote replication and scaling-up of successful financial mechanisms and instruments
3.1.To enhance efforts in mobilizing co-financing and other modes of project financing for biological diversity.
3.2.To strive to increase official development assistance associated with biological diversity, where biodiversity is identified as a priority by developing country Parties in poverty reduction strategies, national development strategies, United Nations development assistance frameworks and other development assistance strategies and in accordance with priorities identified in national biodiversity strategies and action plans.
3.3.To mobilize public sector investments in biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services.
3.4.To mobilize private sector investments in biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services.
3.5.To establish, as appropriate, new and additional funding programmes through voluntary contributions to support the three objectives of the Convention.
3.6.To fulfil the implementation of the provisions of the Monterrey Consensus on mobilizing international and domestic funding as related to biodiversity.
3.7.To continue to support, as appropriate, domestic environmental funds as essential complements to the national biodiversity resource base.
3.8.To promote biological diversity in debt relief and conversion initiatives, including debt-for-nature swaps.
Goal 4:Explore new and innovative financial mechanisms at all levels with a view to increasing funding to support the three objectives of the Convention
4.1.To promote, where applicable, schemes for payment for ecosystem services, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations.
4.2.To consider biodiversity offset mechanisms where relevant and appropriate while ensuring that they are not used to undermine unique components of biodiversity.
4.3.To explore opportunities presented by environmental fiscal reforms including innovative taxation models and fiscal incentives for achieving the three objectives of the Convention.
4.4.To explore opportunities presented by promising innovative financial mechanisms such as markets for green products, business-biodiversity partnerships and new forms of charity.
4.5.To integrate biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services in the development of new and innovative sources of international development finance, taking into account conservation costs.
4.6.To encourage the Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol to take into account biodiversity when developing any funding mechanisms for climate change.
Goal 5:Mainstream biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services in development cooperation plans and priorities including the linkage between Convention’s work programmes and Millennium Development Goals
5.1.To integrate considerations on biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services into the priorities, strategies and programmes of multilateral and bilateral donor organizations, including sectoral and regional priorities, taking into account the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.
5.2.To integrate considerations on biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services in economic and development plans, strategies and budgets of developing country Parties.
5.3.To integrate effectively the three objectives of the Convention into the United Nations development system, as well as international financial institutions and development banks.
5.4.To strengthen cooperation and coordination among funding partners at the regional and subregional levels, taking into account the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.
5.5.To enhance financial, scientific, technical and technological cooperation with international organizations, non-governmental organizations, indigenous peoples’ organizations and public institutions for biological diversity and its associated ecosystem services.
Goal 6:Build capacity for resource mobilization and utilization and promote South-South cooperation as a complement to necessary North-South cooperation
6.1.To build local, national and regional capacities on resource mobilization skills, financial planning and effective resource utilization and management, and support awareness raising activities.
6.2.To identify, engage and increase South-South cooperation as complement to North South cooperation to enhance technical, technological, scientific and financial cooperation.
6.3.To promote exchange of experience and good practice in financing for biological diversity.
Goal 7:Enhancing implementation of access and benefit-sharing initiatives and mechanisms in support of resource mobilization
7.1.To raise awareness and build the capacity of different stakeholders to implement access and benefit-sharing initiatives and mechanisms.
7.2.To promote exchange of experiences and good practices in access and benefit sharing.
Goal 8:Enhance the global engagement for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the Convention’s three objectives
8.1.To raise public awareness of the importance of biological diversity and the goods and services that it provides at all levels in support of resource mobilization.
11.The effective implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization will require an unremitting effort of all relevant stakeholders of the Convention at all levels. Political will and commitment to better recognize the importance of biological diversity in sustainable development must be reinforced in order to achieve the funding target.
12.The strategy for resource mobilization is intended to assist Parties in establishing national targets, goals and objectives as well as actions and timeframes, and in considering the establishment of financial mechanisms and other options, to implement the financial provisions of the Convention at all levels, based on success stories and good practices. Each Party should consider appointing a “resource mobilization focal point” to facilitate national implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization. National implementation should include, as appropriate, the design and dissemination of a country-specific resource mobilization strategy, with the involvement of key stakeholders such as non-governmental organizations, indigenous peoples and local communities, environmental funds, businesses and donors, in the frame of updated national biodiversity strategies and action plans.
13.The Global Environment Facility, in collaboration with the Executive Secretary, is invited to consider how it can contribute to the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization, and report back to the Conference of the Parties through the third meeting of the Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention, including consideration of a plan to address the strategy for resource mobilization, in consultation with the GEF implementing agencies;
14.The Conference of the Parties will review the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization at its regular meetings, with the following focus:
Adoption of the strategy
Goals 1, 3 and 4
Goals 6 and 8
Goals 2, 5 and 7
Goals 6 and 8
Comprehensive review of the implementation of the strategy
15.The Executive Secretary should prepare periodic global monitoring reports on the implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties, and promote, in collaboration with the Global Environment Facility, exchange of experience and good practice in financing for biological diversity.